A literature review

Abstraction

At the beginning, a literature reappraisal was conducted to place the different between execution of Certificate of Completion and Compliance ( CCC ) and Certificate of Fitness for Occupation ( CFO ) . The enfranchisement procedure and conditions for the issue of both certification is studied. Besides, the signifiers used in both systems are studied. The job of the execution of CFO is clearly identified in the literature reappraisal.

The comparing for both systems is based on the simplification of enfranchisement procedure, impact to the corruptness degree, impact to the foreign investing, unity of designers, efficiency of public bringing system, attitude of officer in local authorities, overall continuance of the undertaking, continuance of the house purchasers to busy their houses, and impact to the quality of plants.

We will write a custom essay sample on
A literature review
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

In order to happen out the information to back up research rubric, questionnaire study was conducted. The consequence of the analysis showed that the execution of CCC is better than the execution of CFO form the designer ‘s point of views. Therefore, decision has been drawn.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Problem Statement

The Government has an purpose to make a more efficient public bringing system and cut down bureaucratism or ruddy tape in local authorities with the execution of CCC. Besides, execution of CCC will supply better protection for house purchasers. As a individual that of import function in lodging development, what are the sentiments and point of views of the professional designer after the CCC was implemented for two twelvemonth and a half old ages in the industry. Is the execution of CCC creates positive impacts to the lodging industry. Question on “ Is the CCC system is better than the CFO system? ” is the chief issue that needs to discourse in item in this research.

1.2 Research Aim

The purpose of this research is to compare the execution of CCC and execution of CFO in lodging development undertakings from Architect ‘s point of view.

1.3 Research Objective

The aims of this research are:

  • To analyze the differences between the CFO system and CCC system.
  • To happen out the impact of the execution of the CCC to the lodging industry.
  • To analyze the job of the CFO system.

1.4 Introduction/ Background Study

Certificate of Completion and Compliance ( CCC ) came into force on April 12, 2007 in order to replace the Certificate of Fitness for Occupation ( CFO ) . REHDA believes that execution of the CCC would do the proficient facets to be separated from the non-technical issues, addition efficiency and expedience in the building of undertakings. Delaies in building and conformity costs can be reduced and house purchasers will stand to profit from CCC system. ( Ng, 2007 )

Former Housing and Local Government Minister Datuk Seri Ong Ka Ting clarified that local governments would non lose their power with the enforcement of the CCC. He said that under bing Torahs, local governments would still hold the power to halt the chief subjecting individual from publishing the CCC if they find any non-compliance of the work. “ Local governments will still hold to power to look into edifices and guarantee that the developers follow all the regulations and ordinances, ” he said. ( The Star, 2007 )

PAM to the full supports the authorities ‘s determination to eliminate the local governments issued CFO in 2006, when it will be substituted with the CCC to be issued by the professional designers to better the efficiency and fight in the public bringing system of the edifice industry. ( Lai, 2007 )

1.5 Benefit/Importance of Study

The authorities can compare the consequence from the research with purpose to find the success of the new policy. The Government can cognize about the job faced by the designers in the industry. Besides, the designers can recognize about the sentiment and point of view from other Architects about the CCC systems. Apart from that, the house purchaser can hold a item comprehend to the CCC system.

1.6 Scope of Study

The chief focal point of this research is to compare the execution of CCC with the execution of CFO. The survey population will be limited to the professional designer. This is because professional designer is the most of import individual and act as PSP in most of the lodging undertakings in Malaysia. The research will concentrate on sentiment and point of view from the professional designer about the efficiency of the CCC system.

The trying population is the professional designers in the Klang Valley. This is because Klang Valley is one of the rapid developing countries in Malaysia. There are many architect houses in this country. The responds from the Architects selected may non to the full stand for the all Architects in the Malaysia.

1.7 Research Methodology

1.7.1 Questionnaire

Questionnaire is my research methodological analysis in this survey. For this subdivision, a set of inquiry to be prepared and the questionnaire will been sent to the Architect houses by electronic mail where the e-mail reference of the Architect houses can obtain from hypertext transfer protocol: //vps.lam.gov.my/lam_ims_member/ index.php.

Due to the clip restraint, it is expected to have merely 30 sets of questionnaire from the respondents. So, a hundred and 20 sets of questionnaires will be sent to accomplish this mark. The quantitative analysis method is use to analysis the informations collected from the Architects.

1.8.3 Literature Review

A comprehensive reappraisal of the relevant literature including a computing machine assisted hunt will be undertaken in order to develop an apprehension of commissariats plants associating to the “ Certificate of Completion and Compliance ” in building. Materials have been selected based on the aim of the survey. The undermentioned beginnings are found to be utile in supplying an penetration into the research subject:

  • Journal published by professional organic structures.
  • Organization web site such as PAM, LAM, REHDA, and HBA.
  • All the magazine, booklet and articles are obtained from the organisations.

Chapter 2: Comparison between Certificate of Fitness for Occupation System ( CFO ) and Certificate of Completion and Compliance System ( CCC )

CCC was implemented with purpose to cut down on red-tape and guarantee that house purchasers and edifice proprietors get to travel in every bit rapidly as possible without compromising their safety ( PAM, 2007 ) . This system is consistent with the authorities ‘s desire to promote a ego ordinance attack which was introduced in the new National Economy Growth Planning scheme. This attempt reflects the authorities ‘s committedness to continuously heighten the service bringing system ( The Malaysian Bar, 2007 ) . In the yesteryear, LA will publish CFO after it has received application signifier ( Form E ) submitted by the Submitting Person.

Several barriers were found in the procedure of the entry and reception of the Form E by the LA. Harmonizing to the PAM, the issue of the CFO so poses many jobs, such as hold in enfranchisement by proficient bureaus, extra conditions imposed by LA at the clip of CFO application and deficiency of proficient officers to treat the CFO. CCC will merely turn to proficient facets and so far as these are complied with and there is no evident menace to safety so it can be issued.

