A Beka Book Chapter 7

Question Answer
Low A region of lower pressure near the ground
High A region of higher pressure
How are lows formed? A higher-than-normal heat concentration will produce convection currents of warm air, creating a low near the ground because of the lower heat concentrations of air
How are highs formed? Lower-than-normal heat concentrations will produce currents of sinking air, creating a high as the sinking air "piles up" near the ground
If allowed, air will always flow from a(n) ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ (a high) toward ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ (a low). a region of higher pressure, a region of lower pressure.
Winds blow toward regions of ___ ___ and away from regions of ___ ___. low pressure, high pressure
Unequal heating at the equator and poles produces ___ ___ on a global scale. convection currents
Convection cell A complete loop of circulating air
The Hadley cell The convection cell that exists between the equator and latitude 30°
Polar cell A convection cell that is on latitude 60°
Ferrell cell Convection cell that exists from latitude 60° to latitude 30° (different from the others)
Coriolis effect The way in which the earth's rotation causes a change in the course of the winds
Inertia The tendency for matter to stay at rest if at rest or continue moving if in motion; the first factor of the Coriolis effect
Inertia makes an object tend to keep the ___ ___ of motion with which it started out. same condition
The second factor of the Coriolis effect is that objects on the earth's rotating surface travel at different speeds depending on ___ ___ ___ ___ ____ ___. their distance from the earth's axis
The further a place is from the earth's axis the ___ ___ ___. faster it turns
The combined effect of the two factors cause the apparent ___ in the earth's winds as they move north and south. shift
Cyclone A circulating spiral around a low
In the Northern Hemisphere a cyclone rotates ___. counterclockwise
In the Northern Hemisphere an anticyclone rotates ___. clockwise
Anticyclone A wind system around a high
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) The surface from the Northern and Southern hemispheres converge and rise at this region of low pressure.
Light breezes blow in the ITCZ, but there are are frequent ___, or periods of wind. calms
In the days of sailing vessels the ITCZ was known as the ___, because sailing ships were often left their. doldrums (from a word meaning "inactive" or "dull")
The regions around the ITCZ usually have a(n) ___ ___. tropical climate
Horse latitudes Regions of high pressure and gentle winds at about 30° north and south latitude
Most of the world's ___ are located in or near the horse latitudes. deserts
Trade winds blow from the horse latitudes toward the equator
In the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds blow from the northeast toward the southwest and are known as the ___ ___ ___. northeast trade winds
Winds are named from the direction from which they come rater than for the direction in which they are going. :)<3:)
South of the equator, the trade winds blow from the southeast toward the northwest and are called the ___ ___ ___. southeast trade winds
Polar easterlies The winds in the Northern and Southern hemisphere
In the Northern Hemisphere, the polar easterlies are referred to as ___ ____. polar northeasterlies
In the Southern Hemisphere, the polar easterlies are referred to as ___ ____. polar southeasterlies
Prevailing westerlies Winds that blow toward the poles, therefore "outrunning" the earth's surface so that they come out of the southwest or northwest
In the Northern Hemisphere, polar easterlies blow from the southwest and are called___ southwesterlies
In the Southern Hemisphere, polar easterlies blow from the northwest and are called___ northwesterlies
Jet streams High altitude winds that blow in different directions
Subtropical jet stream occurs near latitude 30° (between the tropics and the subtropics)
Polar front jet stream Occurs around 50° and 60° latitude
Rossby waves Upper troposphere waves
Monsoon effect The seasonal change in wind direction
Monsoons Winds that reverse their direction from season to season (also called monsoon winds)
___, especially in the India-Pakistan area has the most pronounced monsoons. Asia
Cooler air from over the water blows inland during the afternoon, producing a gentle ___ ___. sea breeze (or lake breeze if the body of water in a lake)
Land breeze A cool, gentle wind that blows from the land to the sea
Forest breeze A cool breeze that occurs at the forest's edge
Anabatic winds Upslope movements of air
Katabatic winds Downslope winds
Fall wind Occurs when dense, cold air flows from higher to lower elevations due to gravity's pull increasing its speed while moving over the slope's edge and down the slope
One well-known fall wind which occurs in southern France Mistral
Foehns Warm, dry winds that travel down mountain slopes
Chinooks what Foehns on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains are known as
A well-known wind similar to the foehn Santa Ana

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