3G Definition of 3G: 3G is the third generation of wireless technologies. It comes with enhancements over previous wireless technologies, like high-speed transmission, advanced multimedia access and global roaming. 3G is mostly used with mobile phones and handsets as a means to connect the phone to the Internet or other IP networks in order to make voice and video calls, to download and upload data and to surf the net. How is 3G Better? 3G has the following enhancements over 2. 5G and previous networks: * Several times higher data speed; * Enhanced audio and video streaming; * Video-conferencing support; Web and WAP browsing at higher speeds; * IPTV (TV through the Internet) support 3G Technical Specifications: The transfer rate for 3G networks is between 128 and 144 kbps (kilobits per second) for devices that are moving fast and 384 kbps for slow ones(like for pedestrians). For fixed wireless LANs, the speed goes beyond 2 Mbps. 3G is a set of technologies and standards that include W-CDMA, WLAN and cellular radio, among others. 3G follows a pattern of G’s that started in the early 1990’s by the ITU. The pattern is actually a wireless initiative called the IMT-2000 (International Mobile Communications 2000). G therefore comes just after 2G and 2. 5G, the second generation technologies. 2G technologies include, among others, the Global System for Mobile (GSM) – the famous mobile phone technology we use today. 2. 5G brings standards that are midway between 2G and 3G, including the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) etc. 3G Auction: The auction for 3G mobile licence ended with RCom, Bharti and Aircel bagging 13 circles each, and will leave the government with an Rs 67,710 crore revenue windfall.
However, no single operator managed to bag all 22 circles on offer — the total bid price for which touched Rs 16,750. 58 crore on the 34th day of bidding today. Anil Ambani-led RCom will pay Rs 8,585. 04 crore towards the 3G licence, but the single largest outgo would be from Bharti that will pay Rs 12,295. 46 crore. Vodafone, which is second in terms of fee outgo, would be paying over Rs 11,617 crore for licence to offer high-speed voice and data service in nine circles. Key circles Mumbai and Delhi went to Bharti, Vodafone and RCom.
Bharti complained that the auction format and severe shortage drove up the prices beyond reasonable levels. The government had fixed a reserve price of Rs 3,500 crore for 3G spectrum and had originally estimated to raise Rs 35,000 crore from the sale. “We would like to point out that the auction format and severe spectrum shortage, along with ensuing policy uncertainty, drove the prices beyond reasonable levels. As a result, we could not achieve our objective of pan-India 3G footprint in this round,” Bharti said in a statement.
Nine operators, who were in the fray for three-four slots of spectrum, had welcomed the format in the mock auction. “They knew what they were bidding. I’m quite certain we should respect the market determined price,” telecom regulator J S Sarma said. “I calculated Rs 35,000 crore (revenue from 3G and Broadband Wireless spectrum sale) in the Budget. I’m getting Rs 67,000 crore, almost double. So, (I will get) that much elbow room,” Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee said today. The revenue mop up will help the government cut its fiscal deficit to nearly 4. per cent from 5. 5 per cent of GDP projected in the Budget. “I’m happy to see that the government is going to earn more than expected,” Telecom Minister A Raja said. Delhi spectrum went for Rs 3,316. 93 crore, while that the bid for Mumbai closed at Rs 3,247. 07 crore. The auction of Broadband Wireless Access spectrum will start in two days and could push up the government’s revenue mop up. The reserve price for BWA radio waves is Rs 1,750 crore for pan-India licence and 11 players are in the fray to grab the two slots on the block. G In Other Countries: In December 2007, 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 HSDPA networks were operating in 71 countries, according to the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA). In Asia, Europe, Canada and the USA, telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks. Roll-out of 3G networks was delayed in some countries by the enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees. (See Telecoms crash. In many countries, 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G, so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies; an exception is the United States where carriers operate 3G service in the same frequencies as other services. The license fees in some European countries were particularly high, bolstered by government auctions of a limited number of licenses and sealed bid auctions, and initial excitement over 3G’s potential. Other delays were due to the expenses of upgrading equipment for the new systems.
T-Mobile, a major Telecommunication services provider has recently rolled out a list of over 120 U. S. cities which will be provided with 3G Network coverage in the year 2009. Europe In Europe, mass market commercial 3G services were introduced starting in March 2003 by 3 (Part of Hutchison Whampoa) in the UK and Italy. The European Union Council suggested that the 3G operators should cover 80% of the European national populations by the end of 2005. Canada In Canada, Rogers Wireless was the first to implement 3G technology, with HSDPA services in eastern Canada in late 2006.
Their subsidiary Fido Solutions offers 3G as well. Because they were the only incumbent carrier (out of 3) with UMTS/HSDPA capability. Realizing they would miss out on roaming revenue from the 2010 Winter Olympics, Bell and TELUS formed a joint venture and rolled out a shared HSDPA network using Nokia Siemens technology. Bell launched their 3G wireless lineup on 4 November 2009, and TELUS followed suit a day later on 5 November 2009. Iraq Mobitel Iraq is the first mobile 3G operator in Iraq. It was launched commercially on February 2007. China
China announced in May 2008, that the telecoms sector was re-organized and three 3G networks would be allocated so that the largest mobile operator, China Mobile, would retain its GSM customer base. China Unicom would retain its GSM customer base but relinquish its CDMA2000 customer base, and launch 3G on the globally leading WCDMA (UMTS) standard. The CDMA2000 customers of China Unicom would go to China Telecom, which would then launch 3G on the CDMA2000 1x EV-DO standard. This meant that China would have all three main cellular technology 3G standards in commercial use.
Finally in January 2009, Ministry of industry and Information Technology of China have awarded licenses of all three standards,TD-SCDMA to China Mobile, WCDMA to China Unicom and CDMA2000 to China Telecom. The launch of 3G occurred on 1 October 2009, to coincide with the 60th Anniversary of the Founding of the People’s Republic of China. Turkey In November 2008, Turkey has auctioned four IMT 2000/UMTS standard 3G licenses with 45, 40, 35 and 25 MHz top frequencies. Turkcell has won the 45 MHz band with its €358 million offer followed by Vodafone and Avea leasing the 40 and 35 MHz frequencies respectively for 20 years.
The 25 MHz top frequency license remains to be auctioned. Africa The first African use of 3G technology was a 3G videocall made in Johannesburg on the Vodacom network in November 2004. The first commercial launch of 3G in Africa was by EMTEL in Mauritius on the W-CDMA standard. In north African Morocco in late March 2006, a 3G service was provided by the new company Wana. 3G in India: In 2008, India entered into 3G Mobile arena with the launch of 3G enabled Mobile and Data services by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) in Bihar(Patna). BSNL is the first Mobile operator in India to launch 3G services.
After that (MTNL) launched 3G in Mumbai & Delhi. Government owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) has already been provided with a 3G license and has been operating its services in 380 cities by the end of March 2010. Nation wide auction of 3G wireless spectrum in April 2010 was announced. The Auction was a great success for Government of India, as it collected triple the amount it was expecting. The estimation for both 3G and BWA was around Rs 35,000/- Crore ($7. 6 billion). Total revenue the Government collected was nearly Rs 1,06,000 Crore ($23 billion). Private providers are expected to provide its 3G service from September 2010.