2.1 Certificate of Fitness for Occupation ( CFO ) System

The Certificate of Fitness for Occupation ( CFO ) , an official papers issued by the LA to admit that a certain edifice is safe to be occupied. Chief financial officers are issued to guarantee that every house built conforms to the assorted requirements, approved layout and edifice programs and the by-laws.

Harmonizing to the Uniform Building By-laws 1994 ( UBBL ) , no 1 can busy or be allowed to busy any portion of a edifice unless a CFO or a impermanent CFO has been issued. This is to do certain that proprietors do non travel into houses that are unfit for human business.

At the beginning of the development procedure, even before the local council approves the edifice programs, the latter have to be channelled to the undermentioned proficient sections for examination, such as:

  • Jabatan Kerja Raya ( Public Works Department )
  • Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat ( Fire and Rescue )
  • Indah Water Konsortium
  • Jabatan Perairan & A ; Saliran ( Drainage & A ; Irrigation )
  • Tenaga Nasional Bhd
  • Jabatan Kesihatan ( Health Department )
  • Jabatan Bekalan Air ( Water Supply Department )

Harmonizing to the Wang ( 1987 ) , the local council whilst treating the edifice plans awaits the blessing of the assorted programs by the assorted relevant sections. When all such the Acts/By-laws/Regulations, or by manner of allowing releases to some specific countries that do non follow to the Acts/By-laws/Regulations due to acceptable grounds, the edifice programs can therefore be approved. Normally one or more rectification notices are sent by the Building Department to the applier for the necessary corrections. The procedure normally takes a considerable period of clip to finish.

After the other demands and formalities have been fulfilled, the developer/contractor so proceeds to construct the houses. A registered designer supervises the edifice procedure. He besides certifies the assorted phases of building to the developer. So, the developer can pay the interim payment to the contractor.

2.1.1 Inspection on Completed Project

When the building is completed, intending that the edifice, substructure and installations for supplying public-service corporations ( such as H2O reticulation and electricity sub-stations ) are all in topographic point and commissioned by the relevant governments, the “ Practical Completion ” can be certified by the designer. Letterss of support ( surat sokongan ) should obtain by the designer from the assorted proficient sections, viz. Building Department, Planning Department, Road & A ; drainage, landscape gardening, safety & A ; wellness, etc, attesting that the demands for each several section are fulfilled.

Notice bespeaking review of the edifices for the issue of the CFO should be lodged with the edifice authorization so that concluding review may be carried out by the relevant authorization. The relevant authorization will inspect the edifices and the services to do certain they are constructed and installed in conformity with the sanctioned drawings and in conformity with Acts, By-laws, Regulations and other particular demands as endorsed on the Development Order.

The review by assorted Departments/ Divisions is a clip devouring procedure, as the assorted reviews are normally carried out individually. After the reviews are carried out, the assorted sections will publish the latter of support to the designer. The designer will so subject application signifier together with all the letters of support, to the local council to use for the issue of the CFO.

2.1.2 Issue of Certificate of Fitness for Occupation ( CFO )

Upon entry of Form E, the LA will hold to answer whether to accept or reject the application of CFO within 14 yearss. In the event any of the sections do non publish latter of support to the said development, the local authorization will reject the application within that 14 yearss and the developer have to travel through the whole procedure once more from subjecting a fresh transcript of Form E.

In drumhead, the CFO is issued by the local authorization after:

  • the local authorization receives the signifier E ( UBBL ) from the subjecting individual
  • conformity of all demands set up by the LA
  • related proficient bureaus ‘ support missive are received
  • LA has visited the site.

2.1.3 Problem of CFO System

The aim of Government control on issue of CFO is to guarantee the regulation of criterion of constructing including fire-prevention, proviso of services, the criterion of roads, drain and lighting. So the building of edifice can be carried out in a systematic and orderly method.

Yet on the other manus, in the procedure of issue of CFO, it has imposed institutional rigidness and created procedural formality and red-tape, therefore ensuing in hold. On the inquiry of discretional power provided under the legislative acts, this can besides travel to appendages in freely exerting discretion or involuntariness to utilize discretion. In either instance, it is non good to the edifice procedure.

The CFO system was excessively cumbrous, time-consuming and capable to mistreat. It was non unusual for inordinate holds to happen due to many factors including:

  • Disobedience by the developer for the entry of Form E and its enclosures to the LA.
  • Extra conditions imposed by the LA at the clip of application of CFO.
  • The engagement of many proficient bureaus and the deficiency of proficient officers to treat the CFO.

2.1.4 Effect of CFO System to the House Buyer

As the name implies, the CFO is a papers that declares that a house is fit for business. Hence, without it, a purchaser is non allowed to busy his newest ownership. It would non be unjust to state that most house purchasers in Malaysia have been faced with the job where they obtained the keys to their trade name new places but were unable to travel in because there was no CFO.

The regulation in the Housing Development ( Control and Licensing ) Regulation 1966 allows developers to manus over “ vacant ownership ” of houses to the house purchasers even though the CFOs have non been issued. The straitening fact is that house purchasers are forced to accept the keys to their new places, although the CFO have non been issued. The Housing Development ( Control and Licensing ) Regulation 1966 stipulates that in the event of purchasers neglecting to take over vacant ownership 14 yearss after being notified by the developer, they are deemed to hold taken over vacant ownership of the houses. ( National House Buyers Association, 2002 )

The sarcasm is that they are non allowed from traveling into their new places because the CFOs have non been issued. As the consequence, from the day of the month they take over or are deemed to hold taken over their houses, they are full duty for the belongings. ( National House Buyers Association, 2002 )

2.1.5 Types of Form under CFO System

Form A ( Certification of Buildings/Structural Plans ) to be submitted to the Local Authority for indorsement on programs to be submitted for blessing. The subjecting individual volitions certify the inside informations in the programs are in conformity with the demands on the town planning and edifice demands. The submitted individual volitions accept full duty consequently.

