6th Grade Final Exam

Question Answer
Large, low, flat landform is called a Plain
An elevated plain is a Plateau
Large, rocky highly elevated landform is a Mountain
A group of mountains that are closely related in shape, structure, and age Mountain range
An imaginary line that circles the earth at 0 degrees Equator
Imaginary lines that travel east and west describing position relative to the equator are called Latitude lines
Imaginary lines travel north and south describing position relative to the prime meridian are called Longitude lines
Mercator, Equal-area, and Conic are examples of Map Projections
The height above sea level is called Elevation
Describes symbols on a map Key
The difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area is its Relief
The shape of the land is its Topography
A feature of topography formed by processes of the earth's surface is landform
Shapes and pictures that stand for features on the Earth's surface are called Symbols
Often given as a ratio; it relates distance on a map to a real distance on the earth Scale
A flat model of the Earth or part of the Earth Map
Used to measure the distance around the earth Degree
An imaginary line that divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres Equator
One half of the sphere that makes up the earth's surface Hemisphere
How long ago did the earth begin to form? 4,600,000,000 years BP
What force caused the earth to form? Gravity
Accretion began ____________ years ago. 4,600,000,000
Accretion lasted ___________ years. 1,000,000,000`
What substance was part of earth's first atmosphere? Helium
Which substance was NOT part of earth's second atmosphere? Helium
Which substance was not part of earth's atmosphere during the later Pre-Cambrian time? Helium
This substance was introduced to the earth's atmosphere by living organisms: Oxygen
This substance changed state and settled in the basins of the crust to become oceans: Water vapor
This present day organism is most similar to the earliest life forms Bacteria
This is a ball of dust and ice that orbits the sun Comet
The earth is in this galaxy Milky Way
The closest galaxy to us other than our is Andromeda
The closest star to us other than the sun is Proxima-Centuri
The distance light travels in one year is called Light year
Number of planets in our solar systems: 7
Name the planets in order Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Another term for inclination is Axis Tilt
The tilt of the earth's axis is 23 1/2 degrees
Axis tilt gives us _____________ in the temperate zones. The seasons
June 21st is the _______________ Summer Solstice
September 22nd and March 21st are called Equinox
The shortest day of sunlight of the year is the Winter Solstice
The longest day of the year is the Summer Solstice
3 theories of how the moon was formed: 1) made up of same material as the earth, but formed separately
2) a small planet collided with earth during accretion. The fragments were placed in orbit. Gravity caused pieces to form the moon
3) a lump of the earth fell off and formed the moon
The moon was formed About the same time as the earth
The moon's Marias are Hardened lava from the moon's volcanoes.
The moon's orbit around the earth takes 29 1/2 days
The name of the giant ice sheet that covered most of North America during the Ice Age is called Wisconsin Glacier
The moraine left by an advance 60,000 years ago is called Ronkonkoma Moraine
The movement of glacier that occurred 17,000 years ago is called Harbor Hill Advance
A hill made of glacial debris left where the front of the glacier stopped is called Moraine
An area made of sand or smaller particle of sediment that is washed off a glacier is called Outwash Plain
An area of permeable sediment that contains water is called Aquifer
A flat sandy area found downhill or a moraine that is formed from sand being washed off is Outwash Plain
Formed from ice melting underground leaving a depression that is filled by coming in contact with an aquifer is called Kettle Lake
Formed from large ice fingers digging into the moraine is called Harbor
Steep hills formed from eroded headlands being washed away by the sea are called Bluffs
The material left behind by eroding glaciers is called Glacial Debris
The elevation of the ocean's surface is called Sea level
The taking away of sediment is called Erosion
The placing of sediment is called Deposition
Impermeable sediment is called Clay
The materials that make up the earth's surface is Sediment
When a kettle hole comes in contact with an aquifer and fills with water is called Kettle lake
The outwash plain that is found south of the Harbor Hill Moraine is called Terryville Outwash Plain
The outwash plain found south of the Ronkonkoma Moraine is called South Shore Outwash Plain
The elevation of the ocean's surface is called Sea level
The agent of mechanical weathering in which rock is worn away by the grinding action of other rock particles is called Abrasion
Ice wedging causes mechanical weathering of rock by means of Freezing and thawing water
What kind of weathering causes the mineral composition of rocks to change? Chemical Weathering
A rock containing iron becomes soft and crumbly and reddish-brown in color. It probably has been chemically weathered by Oxygen
A hot and wet climate causes weathering to take place Rapidly
Soil formation begins with weathering of Bedrock
Soil that is rich in humus has high Fertility
When earthworms add their waste to the soil, then die and decay in the soil, they are contributing to the formation of Humus
Living organisms in soil help to Mix the soil and make humus
Decomposers are the soil organisms that Break down and digest the remains of dead organisms.
