A nature and sources of data Essay


Nature and beginnings of informations

The specific informations required for this survey were from primary and secondary beginnings. Secondary informations were obtained from the Ibadan North Local Government Authority and Ibadan Waste Management Board. Analogue map of the survey country was obtained from the Local Government central office. Land usage map ( 1995 ) , route map, lift informations, rail line informations were made available from Ibadan Waste Management Board. A field visit was paid in order to find the names of characteristics on the parallel map in the attribute field of the digitised transcript. GPS was used to capture points on land for analysis.

Hardware and Software

The hardware used in this survey included PC Pentium IV ( RAM 250 MB, HD 2 GB ) , HP DeskJet 1220C colour pressman, HP Scanjet 2400, Logic Trace digitizer, Sony digital camera ( 8mp ) and Garmin E trex 12 channels GPS receiving system. The package used in fixing and analysis of the informations included MS Excel, ArcView 3.3 with Network Analyst and Super determination for the AHP facet.

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The base map was transformed into digital map for usage in GIS by digitizing utilizing the platform of ArcView 3.3 GIS package. Digitizing a map means change overing an parallel map into a digital signifier by encoding the spacial co-ordinates of characteristics on the map through the procedure of on-screen digitising. A digital map that is recognised by the computing machine in a GIS environment is the end-product of this exercising.

Datas analysis

Five major GIS spacial operations were performed to accomplish the set of aim for this undertaking. These are, buffering, sheathing, question, web analysis and nearest vicinity analysis


It is a spacial analysis known as propinquity analysis, bring forthing zones of a given distance around a characteristic subject. It forms a polygon around a point, line or polygon subject by turn uping its boundaries at a specified distance. GIS can make buffer zones around selected characteristics. The roads and tracks were buffered at a radius of 100m ( Javaheri 2006 ) while the streets were buffered at a radius of 30m.


Sheathing was performed to place countries that meet all the set standards and to demo countries that do non run into the standards. GIS can cover different pieces of information. It helps in understanding the association between web analysis and specific geographic characteristics. Ibadan North map and other informations were overlaid to acquire possible sites.


This bid is used to reply the inquiry of & A ; lsquo ; what is and where is ‘ in GIS. The land usage was queried to acquire the unfastened infinite while the lift was queried to acquire the suited lift.

Network analysis

Arc position Network Analyst is a powerful extension that provides network-based spacial analysis including routing, travel waies, closest installation, etc. This was made usage of in this survey to demo the possible paths of connexion from the transportation Stationss to the disposal site.

Nearest Neighbour Analysis

The nearest neighbour analysis helps to find the nature of the distribution of the characteristics which can be clustered or scattered. It is employed in this survey to find the form of skip distribution. If the index is less than 1, the form exhibits constellating and if greater than 1, the tendency is toward scattering.

Cartographic theoretical account

& A ; lsquo ; The cartographic theoretical account is merely a graphical representation of informations and processs ‘ used in a survey ( Eastman 1995 ) . It is a set of interacting ordered map operations that act on natural information every bit good as derive intermediate informations to imitate a spacial determination doing procedure ( Tomlin, 1990 ) . It shows all the beds of information get downing with the base maps on the left and stoping with the terminal merchandise on the right. Its intents are to assist the analyst organise and construction the processs that the analysis to be performed in a survey will necessitate and to place the informations needed to finish them.

LU= Land-use

The above cartographic theoretical account was constructed based on the undermentioned parametric quantities:

The land usage maps was queried because site location must fall outside the land usage countries so that colony will non be polluted by the exhume/stench from the waste.

The roads and rail were buffered at a distance of 100m and the streets were buffered at a distance of 30meters to make a good distance between them and the landfill site.

The lift was queried to acquire an lift greater than or equal to 222meters so that it will non be located in an country that is excessively low because of H2O flow.


Questionnaires were designed to seek public sentiment as they include portion of decision-making in a survey such as this. 720 questionnaires were distributed among the assorted stakeholders, which include the public, contrivers and functionaries of Ibadan Municipal Government and Waste Management Board. In order to place the standards for siting, sentiments from contrivers were required. Questionnaires were given out to 10 experts as portion of public engagement. Questionnaires were besides distributed among the people populating in the major countries where skips were to be allocated. These countries include, Oje market, Gbenla, Adeoyo, Danadaru, Premier Hotel, Jemebewon, Poly route, Cultural Centre, Bodija, Ikolaba, Oyo Secretariat. 60 % of the questionnaires were distributed around the southern portion as it was observed during field visit that most illegal garbage dumps are around that country.

Standards for choice

To get at the choice standards for taking a site for landfill, relevant literature and determination shapers ‘ sentiment were sought.

  • Site must be near to at least a street with a buffer of 30m ( Decision shapers ‘ penchant )
  • Site must non be excessively far from a transportation station ( Decision shapers ‘ penchant )
  • Site must be 3km from residential countries, with the exclusion of countries with barriers ( trees, hills, etc. ) ( Banar et al. 2007 ) .
  • There should be a minimal distance of 100m between site and roads ( Decision shapers ‘ penchant, Javaheri et Al. 2006 )
  • Site must be on a suited dirt.
  • Site should be constructed in countries which do non hold an of import economic or ecological value ( Lober 1995, Siddiqui et Al. 1996 ) .

The AHP constituent

Finally, in the 2nd measure, a determination hierarchal construction utilizing the AHP was developed and implemented to rank the two suited sites harmonizing to their suitableness for landfill locating. The AHP can help in identifying and burdening choice of standards and hastening the procedure of determination devising ( Sener 2010 ) . Preferences of determination shapers can be included in a planning job within an AHP. The jobs so structured in a hierarchal signifier to let for weighting of the penchants by pairwise comparings ( Phua and Minowa 2005 ) . The AHP typically involves set uping a graphical representation of job as a hierarchy, burdening the elements at each degree of the hierarchy and ciphering the weights ( Phua and Minowa 2005 ) . The AHP methodological analysis compares standards or options with regard to a standard, in a natural, pairwise manner. To accomplish this, the AHP uses a cardinal graduated table of absolute Numberss ( Table 3.2 ) that has been tested in pattern and validated by physical and determination job experiments. It is possibly the most widely used determination doing attack today. The AHP is by and large used to back up other methodological analysiss such as in make up one’s minding how many waiters to use in a queuing state of affairs taking into history factors like costs, waiting times and human defeat. Several other applications include resource allotment, prediction, etc.

The Super Decisions package ( Saaty 2003 ) was used in developing the AHP theoretical account. A Ace Decisions theoretical account by and large comprises bunchs of elements instead than elements arranged in degrees. Bunchs contain node which represent the elements in them. For illustration, the standards for locating a landfill may include propinquity to transit webs, propinquity to blow aggregation Centres, etc. These represent the nodes in the & A ; lsquo ; Criteria ‘ bunch. When a line joins a bunch with another bunch, it means the nodes in both bunchs are connected together. The chief purpose of utilizing the AHP is to delegate weights to standards and come out with the best option.


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