Form B ( Notice of Commencement/Resumption of Building Operations ) to be submitted by the subjecting individual to the Local Authority to inform the local authorization of the purpose to get down or restart edifice operation harmonizing to the blessing programs.

Form C ( Notice of Completion of Puting Out ) to be submitted to the Local Authority by the subjecting individual to attest that the puting out of the edifices is harmonizing to the approved programs. The subjecting individual will accepts duty of guaranting that the scene of the edifices will be in conformity with all the town planning and edifice demands of the Building By-Laws.

Form D ( Notice of Completion of Foundations ) to be submitted to the Local Authority by the subjecting individual to give a notice to the local authorization that the foundations of the edifices have been completed harmonizing to the blessing programs. The subjecting individual will responsible that the plants are conformity with the Building By-Laws.

Form E ( Application Form for Issue of CFO ) to be submitted to the Local Authority by the subjecting individual to use for CFO. The subjecting individual will attest that the edifices have been completed in conformity with the blessing program. Besides, the subjecting individual will besides attest that supervising of the hard-on and completion of the edifices had been carried out under his control are in conformity with the sanctioned edifice and structural programs and by and large in conformity with the specifications and sound technology pattern. He will accept duty consequently for those parts with which he severally concerned.

2.2 Certificate of Completion and Compliance ( CCC ) System

Certificate of Completion and Compliance ( CCC ) , a new term introduced by the Street, Drainage and Building ( Amendment ) Act 2007 ( Amendment Act ) , which enforced by the authorities on April 12, 2007. The CCC is introduced by the authorities to replace the CFO.

The new CCC is issued by the private sector based on self-regulation. LAs transfer the duty to professionals. The professionals that can publish the CCC are designers, applied scientists and edifice draughtsman. It looks for, cut ruddy tape or bureaucratism in local authorities, heighten the efficiency of the public bringing system and supply better protection for house purchasers. The CCC applies to new undertakings after the enforcement day of the month while the undertaking commenced before the enforcement day of the month will still be issued with CFOs.

Under CCC Issuance System, Development Order blessing procedure and edifice program blessing procedure are still required. Development Order must obtain from the LA before the building of the edifice is commenced. Besides, the edifice program must approved by the all relevant proficient bureaus before the building is commenced.

2.2.1 Principal subjecting individual ( PSP )

The CCC will be issued by a ( PSP ) , which is a major alteration in the new system. The PSP is a professional who submits edifice programs to the LA for blessing and registered under the relevant jurisprudence associating to registration such as Architects Act 1967 or Registration of Engineers Act 1967 ( Revised 1974 ) . Roles and duties of PSP under execution of CCC include the followers:

  • Present edifice programs to LA for blessing
  • Standardise readyings and presentation of edifice program and other necessary programs
  • Inform LA before beginning of building operations at the site
  • Supervise works at the site and guarantee the conformity of the Torahs and proficient demands of the LA
  • Report edifice breaches, explain grounds of breach and province recovery actions in the event of breach during buildings
  • Present work recommencement notice to LA
  • Ensure non-compliance affairs during building such as rectification in the LA to PSP notice before the CCC is issued
  • Publishing CCC to proprietors and developers and showing a transcript of the CCC to the LA and the relevant Professional Board
  • Ensure confirmation of G signifiers are completed and in order and showing a transcript of the G signifiers to the LA and relevant Professional Board

2.2.2 Matrix of duty

Under CFO system, the functions and responsible of the assorted party is non clearly indentify. To decide this job, phase enfranchisement is introduced harmonizing to the assorted phase of building work. The procedure is based on matrix of duty. Under CFO system, the functions and responsible of the assorted party is non clearly indentify. To decide this job, phase enfranchisement is introduced harmonizing to the assorted phase of building work. The procedure is based on matrix of duty.

Ong ( 2007 ) notes that the execution of CCC has introduced a matrix of duty to do all parties involved in the building procedure accountable and responsible for their several plants. With the debut of G signifiers whereby proficient forces are required to attest their several work, these proficient forces will no longer able to lade the duty to the designer or applied scientist who for practical ground can non be look intoing every inside informations on site. This has been practiced in Australia as the ego regulative system and it has been effectual in bring forthing the choice terminal merchandise of edifice plants. This procedure helps to place and name to attending the assorted parties responsible in the complex bringing procedure of edifices.

The CIDB registered contractor, licensed specializer contractors and professionals will now be called upon to take duty for their parts of the plants. For illustration, the phase enfranchisement for internal healthful plumping is certified by the sub-contractor ( accredited pipe fitter ) , and the professional designer or professional applied scientist. The professional is depending to the individual who prepares the healthful plumping pulling. There is possible clip saved from antecedently holding to the submitting of the application signifier for apply CFO.

If a pipe fitter certified internal healthful plumping plants is found to be faulty or utilizing deficient constituents non harmonizing to specification, he can easy be traced under this system for which action can be taken by authorization such as suspension or de-registration of the pipe fitter ‘s license. The same goes to other shopkeepers or contractors. The debut of this matrix of duty Markss a new milepost in the ego ordinance of quality edifice plants and hence quality belongings that should be the civilization of the whole building industry.