Soil is a valuable resource because it is needed for plants to be grown.
How long did it take for the thick, fertile soil of the North American prairies to develop? Thousands of years
The growth of plant roots and animal activity may result in Mechanical weathering
Most of the work of mixing humus within the soil is done by Earthworms
They type of soil called loam is made up of Nearly equal amounts of silt , sand and clay
Granite lasts a long time when it is used for building in areas where the climate Is cool.
A permeable rock weathers easily because it contains many, small connected airspaces.
The texture , or particle size, of soil determines how much air and water the soil can hold.
A marble statue is left exposed to the weather. Within a few years, the details on the statue have begun to weather away. This weathering is probably caused by carbonic acid in rainwater.
In which soil layer would you find soil that is rich in humus? A horizon
What 2 elements make up water? Hydrogen and Oxyogen
What is the formula for water? H20
What are the charges of the hydrogen atom in a water molecule? Positive
What is not one of water's three states of matter? Positive
What makes molecules stick together? Polarity
What process takes place when water in liquid state turns into a gas state by using heat? Evaporation
What process involves water vapor changing back into a liquid? Condensation
What is the process of changing water from a liquid to a solid? Freezing
The process that involves water flowing between soil particles is called Percolation
Water that enters the earth through the soil is called Infiltration
Water that flows along the earth's surface is called Runoff
Cloud formation is what part of the Hydroloic cycle? Condensation
Where does all of Long Island's rain water runoff eventually end up? The sea
What do water droplets collect on when forming clouds? Atmospheric dust
What formed the large moraines of Long Island? Glaciers
What are the large sandy formations found downhill from moraines called? Outwash Plains
What do we call Long Island's large areas of groundwater? Aquifers
What is water stored underground called? Groundwater
Which of the following terms is not a wave?
Tsunami Gulf Stream Tidal Bulge Ocean Swell
Gulf Stream
What is the largest ocean swell called? Ground Swell
Wave height is determined by two factors, wind speed and __________. Fetch
The largest of swells are formed from conditions of Large fetch and strong winds
High tide occurs when the _______________ of the tidal wave is in the area. crest
High tide occurs approximately _______ hours from low tide. 6
The primary force that makes the tides is the ___________________. moon's gravity
The primary force that forms a Tsunami is ____________________. seismic disturbance
Tsunamis on the open ocean have a very large _________________. wavelength
When the Tsunami contacts shallow water, wavelength shortens and the height ________________. gets larger.
Another name for a tidal bulge is: Tidal wave
Which moon phase would have a corresponding large high tide? Full
What causes tidal waves to travels across the earth? Earth's rotation
If high tide was at 1:00 P.M., what time would the next high tide occur? 1:00 A.M.
If high tide was at 1:00 P.M., what time would the next low tide occur? 7:00 P.M.
The moon and the sun's gravitational pull are lined up during what phases of the moon? New and Full
Which of the following is a warm ocean current?
Humboldt Current Gulf Stream Deep Ocean Currents Ridtides
Gulf Stream
The spinning of the earth that creates counter clockwise currents in the Northern Hemisphere is called Coreolis Effect
The Gulf Stream gets squeezed in two locations before it reaches Cape Hatteras, the Bahamas, and between Florida and Cuba
The Gulf Stream ends at which continent? Europe
The force that spins the Japanese Current toward the coast of California is Coreolis Effect
Seawater with the highest salinity and coldest temperature is found on the ocean bottom.
