A Beka Book 8th Grade

Term Definition
Solar energy (or solar radiation) Energy from the sun
The atmosphere obtains heat from the ___ ___ that reaches the earth. solar energy
Radiation The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves Waves that include radio waves and waves of light
Albedo The decimal equivalent of solar radiation reflected by an object is that object's this
Insolation The solar energy that does reach the surface of the earth (INcoming SOLar radiATION)
Watt Measures the amount of energy that something gains, loses, or uses in a second
___ ___ reduces the amount of insolation as much as 85%, because ___ are especially reflective. cloudy weather, clouds
___ ___ ___ affects insolation. Amount of daytime
The amount of insolation is also affected by the ___ ___ ___ ___ ____. angles of the sun's rays
___ ____ ___ ___ ___ also affects the amount of insolation. Earth's distance from the sun
Perihelion Earth's closest point to the sun
Aphelion Earth's farthest point from the sun
Perihelion occurs during the ___ ___'s summer. Southern Hemisphere
Energy budget The amount of energy available to heat the earth's land, water, and air
Greenhouse effect The process of trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere
Greenhouse gases The atmospheric gases that help to trap heat
The most important and abundant greenhouse gas is ___ ___. water vapor
The warmest part of the day occurs ___ ___ ___. well after noon (approximately 3:00 over land 5:00 over sea)
Insolation warms water ___ ___ ___ than it warms land. much more slowly
Water ___ ___ longer than land does. holds heat
Conduction The transfer of heat by direct contact between two objects
Convection Heat transfer by moving currents of hot air (or other fluids)
Most of the earth's weather occurs in the ___ as the result of ___ ___. troposphere, convection currents
Vertical movements of air Updrafts or downdrafts
Winds Horizontal movements of air
Adiabatic Refers to processes in which heat is not transferred
Adiabatic heating In which the temperature of a gas rises as the gas is compressed with no heat loss
Adiabatic cooling The process in which, if no heat is added, the temperature of a gas drops as it expands
When a body of air rises, ___ ___ ___. its temperature drops

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