For the intent of review the non-compliance of work from the local authorization, the PSP may inform the LA when the completion of the chief building phase. The three chief building phases are:

  • Sub-structure work ( Form G1-G3 )
  • Super-structure work ( Form G4-G12 )
  • Internal and external services ( From G13-G21 )

2.2.3 Inspection by Local Authority ( LA )

Harmonizing to the Street, Drainage and Building Act ( Amendment 2007 ) ( Act A1286 ) , the LA is empowered under subdivision 85A to direct review to be carried out on the edifice by the proprietor 10 old ages after CCC has been issued for the said edifice. The LA may inspect the edifice site at any clip on its ain enterprise or due to ailments. Under subdivision 70 ( 23 ) of the Street, Drainage and Building Act ( Amendment 2007 ) ( Act A1286 ) , in the event of failure to follow with the sanctioned programs, the Act or by-laws in the hard-on and building of the edifice, the LA may publish to the PSP:

  • A written notice necessitating conformity within a period in the notice specified by the LA
  • A written directive to keep back the issue of CCC until the non-compliance has been rectified.

2.2.3.1 PSP Rectify Non-compliance

Under subdivision 25 ( 6 ) of the Uniform Building By-Law ( UBBL ) ( Amendment 2007 ) , after the reception of the notice issued by the LA, the PSP shall within 21 yearss ( 21 ) or period approved by the LA rectify the failure or non-compliance. After the PSP has rectified the failure or non-compliance, he shall publish a notice to the local authorization corroborating that such rectification plants have been satisfactorily completed.

The UBBL ( Amendment 2007 ) states that upon reception of the notice, the LA shall within 14 yearss ( 14 ) inspect the edifice to corroborate that the failure or non-compliance has been satisfactorily rectified. When the LA is satisfied the rectification of the failure or non-compliance, the LA shall publish a written directive to the PSP to publish the CCC or partial CCC.

When the LA does non transport out the review of rectification plants within the period, the LA is deemed to be satisfied the rectification works of the non-compliance.

2.2.3.2 PSP Does Not Rectify the Non-compliance

When the failure or non-compliance is non rectified by the PSP within the specified period, the LA may itself do any work to be executed or any step to be taken if it considers such work or step is necessary to rectify the non-compliance. The cost for put to deathing such work shall be borne by the proprietor of the edifice.

The CCC or partial CCC shall non be issued by the PSP until all the rectification works of the failures or non-compliances has been satisfactorily completed.

The LA is besides responsible for O.K.ing permission of be aftering application and edifice programs, pressing charges against the PSP and professionals and describing to the relevant professional board, review of old edifices and go oning to publish CFOs for undertakings approved before the CCC ‘s day of the month of enforcement. ( Chen, 2007 )

2.2.4 Issue of Certificate of Completion and Compliance ( CCC )

After the edifice is completed, the PSP can publish the CCC to attest the edifice is safe and comfort for the occupational. Conditionss for the issue of Certificate of Completion and Compliance are:

  • When all the proficient conditions required by the LA are complied.
  • PSP certify and accept Form G1-G21.
  • Confirmation of Six indispensable services for the issue of CCC:
  • Electrical supply ( TNB ) are confirmed
  • Water supply are confirmed
  • Connection to sewerage intervention works or brinies are confirmed
  • Clearance from lifts and machinery section, if applicable
  • Clearances for active fire contending systems except for residential edifices non more than 18m high ) ( Bomba )
  • Roads & A ; Drain
  • When the non-compliance of work is rectified by the PSP.
  • The PSP certifies that the edifice is constructed under his supervising and the edifices have been completed harmonizing to the blessing programs and conformity with the Building By-Laws.

UBBL ( Amendment 2007 ) states that the PSP shall accept full duty for the issue of the CCC and he certifies that the edifice is safe and fit for business.

2.2.5 Issue of Vacant Possession ( VP ) Together with CCC

Housing Development ( Control and Licensing ) ( Amendment ) Act 2007 provinces that the bringing of vacant ownership by the Vendor shall be supported by a CCC ) attesting that the edifice is safe and fit for business. As the consequence, the developer shall allow the buyer occupy the house when the CCC has been issued by the developer ‘s designer. The buyer may instantly busy the belongings as the CFO is no longer required. ( Wong, 2008 )

2.2.7 Types of Form under CCC System

Under execution of CCC, the Form A ( Certification of Buildings/Structural Plans ) and Form B ( Notice of Commencement/Resumption of Building Operations ) are remained and serve the same map as Form A and Form B under execution of CFO. The Second Schedule of the UBBL is amended by canceling Forms C, D and E. Form F is substituted with the new Form F and F1.

The new signifiers, Form G1-G21 were introduced with the execution of CCC. Form Gs are stage enfranchisement for 21 ( 21 ) constituent of work ( mention to postpone 2.1 ) . The Form C and Form D under CFO issue system are replaced by the Form G2 and Form G3 severally. The Form Gs must certified by the parties involved in the each constituent of work. They will attest that the each constituent of work is constructed harmonizing to the blessing programs. Besides, they will besides to the full responsible for the building and completion for the work.

Under CCC insurance system, the Form E is deleted. The PSP can publish the Form F ( Certificate of Completion and Compliance ) when he satisfy with the building of the edifice. He will attest that the building of the edifice is conformity to the approved edifice and construction programs. He will to the full responsible for the building of the edifice. UBBL ( Amendment 2007 ) states that the PSP shall lodge a transcript of the certification and the Form G1-G21 with the LA and the Board of Architects Malaysia or Board of Engineers Malaysia within 14 ( 14 ) yearss from the issue of the CCC.

The PSP may publish a partial CCC in Form F1 as set out in the Second Schedule of UBBL ( Amendment 2007 ) in regard of any portion of a edifice partly completed capable to any status imposed by the LA which it deems necessary for grounds of public wellness and safety. A partial CCC one time issued shall stay effectual until the whole of the edifice is completed and a CCC is issued.

