INTRODUCTION The book title is entitled TPM: Case Studies, featuring the Factory Management journal that was written by Seiichi Nakajima and other members from the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance, then edited by Nikkan Kogyo Simbun for the book. The journal introduces TPM and its relationship to Just-in-Time manufacturing, discussing the six major losses in manufacturing soon after, with the addition of analyzing these losses through TPM techniques. Since the journal is a collection of insights from Japanese companies, the book features them as well.
Companies like Toyota, Togo Seisakusyo Corporation, NBC Corporation, Nishi Nihon Sugar Manufacturing Co. , Ltd. share their TPM methods and what trappings they resolved. The efforts of Esme McTighe for editing and production management, Michael Kelsey for translation and art/text integration, David Richardson for the illustrations, and a few others make this book possible EVALUATION I. Use of TPM in the General Sense Toyota’s very own ‘Father of Production System’, Mr. Taiichi Ohno, viewed that Just-in-Time (JIT) and TPM cannot be separated.
His idea of both concepts being intertwined with each other is what Toyota Production System thrives from — resulting to a thorough elimination of waste by asking ‘why’ five times. With this ideology, the Toyota Production System gears toward having cross-trained employees, flow creation, and to avoid defects. Broken down, it consists of JIT and autonomation. JIT is uses the kanban, which is a reference in achieving the right parts at the right times, and at the right amounts (completely eliminating inventory), in conjunction with a full implementation of standard work: cycle time, order of work performance, and standard work-in-process.
Autonomation is stopping the line when a problem occurs, thereby eliminating defects in the long run. It consists of visual controls like signal lights and operable rates, where maintenance is justified and setup change time is reduced. His grasp of TPM leads him to promote Preventive Maintenance to be performed by all employees — from the top management to the line workers. This involves basic concepts of pursuing a more economic way of operating, cutting the six losses to zero; stopping problems before they happen; and establishing activities that is spread throughout all departments involving motivational controls.
Togo Seisakusyo Corporation – a company that makes wire springs and thin plate springs fabricated from steel, resin springs, subassemblies for them. The first fuel crisis exposed the weaknesses of the company’s corporate structure, leading to a series of structural improvements. Later on when competition was stiff, the company tried to find a way to improve itself, and a survey conducted in 1983 revealed TPM to be the desirable program.
Its basic goal was to use the participation of all company employees in PM activities, thereby increasing the efficiency of all company personnel and equipment, expand the corporate base, and to nurture their foundation of overall capability. The company integrated the 5S program as a backdrop to the TPM activities it was trying to apply. The 5S formula was embedded in the workplace and equipments, positively influencing people along with their perception and behavior, which extends itself to maintenance, resulting in the gradual elimination of failure and brief stop causes.
NBC Corporation – a company that manufactures printed circuit boards for automotive use, found itself producing below target with occasional quality defects caused by equipment. Needing to maintain a level of quality and reliability to satisfy customers, the president launched a TPM program with a set of unified goals for all corporate divisions. It was aimed to receive 100% participation from all employees in an attempt to improve the corporate structure and efficiency. Specifically, the desired outcome from this is to increase the levels of control, technology, and skills within the company.
Three components to this project are: to reduce quality defects caused by equipment problems, increase productivity rates for equipment and increase efficient use, and cleanse the working atmosphere to make it more vital. These goals together with complete employee participation were designed to address quality and preventive maintenance, increased productivity, maintenance programs, a revitalized workplace, and safety-health-environmental controls. Nishi Nihon Sugar Manufacturing Co. , Ltd. a joint production company for Dainippon Sugar and Meiji Sugar produces refined sugar products that are granule, powdered, as well as liquid sugar and sugar cubes. Despite the increase in plant productivity ratios, the industry was trapped in a period of structural instability, which was propelled by the centralized production from an early stage by the Mitsubishi Sugar Group. The company, needing the strength to survive — and finding that strength immediately — introduced a basic program for corporate structural improvement, where it was based on the pillars of zero defects and maximization of equipment.
The main goal of introducing the TPM programs is to win the PM Prize. To achieve that, the firm had to find a way to unite the hearts and minds of employees who came from two competing companies and make them into a single, coherent team. II. Process and Implementation of TPM The first company to implement a TPM program in Japan was Nippondenso, a member of Toyota Group. In 1971, Japan Institute for Plant Maintenance (JIPM) recognized the results of the program by awarding “Prize for PM Excellence in the Plant” — more simply known as the “PM Prize”.
Toyota used the award as a focal point to encourage the other companies in the group to introduce TPM programs. A number of them also received their own PM Prizes when they did. It has been said before that JIT and TPM cannot be separated. When production lines are to be operated at the same time, they should always be in an operable condition of 100% production potential. To ensure this condition, constant maintenance is required, and setup time must be short. Among the goals of TPM are the total elimination of machine failures and setup preparation time.
TPM should be introduced after JIT had been established and develop the two on a single plane. To counter the six major losses from equipment, which are losses from equipment failure; losses from setup adjustments; losses from brief stops; losses from speed drops; losses from process defects; and losses from startups, Preventive Maintenance (PM) and Corrective Maintenance (CM) are to be integrated. PM is the elimination of failures before they happen, while CM is to increase overall reliability and maintainability.
