6th grade energy words chptr 6 sections 1,2,3,4

Question Answer
Temperture Is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particulars in an object.
Three common scales for measuring temperature Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scales.
Fahrenheit scale Is the most common scale used in the United States. (F)
On fahrenheit scale water freezes at 32 F
On fahrenheit scale water boils at 212 F
On fahrenheit scale absolute 0 is -460 F
On celsius scale water freezes at 0 C
Celsius scale Is used in most of the world. (C)
On celsius scale water boils at 100 C
On celsius scale absolute 0 is -273 C
Kelvin scale Is a scale most commonly used in physical science (K)
Any temperature on the Kelvin scale can be changed to Celsius by adding 273
The freezing point of water on the kelvin scale is 273 K
The boiling point of water on the kelvin scale is 373 K
What do scientists believe about the number 273 on the celsius scale Scientists believe that -273 C is the lowest temperature possible.
What is absolute 0 The temperature at which no more energy can be removed from matter. – It is the lowest temperature possible.
Thermal energy Is the total energy of all particles in a substance that makes up and object or sometimes also called internal energy
Heat Is the movement of theramal energy from a substance at a HIGHER temperature to another at a lower temperature. Warmer object to cooler object
Three ways heat can be transferred or moved. Heat can be transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation.
Conduction In this process heat is transferred from one particle of matter to another WITHOUT the movement of matter itself.
Convection Is when heat is transferred by movement of currents within a fluid (a liquid or gas).
Convection current A circular motion that is caused by the raising of heated fluid and sinking cooled fluid.
Radiation The transfer of energy by electromagnetc waves.
Conductor A material that conducts heat between its particles – such as silver or stainless steel – metal conducts faster than wood.
Insulator A material that does not conduct heat wel, a material that does not easily transfer heat between its particles. wood wool paper cork are good insulators.
Specific heat Is the amount of (heat) energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of A substance by 1 kelvin. OR to raise a given mass of a substance by a specific unit of temperature.
Joules Is the unit of measure – joules per kilogram-kelvin
State All matter can exist in three states.
3 states of matter are Solid, Liquid and Gas
Change of state Is the phyaical change from one state of matter to another. A solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas.
Melting The change of state from a solid to a liquid. It occurs when a solid absorbs thermal energy.
Melting point Is the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid.
Freezing The change of state from a liquid to a solid. It occurs when a substance loses thermal energy.
Freezing point Is the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
Vaporization Is the process by which matter changes from the liquid to a gas state. During this process the particles in a liquid absorb thermal energy
Evaporation When vaporization takes place at the surface of a liquid.
Boiling At higher temeratures, vaporization can occur below the surface of a liquid and gas bubbles form within the liquid rise up to the surface.
Boiling point Is the temperature at which a liquid boils
Condensation The change from a gas state to a liquid state – in other words when a gas loses a sufficient amount of thermal energy.
Thermal expansion Happens when matter is heated. When thermal energy of a substance increases, its particles spread out and the substance expands.
Thermostat A heat regulating device used during thermal expansion.
Bimetallic strip Are strips of two different metals joined together.
Heat engine Is the conversion of thermal energy to mechanical energy so that it can be used to do work.
Combustion Is the process of burning fuel, such as coal or gasoline to produce thermal energy. During this process the chemcial energy that stored in fuel is converted to thermal energy.
External combustion engine Fuel is burned outside (steam engine) The combustion of wood, coal, or oil heats water in a boiler outside the engine.
internal combustion engine Fuel is burned in cylinders inside the engine. Diesel and gasoline engines that power most automobiles are examples. (4 stroke engine)
A refrigerator transfers Thermal energy from a cool region to a warm region
How are heat engines classified They are classified as external or internal combsustion engines depending on where the fuel is burned
Matter Expands when it is heated and contracts when it is cooled.
When a substance is changing state… The temperature of the substance remains constant.
Matter can undergo a change of state when Thermal energy is added or removed
Heat can be transferred by Conduction, convection and radiation.
A conductor transfers Heat well but and insulator does not.
Heat is the transfer of Thermal energy by conduction, convection and radiation

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