2.2.8 Acts Amended to Prevent Incorrect Certification

Under the self-certification system, a heavier duty will be placed upon the PSP to continue trust and unity. However, as the professional fees are presently being paid by the developers to the advisers, the populace may acquire the perceptual experience that PSP may non be independent and can be influenced by their developer client to attest and publish the CCC in progress. ( Lai, 2007 ) As a consequence, several Acts of the Apostless are amended to extinguish this perceptual experience and prevent incorrect enfranchisement.

2.2.8.1 Uniform Building By-Law ( Amendment 2007 )

2.2.8.2 Street, Drainage and Building Act ( Amendment ) 2007

2.2.8.3 Architects Act 1967

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

There are two types of attacks that normally used for thesis, quantitative attack and qualitative attack. Quantitative attack is used for this thesis. The quantitative attack involves analysis of numerical informations. Data is in the signifier of Numberss and statistics. Datas collected by utilizing tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to roll up numerical informations.

3.2 Questionnaire Survey

Questionnaire is a written list of inquiries, the reply to which recorded by respondents. In a questionnaire respondents read the inquiry, construe what is expected and so compose down the replies.

The questionnaire for this thesis consists of 6 inquiries. The respondents are the Registered Architect around the Klang Valley. The questionnaires are sent to the respondent by station. Due to the clip restriction, 30 respondents are selected as sample size for this thesis.

The inquiries are set with mixture of closed-end inquiry and opened end inquiry. There is merely 1 closed-end inquiry inquiring about the general sentiment about the replacing of CFO with CCC. This inquiry is optional for the respondents to give the reply. Most of the inquiries are set under closed-end inquiry to command the informations collected and more favorable to the respondent. The information is controlled to do the analysis of informations is more easy.

The questionnaires attach with a screen and authorized missive from the College. The primary aim of a cover missive is to state the respondents the intent of the questionnaire and to bespeak that they participate. The intent of the survey should be stated clearly and merely.

3.2.1 Follow-up Procedures.

About all studies which are serious in nature follow up the initial questionnaires with two Os three extra mailings every bit good as telephone calls to increase the overall response rate. Generally, the 2nd follow-up occurs two or three hebdomads after the initial study was sent out. Telephone call is used for the follow-up processs.

3.2.2 Advantages of Questionnaire

Questionnaires are economical, in the sense that they can provide a considerable sum of research informations for a comparatively low cost in footings of stuffs, money and clip.

Questionnaires supply standardized reply, to the extent that all respondents are posted with precisely the same inquiries. The information collected are really improbable to be contaminated with the research worker through fluctuations in the diction of the inquiries or the mode in which the inquiries is asked. There is small range for the informations to be affected by “ interpersonal factors ‘ .

The questionnaires encourage pre-coded replies. This is non an indispensable aspect of questionnaires, because unstructured replies can be sought. However, the value of the information is likely to be greatest where respondents provide replies that fit into scope of options offered by the research worker.

3.2.3 Design for Questions

The designs of the questionnaire are really of import to guarantee that the respondents respond and return the questionnaire to the research worker. The inquiry should inquire based on the research aim.

Following regulations need to be take consideration during concept a questionnaire:

  • The points must be clear and precise
  • The points should inquire merely one thing
  • Respondents must be competent to reply the point
  • Questions should be relevant to the respondent
  • Item should normally be short
  • Negative points should be avoided so as non to confound garbage respondents
  • The point should be worded to avoid biasing responses

The first inquiry are set to happen out the perceptual experience of the respondents to the issue whether the execution of CCC can assist simplify the enfranchisement procedure, discourage corruptness in the building industry and better foreign investing in lodging industry compared to CFO.

The 2nd inquiry is intended to happen out whether the respondents agree or disagree to the issue that the designers will yield to the force per unit area given by developers to prematurely attest and publish the CCC.

Question 3 is used to seek the impact to the efficiency of public bringing system, attitude of officer in local authorities, overall continuance of the undertaking, continuance of the house purchasers to busy their houses after the execution of CCC from the respondent ‘s point of views.

In order to happen out the respondent ‘s sentiments on the impact to the quality of plants after debut of Matrix of Responsibility in conformity with the execution of CCC, inquiry 4 is set.

Question 5 is set to happen out whether the execution of CCC is better than the CFO organize the respondent ‘s point of view. This inquiry is of import to reply the research inquiry.

Question 6 is set to supply a channel to allow the respondents give their ain sentiment or point of view about the replacing. Researcher may obtain excess information from this inquiry. This inquiry is optional for the respondents to reply.

3.3 Data Analysis

Quantitative Analysis will be used in this thesis to analysis the informations collected from the respondents.. The computing machine package such as SPSS or Microsoft Excel 2007 can be used to analyze the information collected. To utilize computing machine to analyze quantitative informations, the informations must transform into standarised, numerical codifications for retrieval and use by machine.

In the cryptography procedure, a given variable is assigned a specific identifier in Thursday informations storage signed a specific identifier in the informations storage medium: either a figure or an brief name. The properties of a given variable are represented by numerical codifications.

The codebook is the papers that describes the identifiers assigned to different variables and the codifications assigned to stand for the properties of those variables. A codebook serves two necessities maps. First, it is the primary usher used in the cryptography procedure. Second, it is guide for turn uping variables and construing codifications in informations file during analysis.

Datas entry can be accomplished in a assortment of ways. Numerical codifications may enter on transportation sheets, which are so used for informations entry, or carry through the same intent through edge-coding. Other options include direct entry the information into the computing machine, and the usage of optical scan sheets. For this thesis, the informations are entered straight into the plan to be used for analysis.

Because all cryptography is likely to affect mistakes, it ‘s usually necessary to “ clean ” the information. Depending on the information processing method, these mistakes may ensue from wrong cryptography, wrong reading of written codifications, wrong detection of black Markss, and so forth. Two type of cleansing should be done: possible-code cleansing and eventuality cleansing.