The FORCE that makes Deep Ocean Currents move in a horizontal direction is Gravity
If it is high tide in Port Jefferson at 4:00 A.M., the next low tide will be at 10:00 A.M.
A material made of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded together is called a Mixture
Anything that contains only one pure type of material Substance
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances; the building blocks of matter: Elements (there are 118 of them)
A mixture where the substances are distributed evenly throughout the mixture. Homogeneous mixture
A mixture where the substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture. Heterogeneous mixture
The SI unit that measures the distance between two points. Meters
The amount of space an object occupies. Volume
Any characteristic of a material that can be observed, measured. Physical properties
The amount of mass an object has compared to its volume Density
The system of International Standard metric measurements SI Units
The space a substance occupies Volume
The amount of matter in an object Mass
The force an object exerts because of gravity Weight
When two or more different atoms chemically combine to form a new substance Compound
When two or more atoms combine to form a new substance Molecule
The basic particle that makes up an element Atom
The study of matter Chemistry
Water is a substance
Milk is a heterogeneous mixture
Oatmeal is heterogeneous mixture
The SI Unit that measures volume liters
A fire usually indicates what type of change? Chemical or Physical Chemical
What type of change is freezing? Chemical or Physical Physical
What type of change is melting wax? Chemical or Physical Physical
What type of change is electrolysis? Chemical or Physical Chemical
What type of change is bending a paper clip? Chemical or Physical Physical
What type of change is condensation? Chemical or Physical Physical
What type of change is combustion? Chemical or Physical Chemical
What type of change is oxidation? Chemical or Physical Chemical
What type of change is a melting ice cream? Chemical or Physical Physical
What type of change is tarnishing? Chemical or Physical Chemical
What type of energy is snow at the top of a mountain? Potential
What type of energy is water flowing down from a mountain? Kinetic
What type of energy travels in waves though space Electromagnetic
What type of energy is the movement of charged particles? Electrical
What type of energy would a light from a flashlight be? Electromagnetic
Dissolving salt in water is what type of change? Chemical or Physical Physical
Mixing compost into sand is what type of change? Chemical or Physical Physical
Every kind of matter has 6 kinds of properties. True or False False
Every form of matter has physical and chemical properties. True or False True
Each substance in a mixture keeps its individual properties. True or False True
The parts of a mixture are combined into a set ratio. True or False False
Heterogeneous mixtures look the same throughout. True or False False
A solution is an example of a homogeneous mixture. True or False True
Acids and bases are what type of matter? Compounds
What is the taste of a base? Bitter
What happens to blue litmus paper in the presence of an acid? Turns red
The breaking down of a metal in an acid is called Corrosion
What is the taste of an acid? Sour
The reaction between an acid and a base is called Neutralization
What is the process of breaking down large food molecules into smaller ones called? Digestion
What is the universal solvent? Water
What is the charge of a proton? Positive
What is the charge of a neutron? Neutral
What is the charge of an electron? Negative
Name the central part of the atom Nucleus
The electrons are contained in the ________ of the atom. shell
Atoms make up all _________. matter
__________________ is the measurement of the force an object exerts because of gravity. Weight
All matter is composed of smaller particles called _________. Atoms
The charge of a proton is ________________. + Positive
The charge of a neutron is 0
The charge of an electron is – Negative
The layer of the earth that contains solid iron and nickel Inner Core
The layer of the earth that makes the ocean bottom and the continents Crust
Transfer of energy through space is Radiation
Transfer of energy though direct contact with a substance is called Conduction
Transfer of heat through the movement of heated fluid is called Accretion
Which type of earth movement is making the Atlantic Ocean wider? Sea Floor Spreading
The super continent that occurred over 150,000,000 years ago was called Pangaea

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