1- distinction between photosynthetic autotrophs, chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs

The main energy carrier in a cell. It releases energy for cellular reactions when its last phosphate group is removed and it is converted to ADP
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
stores and releases energy; formed from ATP, goes through mitochondria
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
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how many phosphate groups does ADP and ATP have
Is a well suited renewable energy source. When a cell requires energy, chemical bonds are attached to ATP which are broken, this releasing stored energy.
how does ATP release and restore energy
active transport
what is one way cells use energy provided by ATP
organisms that obtain food by consuming other living organisms. Cannot carry out photosynthesis therefore cannot derive their energy directly from the sun.
Organisms that transform the suns energy into chemical bonds during the synthesis of organic compounds such as glucose.
plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates
what happens in the process of photosynthesis
light-absorbing molecules that gather the sun’s energy in plants
what is the plant’s principal pigment
in the thylakoid membrane
where are pigments located
convert water and carbon dioxide (reactants) into high-energy sugars and oxygen (products)
photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to do what
pathways of cellular respiration that require oxygen. 34 molecules produced
Aerobic reactions
pathways of cellular respiration that do not require oxygen
Anaerobic reactions
photosynthesis removes what the cellular respiration puts back
oxygen; release energy from food
photosynthesis releases what into the atmosphere, and cellular respiration uses that to do what
the first stage of cellular respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm.
Mitochondrial pathway of cellular respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen. Produce 36 molecules of ATP,
Aerobic cellular Respiration
Lactic acid and alcoholic
2 types of fermementation
The process of brewing utilises the anaerobic metabolism of yeasts. No oxygen present.
Alcohol Fermentation
During maximum physical activity, when oxygen is limited, anaerobic metabolism provides ATP for working muscle.
Lactic acid fermentation
in muscle cells
where does lactic acid fermentation take place
pyruvate and 2 ATP
what does cellular respiration form
lactic acid/alcoholic are part of what reaction
from where is the Krebs Cycle formed
protect and surround
what does the inner and outer membrane do in the chloroplast
stroma and grana
what does the inner membrane surround
stacks of thylakoids; found in light dependent
fluid portion of the chloroplast outside of the thylakoids ; found in epidermis
temperature, light intensity, and the availability of water
what are the main factors that affect photosynthesis
a yellowish organic acid that occurs as an intermediate in many metabolic processes, especially glycolysis
pyruvic acid
Is able to absorb wavelengths in sunlight. red and blue violet light in thylakoids
The interconnected, folded membranes within a chloroplast
Use the suns energy to synthesise organic compounds
Photosynthetic autotrophs
Use energy released from chemical reactions to synthesise organic compounds
Chemosynthetic autotrophs
Fuel all life on earth. The organisms that carry out these processes are producers
Both Photosynthetic and Chemosynthetic
A series of chemical reactions in which cells use light energy to break down water and carbon dioxide molecules and build up glucose, oxygen and water molecules.
Occurs when light is absorbed by chlorophyll in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Water molecules are split into hydrogen ions and oxygen gas.
Light Dependant Stage
Occurs in the storm of a chloroplast. Hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide are combined to produce glucose.
Light Independant Stage
6CO2 + 12H2O arrow C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
Photosynthesis equation
C6H12O6 + 6O2 arrow 6CO2 + 6H2O
Cellular Respiration equation
A membrane bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of plants and algae containing green pigment of chlorophyll.

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