Chapter 4: Datas Analysis

4.1 Introduction

The aim of this Chapter is to transport out the informations collected from the questionnaire study. The consequence from the analysis will be assessed to find whether the aims are met. Due to the clip restraint, the analysis will establish on the consequence from 30 respondents.

4.2 Data Analysis

From the analysis of inquiry 1.1 as attached in the appendix, it was to be found that 20 ( 66.67 % ) of the respondents agree that the execution of CCC will assist to simplify the enfranchisement procedure compared to CFO. While the 10 ( 33.33 % ) of the respondents has an opposite point of view. They disagree that the execution of CCC will assist to simplify the enfranchisement procedure compared to CFO.

So, it appears that most of the respondents feel that enfranchisement procedure for the issue of CCC is more simplify as compared to CFO. This may because the CCC can issued by the Architect after the Form Gs are certified by well-thought-of parties and verification letters from assorted proficient bureaus are obtained. The CCC can publish by the Architect without the entry of Application Form ( Form E ) and concluding review from local governments and proficient bureaus after the edifices are physically completed.

From the analysis of inquiry 1.2 as attached in the appendix, the tabular array and pie chart above are produced. They show that 19 ( 63.33 % ) of the respondents agree that the execution of CCC will deter corruptness in the building industry compared to CFO. While the 11 ( 36.67 % ) of the respondents disagree that the execution of CCC will deter corruptness in the building industry compared to CFO.

The execution of CCC minimises the engagement of local authorization in the procedure of issue of CCC. The duty of issue is transferred to PSP from the local authorization. The chance of officer from the local authorization to make trouble is minimised. Therefore, cut down corruptness pattern from local governments. However, some of the respondents has an sentiment the execution of CCC can non deter the corruptness. This is because of the absent of standard process in the execution of the CCC system. Local council tends to enforce their demand. They will make the trouble and inquire for benefits from the designer or developers.

From the analysis of inquiry 1.3 as attached in the appendix, it was to be found that 18 ( 60.00 % ) of the respondents agree that the execution of CCC will better foreign investing compared to CFO. While the 12 ( 40.00 % ) of the respondents has an opposite point of view. They disagree that the execution of CCC will better the foreign investing compared to CFO.

The execution of CCC can cut down the cost of making concern in the building industry. It can ease investors and increase credibleness of the industry. The execution of CCC can heighten transparence and efficiency toward doing a Malaysia a more competitory and attractive location for investing. However, some of the respondents feel that the execution of CCC can non better the foreign investing. They may experience that the betterment of foreign investing can non merely trust to the system itself. The authorities must happen out other consideration to better the foreign investing.

From the analysis of inquiry 2 as attached in the appendix, it was to be found that half ( 50.00 % ) of the respondents agree that the execution of CCC will do the designer succumb to the force per unit area given by the developer to publish CCC. While another half ( 50.00 % ) of the respondents has opposite point of view. They disagree that the execution of CCC will do the designer succumb to the force per unit area given by the developer to prematurely attest and publish the CCC.

The consequence shows a discord on this issue among the respondents. The respondents agree that the designer will more succumb to the force per unit area given by the developer because the professional fees are presently being paid by the developers to the advisers. The designer may non be independent and can be influenced by developer to prematurely attest and publish the CCC. The high competitory in the industry besides is a consideration to impact the designer to yield to the force per unit area given by the developer to keep the concern relationship and survive in the industry.

The respondents disagree because designers are professionals bound by a rigorous codification of moralss in order to protect the public involvement. Any designer found guilty of unlawful enfranchisement will confront disciplinary action which may include a strong rebuke, fines up to RM10,000, suspension of licence up to a twelvemonth, o deregistration in drastic instances. Besides, several humanistic disciplines are amended to present new offenses and punishments in conformity with the execution of CCC. These have been discussed in the literature reappraisal.

The board of professional should command and supervise the professional individual who issue CCC to do professional non succumb to the force per unit area give by their client for issue of CCC. This is better if the CCC is to be issued by the professional that are non involved in the undertaking, so the developer can non set force per unit area on the professional.

From the analysis of inquiry 3.1 as attached in the appendix, the tabular array and chart above are produced. They show that 15 ( 50.00 % ) of the respondents feel that the efficiency of public bringing system was addition after the execution of CCC. While the 6 ( 20.00 % ) of the respondent feel that the efficiency of public bringing system was lessening after the execution of CCC. Stay 9 ( 30.00 % ) respondents maintain the impersonal point of view. They feel that the efficiency of public bringing system do non has major alteration after the execution of CCC.

The CCC was implemented together with the One-Stop Centre ( OSC ) . All the professionals still need to subject the development proposal to the local authorization. Harmonizing to the Mid-term Review of the Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2006-2010, clip taken to treat coincident entry of development proposal cut down from 357 yearss to a upper limit of 120 yearss with the puting up OSC and OSC Committee. From the literature reappraisal, the execution of CCC can salvage the clip to the “ possessing ” and “ issue ” of CCC. So, it can be anticipate that the efficiency of bringing system is increased.

From the analysis of inquiry 3.2 as attached in the appendix, it was to be found that 6 ( 20.00 % ) of the respondents feel that the attitude of officer in local authorities was addition after the execution of CCC. While another 6 ( 20.00 % ) of the respondents has opposite point of view. They feel that the attitude of officer in local authorities was lessening after the execution of CCC. Stay 18 ( 60.00 % ) respondents maintain the impersonal point of view. They feel that attitude of officer in local authorities remain the same after the execution of CCC.

