A Review On Sox2 And Diseases Biology Essay

After the found of sry ( sex finding Y cistron ) on Y chromosome, sox household was discovered and sox2 being one of its members. Sox2 locates on the q arm of chromosome3 ( 26.3-27 ) and encodes a protein of 317 aminic acids. Along with Oct4 and Nanog, these three interlingual rendition factors are reckoned as cardinal factors in keeping belongingss of embryologic root cells ( ESCs ) . In this web, they work together while each factor can besides unite its ain booster. Sox2 maps hand in glove with Oct3/4 to orchestrate other cistrons ‘ written texts, although there is another research indicates that sox2 regulates the degrees of oct4 and may non be the lone member of Sox household that affect Oct-Sox foil of ESCs, still it is clear that little alterations in sox2 can trip distinctions of ESCs hence cause assorted types of disease. In this assignment, harmonizing to the belongingss of sox2 and incidences, diseases linked with it are illustrated from malignant neoplastic disease to oculus malformations. ( neuro )

Sox2 is known as a cardinal factor in both cardinal nervous system and peripheral nervous system through modulating two cistrons named neurogenin-1 and mash-1 that affect nerve cells in CNS and PNS. It is deemed that sox2 inhabits epithelial- mesenchymal passage and nervous crest stratifications.

We will write a custom essay sample on
A Review On Sox2 And Diseases Biology Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

Lung malignant neoplastic disease

EMT can be activated by zin-finger factor and leads to malignant tumours. So it is non difficult to infer the association between sox2 and malignant neoplastic disease. For illustration, in none-small cell lung carcinoma EMT is found to be up regulated, it is exposed by TGF?-1 and since sox2 inhibits EMT through TGF?-1 therefore NSCLC is related with sox2, this cut down can be evidenced by the positive rate of sox2 in NSCLC tissue which is 70.5 % .

As for lung squamous cell malignant neoplastic disease, sox2 was found to be amplified at a similar rate, 27 % and 33 % in Rudin ‘s survey which observed 53 samples and Sasaki ‘s survey that investigated 87 instances separately.But the exact grounds for the increased figure of sox2 is still non rather clear, merely as the interstitial lung disease which links with ECT every bit good.

Breast malignant neoplastic disease

Sox2 is contributed to sox2/mir-140 tract which is a polar tract that relate to breast tumour, particularly in the early forming period it regulates cells ‘ endurance. Therefore it provides a new manner when sing chest malignant neoplastic disease. The mechanism is chiefly because mir-140 is down-regulated as a type of tumour suppresser microRNA and sox2 nowadayss as its mark. Furthermore, by aiming down sox2 consequences a reduced proliferation of chest malignant neoplastic disease cells which indicates that over-expression of sox2 is a doing factor of chest malignant neoplastic disease.

Ovarian malignant neoplastic disease and Prostate malignant neoplastic disease

Since sox2 exists from the really beginning of a cell, it is rather easy to tie in it with the get downing factors of life eggs and sperms which can so be linked to pathology signifier: ovarian malignant neoplastic disease and prostate malignant neoplastic disease. From a survey about ovarian malignant neoplastic disease which includes 43 normal overy species and 428 epithelial lesions, sox2 degree is found to be linked straight with malignant grade, that is to state ovary carcinoma is related to sox2 over look. Sox2 look is besides a factor for cell programmed cell death equivocation every bit good as cell proliferation in prostate malignant neoplastic disease. As elucidated before, EMT is besides plays an of import portion in both types of malignant neoplastic diseases and it is responses for opposition to therapy. Good intelligence is aiming EMT can be considered in ovarian malignant neoplastic disease.

Eye diseases

It is good known that sox2 is the major cause of oculus diseases, such as anophthalmia and microphthalmia. There are assorted grounds for that. one ground is the repression of wnt- beta-catenin signal may render the mutant of sox2 so result mutants of eyes ; another ground is sox2 is easy to be impaired and slipped-stranded and a fresh mutant c.59_60insGG is found every bit good. Furthermore, in hippocampus and oculus, powerful sox2 can demo defects in both neurou cells and primogenitor cells.

Colon malignant neoplastic disease, Gastric malignant neoplastic disease, other surveies that associated

Sox2 can show as one tumour initiated cell in colon malignant neoplastic disease together with some other factors as oct4, nanog Eastern Time.

1. Alatzoglou, K.S. , D. Kelberman, and M.T. Dattani, The function of SOX proteins in normal pituitary development. J Endocrinol, 2009. 200 ( 3 ) : p. 245-58.

2. Boyer, L.A. , et al. , Core transcriptional regulative circuitry in human embryologic root cells. Cell, 2005. 122 ( 6 ) : p. 947-56.

3. Rizzino, A. , Sox2 and Oct-3/4: A Versatile Pair of Master Regulators that Orchestrate the Self-renewal and Pluripotency of Embryonic Stem Cells by Functioning as Molecular Rheostats. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med, 2009. 1 ( 2 ) : p. 228-36.

4. Masui, S. , et al. , Pluripotency governed by Sox2 via ordinance of Oct3/4 look in mouse embryologic root cells. Nat Cell Biol, 2007. 9 ( 6 ) : p. 625-35.

5. Cimadamore, F. , et al. , Human ESC-derived nervous crest theoretical account reveals a cardinal function for SOX2 in centripetal neurogenesis. Cell Stem Cell, 2011. 8 ( 5 ) : p. 538-51.

6. Wellner, U. , et al. , The EMT-activator ZEB1 promotes tumorigenicity by quashing stemness-inhibiting microRNAs. Nat Cell Biol, 2009. 11 ( 12 ) : p. 1487-95.

7. Soltermann, A. , [ Epithelial-mesenchymal passage in non-small cell lung cancer. ] . Pathologe, 2012.

8. Pirozzi, G. , et al. , Epithelial to mesenchymal passage by TGFbeta-1 initiation additions stemness features in primary non little cell lung malignant neoplastic disease cell line. PLoS One, 2011. 6 ( 6 ) : p. e21548.

9. Li, X. , et al. , Expression of sox2 and oct4 and their clinical significance in human non-small-cell lung malignant neoplastic disease. Int J Mol Sci, 2012. 13 ( 6 ) : p. 7663-75.

10. Rudin, C.M. , et al. , Comprehensive genomic analysis identifies SOX2 as a often amplified cistron in small-cell lung malignant neoplastic disease. Nat Genet, 2012. 44 ( 10 ) : p. 1111-6.

11. Sasaki, H. , et al. , Increased Sox2 transcript figure in lung squamous cell carcinomas. Exp Ther Med, 2012. 3 ( 1 ) : p. 44-48.

12. Kage, H. and Z. Borok, EMT and interstitial lung disease: a cryptic relationship. Curr Opin Pulm Med, 2012. 18 ( 5 ) : p. 517-23.

13. Stolzenburg, S. , et al. , Targeted silencing of the oncogenic written text factor SOX2 in chest malignant neoplastic disease. Nucleic Acids Res, 2012. 40 ( 14 ) : p. 6725-40.

14. Zhang, Y. , et al. , