prokaryotic, cause walking pneumonia, no cell walls
What are Mycoplasmas
prokaryotic, photosynthetic “blue green algae”
smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses, prokaryotic, obligate intracellular parasites
Rickettsiae and Chlamydiae
eukaryotic-animal like, no cell walls, classified by type of motion
malaria, sleeping sickness
eukaryotic-plant like, photosynthetic
diatoms and dinoflagellates
unicellular algae examples
What did Ledenhoven first see in microscope?
eukaryotic, molds/yeasts, filamentous, unique cell walls, not photosynthetic
like a line, can be drawn out
What does filamentous mean?
not prokaryotic or eukaryotic, parts of nucleic acid in protein
only in living host cells
Where do viruses replicate?
What were viruses once called?
-viroids and prions
What are subviral particles?
naked RNA, plant pathogens by Diener 1971
infectious proteins, animal disease (mad cow)
research on aging cells
What is a voluox used for in research?
animalia, fungi, plantae, protista
unicellular algae, protozoa
Protista (kingdom) examples
cyanobacteria, prokaryotic organism
Bergey, originated in 1923, lists all recognized bacteria and is a guide to identification
Scientific Naming manual by?
2 names; genus and spithet
What do genus and spithet make up?
King Philip Came Over From Germany slowly
pair of cocci
group of four cocci
cluster of cocci
chain of cocci
comma shaped (spiral)
long waves, rigid
short waves, flexible
they coil and uncoil
How do bacterial flagella move?
still attached but couldn’t move, needs cell wall and post to push off from
What would happen to bacterial flagella if the cell wall was taken away?
post inside cell wall that flagella are attached to
bacteria with one flagellum (least mobile)
multiple flagella on two sides
multiple flagella on one side
flagella everywhere, most mobile, quickest
hair like structures growing from cell wall that enable bacteria to hang on, bacteria survival technique
pilli (also called fimbriae)
in gram positive and negative cell walls, gram positive has more
Where is peptidoglycan found?
they have more peptiodoglycan
Why are gram positive walls thicker than gram negative?
gram positive-purple, gram negative-red
What color are gram positive and gram negative cells?
short tubes of protein
What are pilli made out of?
Where will pilli help cause infections?
What kind of bacteria are pilli found in?
transfers genetic material
What does conjugation pili acid do?
protein sub units that make up flagella
how cell membrane regulates water flowing in and out
lipid bilayer; semipermeable
What is the cell membrane?
proteins and phospholipids (fats that contain phosphorus)
What are two of the cell membrane’s layers?
makes up cytoplasm, watery mass of proteins, AAs, vitamins and ions dissolved in water
What is cytosol?
center of growth and metabolism, storage body that stores starch
What does the cytoplasm do?
make proteins, smaller than eukaryotic ribosomes
made of DNA, carries genetic info, no membrane
storage granules, ex. magnetosome
circular double stranded DNA
What shape are plasmids usually?
DNA, they carry genetic info about whether or not bacteria is resistant to antibiotics
What are plasmids made of/function?
protects from drying, waste products accumulating around cell, prevents antibiotic from getting to bacteria
Glycocalyx/Capsule/Slime Layer function