The consequence shows that the execution of CCC does non positively affect the attitude of the officer in local authorization. It shows that no affair what system authorities implements, if the work civilization and staff outlook of the functionary do n’t alter, it will be futile. The system itself can non assist the alteration the attitude of the human being. From a general sentiment of one respondent, many officers in the local council still do n’t understand the new system and still bespeak for review to be conducted by them before accept the Form.F issued by the designer.

The authorities must guarantee that all the officers from the authorities section are understand the new system that before execution. The officers shall hold self motive to understand whatever new system that implemented by authorities.

From the analysis of inquiry 3.3 as attached in the appendix, the tabular array and chart above are produced. They show that 7 ( 23.33 % ) of the respondents feel that the overall continuance of undertaking was addition after the execution of CCC. While the 12 ( 40.00 % ) of the respondents feel that the overall continuance of undertaking was lessening after the execution of CCC. Stay 11 ( 36.67 % ) respondents maintain the impersonal point of view. They feel that overall continuance of undertaking remain the same after the execution of CCC.

The 40.00 % of respondents feel that the overall continuance of the undertaking is decrease because the Architect can publish CCC without the bureaucratism process in the execution of CFO. The Architect can straight off publish the CCC without concluding review and entry of Form E. The concluding review and entry normally cause the hold in issue of CFO. However, 36.67 % of the respondents feel that they are non major alteration in term of the continuance of undertaking. This may do by the hold in enfranchisement of Stage Certifications ( Form Gs ) by the chief contractor or specialist sub-contractor. When this state of affairs becomes worst, the overall continuance will go longer than the continuance when the CFO was implemented. The point of view of 23.33 % of the respondent show this state of affairs may go on in their undertaking. As the consequence, they feel the overall continuance is increased.

The close cooperation, integrating and coordination of all parties involved in the enfranchisement of Stage Certificate are of import to avoid hold in enfranchisement of CCC. As a PSP, architects must incorporate and organize with all parties during building stage of work to guarantee Stage Certificates are signed quickly.

From the analysis of inquiry 3.4 as attached in the appendix, the tabular array and chart above are produced. They show that 8 ( 26.67 % ) of the respondents feel that the continuance of house purchasers to busy their house was addition after the execution of CCC. While the 11 ( 36.67 % ) of the respondents feel that the continuance of house purchasers to busy their house was lessening after the execution of CCC. Stay 11 ( 36.67 % ) respondents maintain the impersonal point of view. They feel that they are non major alteration in footings of the continuance of house purchasers to busy their house after the execution of CCC.

The consequence of this inquiry is similar to the old inquiry. This is because the continuance of the house purchasers to busy to their houses is depends to the continuance of the undertaking. If the continuance of the undertaking becomes shorter, the house purchasers can travel into their house more rapidly. However, with the execution of CCC, the Torahs are amended to guarantee the developer issue the CCC to the house purchasers concurrent with issue of vacant ownership. This can work out the job that house purchasers can non travel in to their house even though the vacant ownerships are issued to them because the CFOs have non obtained.

From the analysis of inquiry 4 as attached in the appendix, the tabular array and chart above are produced. They show that 10 ( 33.33 % ) of the respondents feel that the quality of work was increased after the execution of CCC. While the 1 ( 3.33 % ) respondents feel that the quality of work was decreased after the execution of CCC. Stay 19 ( 53.33 % ) respondents maintain the impersonal point of view. They feel that they are non major alteration in footings of quality of work after the execution of CCC.

The designers feel that the quality of plants is increased because the contractor ‘s liability is increased under execution of CCC. The chief contractor and sub-contractors are required to attest the Stage Certification. Therefore, they will guarantee the plants completed with high quality. If the plants fail after the CCC is issued, they are apt to all parties that suffer.

However, more than the half of the respondents feels that they are non major alteration in the quality of plants. This is because this is the duty of the contractors to guarantee that the plants are in good quality. Not affair under which system, the contractors are required to construct the edifice harmonizing to the specification of pulling and contract papers.

From the analysis of inquiry 5 as attached in the appendix, the tabular array and pie chart above are produced. They show that 21 ( 70.00 % ) of the respondents feel that the execution of CCC is better that CFO. While the 9 ( 30.00 % ) of the respondents has an opposite point of view. They feel that the CCC system is non a better system compared to CFO system.

From most of the designer ‘s point of view, the execution of CCC can simplify the enfranchisement procedure, deter the corruptness in the building industry, better the foreign investing, and increase the efficiency of public bringing system. The betterment shows a measure frontward of the building industry in Malaysia.

However, 30 % of the respondents feel that the CCC system is non a better system compared to CFO system. From the general remark of some respondents, it shows some of the local authoritiess have non prepared good with the execution of CCC. Some of the officers are non understand to the new system. It may make a batch of troubles and jobs to architect. A good system must be come with the good attitude of the people whose execute it.

Chapter 5: Decision

5.1 Introduction

This chapter concludes all the determination that contributes to the accomplishment of three aims as stated in the Chapter 1. It includes the findings from the literature reappraisal and field work, particularly informations collected from the questionnaire study. A decision sing the purpose is so drawn and recommendations for future survey are suggested.

5.2 Decision

The CCC is issued by the private sector based on self enfranchisement. The extremist alteration of the new system is the CCC will be issued by a PSP. The duty was transferred from the LAs to professionals of the undertaking. The PSP is a professional designer who submits edifice programs to the local governments for blessing. The LA may at any clip on its ain enterprise or due to ailments inspect the edifice site. Matrix of Responsibility was introduced with the execution of CCC. The parties that involve in the several work must attest the phase certification ( Form Gs ) . PSP can publish the CCC after all Form Gs are filled and enfranchisements for verifications of supply/connection to six indispensable services sections are obtained which are discussed in the literature reappraisal.