This is supported by use of visual controls in the work area like tags on problem areas, color-coded pipes, and call lights that hung from ceilings to show which lines are causing problems; in collaboration with cross-trained workers that are able to fill a number of different jobs. In conjunction with the second support, workers are tasked to perform daily preventive maintenance on their own assigned equipments. Togo Seisakusyo wanted to create more efficient lines where activities centered mainly around production technology and human efficiency, machine efficiency, and materials flow efficiency are subject to revision.
Several stages were gone through to complete the TPM program. Stage 1: A member of the maintenance staff assigned to each workplace comes to conduct classes in both theory and practice regarding lubrication, tightening, and cleaning of air blowers. Stage 2: Teams were formed, composed of representatives of manufacturing, maintenance, and production engineering. They studied areas where failures had been most obvious during the previous year, lay out the ideal situation for those areas, and implement a number of improvements to meet those ideals.
Some examples were to install limit switches and bearings. Each team prepared an “eight component inspection table” for each machine in its jurisdiction, and training was offered in inspection procedures and recovery methods. Stage 3: Quality defects were associated with equipment problems. After discovery, they were controlled by means of daily inspection tables and PM calendars. Stage 4: The final stage where steps were taken to ensure that the activities of the first three stages can be implemented and maintained, stepping up the autonomous maintenance activities.
Inspection cycles are lengthened to accord with the PM activities in the workplace, inspections are simplified, and predictive maintenance is introduced to maintain a trouble-free environment and cut costs. For NBC Corporation, the goals of its program require implementation through 100% employee participation in activities designed around five major concerns: quality and PM, increased productivity, maintenance programs, a revitalized workplace, safety/health/environmental controls.
Quality and PM concerns call for elimination of dirt and foreign matter, and environmental preparation in the company’s Electronics Division; reducing equipment-related defects by applying daily and periodic inspections tied with MTBF analysis; and the use of MQ analysis for both Electronics Division and Wire Harness Division. Productivity is to be increased with more effective equipment use and automation, which are then tied together with setup time reduction.
Maintenance activities were initiated by creating short texts for autonomous maintenance, where the maintenance staff picked up a program of corrective maintenance involving PM analysis and MTBF analysis. Workplace revitalization meant applying 5S activities with complete employee participation, creation of QC circles, having a creative suggestion system, and providing personnel training. Finally, regarding safety/health/environmental controls, safety patrols were inaugurated to discover potentially unsafe areas and improve them. This involved training people for the proper certifications.
Nishi Nihon Sugar’s FE (full efficiency) Campaign in pursuing zero defects and equipment maximization must eliminate several factors that serve as obstacles of the TPM program. They are human weaknesses, organizational weaknesses, and equipment weaknesses. Solutions rely on six fundamental activities, which are (1) autonomous maintenance, (2) specialized maintenance, (3) education and training, (4) 5S activities, (5) individual improvements, and (6) administrative efficiency. Vitalizing the workforce includes activities 1, 3, and 4. Vitalizing the organization includes activities 1, 3, 4, and 6.
Vitalizing the equipment, profits, and protecting the environment/assuring quality include activities 1, 2, 3, and 5. Once these three are remedied, there will be an elevated corporate image, improved corporate structure and competitive strength, and a stronger ability to respond to demands of the times — all essential for corporation survival. III. Problems Encountered with TPM There was no particular mention of problems in applying TPM on the book, but as far as introducing new concepts in traditional routines and practices goes, there is always an adjustment phase.
This is especially true with Nishi Nihon Sugar since it is a company made up of two separate entities, which had to go through meeting halfway with standards apart from the new TPM program guidelines. IV. Benefits of TPM Usage Toyota presented a table that showed concrete benefits of using TPM. The table is comprised of comparative results between the companies that used conventional methods, those that partially implemented TPM, and those that completely implemented TPM. (1) LEAD TIME: Conventional Methods – 17. days production time, 44 days total time; Partial TPM – 12 days production time, 41. 7 days total time; Complete TPM – 3. 75 days production time, 7. 75 days total time. (2) INVENTORY: Conventional Methods – 17-day supply materials, 16. 3-day supply in-process work, 14. 6-day products; Partial TPM – 11. 2-day supply materials, 11. 2-day supply in-process work, 8. 9-day supply products; Complete TPM – 4. 2-day supply materials, 3. 2-day supply in-process work, 2. 1-day supply products. (3) CHANGING MODELS: Conventional Methods – 93 min/changeover average, 6. changeovers/week, 404 min/week total time; Partial TPM – 52. 5 min/changeover average, 7. 5 changeovers/week, 425 min/week total time; Complete TPM – 15. 4 min/changeover average, 14. 3 changeovers/week, 87 min/week total time. NBC Corporation’s TPM implementation shows the following improvements (all in 3 years time): 30% increase in Value Added per Person, 74% reduction in In-Process Defect Rate, 100% reduction in Rate of Accidents Causing Work Stops and Pollution Incidents, 33% increase in Operation Rate of Critical Equipment, and 98% reduction in Rate of Failure Stoppages.
Nishi Nihon Sugar has shared these improvements regarding TPM use: 30% increase in Productivity (3 years time span), 87% reduction in Failure (4 years time span), 78% reduction in Shutdown Time (3 years time span), 13% reduction in Energy Use (3 years time span), and 100% reduction in Labor Accidents (4 years time span). CONCLUSION The book is a wonderful package for people who are considering to introduce TPM in their company.
It’s basically divided into two parts: a chapter comprising popular TPM concepts, with examples, and a concise study of select companies and the immediate improvements that came with starting their TPM programs. Of course, the book doesn’t cover all principles of TPM, but it’s a good source if an overview is what the reader looks for.