7-1 Spring Science Final

Question Answer
What is the pupil of your eye? the hole in the eye through which light enters. If the lights in a dark room are turned on, your pupil gets smaller.
Which part of the eye controls the amount of light that is allowed to enter? iris
What are the photoreceptor cells that detect different color of light in the human eye? cone cells
What does the optic nerve in your eye do? it sends nerve impulses to the brain
Rod cells respond to _____________________________. White, black, and gray and detect light.
The largest part of the brain. It controls the senses (touch, taste, smell, vision, and hearing). cerebrum
3 parts of the brain cerebrum, cerebellum, and the medulla
central nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord
What does your outer ear do? act like a funnel to collect sound waves
The eardrum is in the middle ear. What does the ear drum do? vibrates in response to sound in the ear canal
Why is the inner ear important? provides our sense of hearing and our sense of balance.
What does the circulatory system do for our bodies? Delivers oxygen to our body and removes wastes and carbon dioxide from the cells.
What are the important parts of the circulatory system? heart, blood, and blood vessels?
What are the three blood vessels? arteries, veins, and capillaries
Which body system delivers oxygen and removes wastes from the cells? circulatory system, also know as the body's "transport system"
What are alveoli? Where gas exchange happens, found in the lungs, and are surrounded by capillaries.
What are the smallest blood vessels in the body? Capillaries
Which blood vessel brings back blood towards the heart? veins
What is the function of the right side of the heart? collect oxygen-poor blood from the body and pump it to the lungs
What is the function of the left side of the heart? collects oxygen-RICH blood from the lungs and pumps it to the body
Which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart? arteries
What is the function of red blood cells? carry oxygen to the cells,
Why are white blood cells important? they are a part of the immune system and help fight infections.
Which body system consists of the lungs and passageways that lead to the lungs? the respiratory system
What is process by which the body exchanges and uses gases? respiration
Which body system breaks down food using enzymes and absorbs nutrients into the blood? digestive system
Which organ mixes up digestive juices with swallowed food and liquids and sends it to the small intestine? stomach
Which organ sits behind the stomach and produces enzymes and bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid when food enters the duodenum? pancreas
What is the job of the large intestine? absorb water and package waste.
Why are the tiny, finger-like projections called villi important in the small intestine? they increase surface area for absorption of nutrients
Some examples of vestigial organs? human's appendix and whale leg bones
What is mitosis? the division of a cell's nucleus
Why is mitosis important? repairs damaged/injured cells, growth, and replaces dead cells
Which phase of mitosis shows the chromosomes lined up in the center of the cell? metaphase
Which phase of mitosis shows the chromosomes pulling apart? anaphase
Which phase of mitosis shows 2 nucleus? telophase
During which phase is the DNA copied/replicated? Interphase
What is the base pair rule for MRNA? G goes with C. C goes with G. T goes with A. A goes with U.
What is the base pair rule for DNA? G goes with C. C goes with G. A goes with T. T goes with A.
The 4 bases of RNA are: AGUC
What is a change in the hereditary material called? mutation
What is the form of a trait that an organism displays? Phenotype (for example, tall or short)
The letter code for a trait genotype (for example, TT or tt)
The form of a trait that always shows up when uppercase allele is present dominant trait
The form of trait that always hides when dominant trait is present recessive trait
Genotypes for dominant traits RR (homozygous dominant) or Rr (heterozygous)
Genotypes for recessive traits rr (homozygous recessive)
What makes up proteins in our cells? amino acids
What is the tool used to determine the possible phenotypes of offspring for a certain trait? Punnett Square
How does studying DNA base sequence help us learn about the relationships of different species? the more similar their base sequence, the more closely related the species are
What happens when a species produces too many offspring? only the healthiest (best fit) will survive
Which tool is used to show relationships between living species and their ancestors? a cladogram
Characteristics of prokaryotic cells no nucleus, bacteria, loose DNA
Characteristics of eukaryotic cells nucleus, DNA is found in nucleus
How is bacteria classified? shape (spiral, rod, and ball shape)
Where do Archaebacteria live? in extreme environments, such as volcanoes.
What is a virus? tiny, non-living particles made up of genetic material and proteins
What are some characteristics of a virus? does not reproduce, eat or make its own food.

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