The consequences from analysis show most of the designers agree that the execution of CCC can simplify the procedure for enfranchisement and better the efficiency and fight in the bringing system of the edifice industry. It creates benefit to the industry and the populace as it will get the better of the hold and uncertainness which are happen during the execution of CCC. Time saved from the more efficient and competitory lodging bringing system can assist the developer cut down the cost of making concern in the sector. Besides, the execution of CCC can besides deter the corruptness in the lodging industry. Therefore, better foreign investing in the lodging industry.

The jobs arise from the execution CFO such as officer of local authorization create trouble during the enfranchisement of CFO can be reduced. Besides, the execution of CCC can extinguish the job of house purchasers holding to take over the ownership of the houses but can non busy until the CFO is issued by the local authorization.

However, the populace may acquire the perceptual experience that designers can be influenced by developer to attest and publish the CCC prematurely. The execution of CCC will prove the unity of the designer. Besides, the hold on issue of CCC may happen due to the uncooperative of chief contractor and specific sub-contractor to attest the phase enfranchisement on clip. The local governments transferred duties and remain inefficiency. The authorities gets less competent and less efficiency.

Overall, it can be seen that most of the designers feel that the execution of CCC is better than the execution of CFO. The execution of CCC show the authorities was made a measure frontward to better the lodging industry in state. However, the outlook of the staff in local governments and cooperation from assorted parties involved is of import to lend to the success of new system. The inquiry on “ Is the CCC system is better than the CFO system? “ , was been answered after gone through all the aim.

5.3 Recommendations for Future Study

The study findings found show that is a discord on the issue that whether the Architects will yield to the force per unit area given by the developers to publish the CCC prematurely. The farther research is needed to happen out world about this issue. A statistic on the undertakings that are prematurely certified with the CCC should transport out.

In order to hold an in deepness probe, future survey can be carried out harmonizing to the every single local governments. This is because every single local authorization has its ain set of abnormality from the point of entry to the concluding issue of CCC.

From the general remarks, it was found that some of the respondents feel that the duty and work load of the Architects are increased. Besides, they feel that designer should be paid for the CCC issued by them. So, the hereafter survey can transport out to happen out the consequence of the execution of CCC to the professional designer.

Appendixs

Appendix A: Letter of Approval

Appendix B: Questionnaire

Title: A STUDY INTO THE COMPARISON BETWEEN IMPLEMENTATION OF CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION AND COMPLIANCE ( CCC ) AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS FOR OCCUPATION ( CFO ) IN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FROM ARCHITECT ‘S VIEWPOINT

I am presently set abouting Advanced Diploma in Technology ( Building ) at Tunku Abdul Rahman College. In fulfilment of the survey, I am required to set about a research subject country and bring forth a thesis.

This questionnaire is set strictly for the academic intents in order to hold an in-depth survey into the comparing between the execution of Certificate of Completion and Compliance ( CCC ) and Certificate of Fitness for Occupation ( CFO ) in the lodging development undertakings. Your co-operation in reacting to this questionnaire is really much appreciated. I would be thankful if you could finish this questionnaire and direct the questionnaire back with the envelope provided. All the information provided will be treated purely private and confidential. They will non be released to any parties without your uttered permission.

The questionnaire and authorized missive are attached together with this screen missive.

With the execution of CCC, Government has an purpose to cut ruddy tape or bureaucratism in local authorities and increase the efficiency of public bringing system. The new CCC is issued by the private sector based on self-regulation. The duty of the issue of CCC is transferred to professionals from the Local Authorities.

Mentions

  • Tan, Andrew. 1996. Project Management in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: Synergy Books International.
  • Wang, Bernard. 1987. Construction and Development, Petaling Jaya: Pelanduk Publications.
  • Ong, K.T. ( Former Minister of Housing and Local Government ) . 2007. ‘ Perumahan Swasta ‘ . 28 Jul 2007. Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Kuala Lumpur. Viewed on 10 Aug 2009. Available from:
  • Chen, T.L. 2007. Briefing Notes for Practicing Engineers: Certificate of Completion and Compliance ( CCC ) , Viewed on 22 June 2009, Available from:
  • Cheong, Y.P. 2007. LAW & A ; REALTY: Understanding the new CCC. Viewed on 22 June 2009. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.malaysianbar.org.my/conveyancing_practice/law_realty_understanding_the_new_ccc.html
  • Wong, Andrew. 2008. LAW & A ; REALTY: Significant alterations to Housing Act, Viewed on 10 Aug 2009. Available from:
  • Ministry of Housing and Local Government. 2007. ‘Garis Panduan Pelaksanaan Kaedah Pengeluaran Perakuan Siap dan Pematuhan oleh Para Profesional ‘ . Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Housing and Local Government.
  • The Malayan Bar. 2007. Conference on bettering Government ‘s bringing system – 13-14 April 2007. Viewed on 9 Aug 2009. Available from:
  • Board of Architects Malaysia. 2007. Amendments to the Architects Act 1967. Kuala Lumpur: Board of Architects Malaysia.
  • Board of Architects Malaysia. 2007. Certificate of Completion and Compliance -Checklist- . Kuala Lumpur: Board of Architects Malaysia.
  • National House Buyers Association. 2002. The mystical CFO. Viewed on 8 Aug 2009. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hba.org.my/articles/buyer_watch/2002/mystical_cfo.htm
  • Uniform Building By-laws. 1994.
  • Uniform Building By-Law ( Amendment ) . 2007.
  • Housing Development ( Control and Licensing ) Act. 1966.
  • Housing Development ( Control and Licensing ) Act ( Amendment ) . 2007
  • Street, Drainage and Building Act ( Amendment ) . 2007
  • Denscombe, The Good Research Guide: for small-scale societal research undertaking ( Third Edition ) 2007, Finland: WS Bookwell
  • Babbie, The Practice of Social Research ( Eight Edition ) , 1998, United States of America: Wadsworth Publishing Compan
×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out