7

A Doppler flow meter is a scientific instrument used to measure current flow rates.
True
Deep ocean currents are driven primarily by ________ .
density differences
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Which swift-flowing surface current in a major subtropical gyre transports a large volume of warm water from the equator towards mid latitudes?
Kuroshio Current
Surface currents affect about 90% of the world’s ocean water.
False
The circular movement of surface water currents driven by the major wind belts are called gyres.
True
An eastern boundary current is generally narrow and swift.
False
The five subtropical gyres exhibit geostrophic flow, related to pressure gradients, friction, and the Coriolis effect.
True
Which of the following statements is true of surface ocean currents?
Surface currents form circular patterns in the major ocean basins called “gyres.”
Identify the mismatched pair from the choices below.
Labrador Current, Humboldt Current
Which of the following is a western boundary current?
Brazil Current
Which of the following is not an eastern boundary current?
Gulf Stream
Which type of current flow moves in a circular path around a subtropical convergence, reflecting Ekman transport, gravity, and the Coriolis effect?
geostrophic circulation
Which of the following two factors cause geostrophic circulation within a gyre?
gravity and the Coriolis effect.
A. Agulhas Current
B. Benguela Current
C. California Current
D. Canary Current
E. West Australian Current
A
A. California Current
B. Canary Current
C. Gulf Stream
D. North Atlantic Current
E. North Equatorial Current in the Atlantic Ocean
A
To produce a surface current of 1.6 knots in the open ocean, a steady wind of _____ knots would be required.
80
Of the following gyres, which one(s) flow in a counterclockwise direction?
Northern Hemisphere Subpolar Gyres

Indian Ocean Subtropical Gyre
South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
South Pacific Subtropical Gyre

A
Of the following surface currents, which one(s) flow from south to north?
the Gulf Stream
Canary Current

North Pacific Current

Of the following statements about Ekman spiral and Ekman transport, which is/are true?
All except: Ekman transport is the same thing as thermohaline flow.
Of the following currents, which ones are parts of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre?
Of the following currents, which ones are parts of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre?
West Wind Drift
West Australian Current
Brazil Current
South Equatorial Current
Agulhas Current
Benguela Current
West Wind Drift

Brazil Current
South Equatorial Current

Benguela Current

Surface waters are pushed away from land and replaced by nutrient-rich bottom water through:
upwelling.
Downwelling can result from __________.
converging surface currents
Organize the following stages of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm phase into chronological order. In a severe warm phase, fisheries productivity on the west coasts of the Americas is dramatically reduced. Which stage of ENSO would come just before this fisheries collapse?
The thermocline deepens in eastern boundary currents of the Pacific Ocean subtropical gyres.
The main current in Antarctic waters is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, also called the West Wind Drift.
True
The Gulf Stream moves water away from the equator; the Benguela Current moves some of this same water back toward the equator.
False
Which of the following is true of surface water circulation near Antarctica?
Two circumpolar currents dominate it, one current that moves water to the east and one current that moves water to the west.
When a meander from the Gulf Stream pinches off and isolates a body of water within the North Atlantic gyre, the body of water is called a:
cold core ring.
The El Niño Southern Oscillation can best be described as:
the relationship between sea surface temperature and changing atmospheric pressure.
Warm core rings and cold core rings are associated with __________.
western boundary currents
During a strong El Niño event, the news media might be expected to cover __________.
a tropical cyclone in Hawaii or Tahiti
Thermohaline circulation is wind-driven.
False
Deep ocean water can be enriched in oxygen when it is mixed with surface water.
True
Deep ocean water masses have characteristic temperatures and salinities.
True
Thermohaline circulation is driven by:
density differences.
Deep-water circulation brings oxygen from the surface to the deep ocean because of:
greater dissolution of oxygen in colder water than warmer water.
A. thermohaline circulation
B. density-driven circulation
C. Antarctic Bottom Water
D. Kuroshio Current
E. North Atlantic Deep Water
D
Records indicate that the ocean is warming faster in the Arctic polar regions than elsewhere. If that continues, a possible consequence could be __________.
slowing of deep ocean circulation, resulting in lower oxygen levels in deep water
Of the following statements about deep-ocean currents, which is/are true?
All except: Deep-ocean currents often travel faster than ocean surface currents.
In comparison to wind energy, ocean currents can generate more clean, renewable energy because __________.
the density of water is greater than that of air
Match the term or description with the appropriate phrase.
Ekman transport
net water movement to the left or right of the direction of the wind
Match the term or description with the appropriate phrase.
upwelling
movement of water from the bottom to the top of the water column
Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase.
California Current
cold current, northern hemisphere, temperate latitudes
Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase.
Gulf Stream
northern hemisphere, temperate latitudes, warm current
Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase.
West Wind Drift
cold current, polar latitudes, southern hemisphere
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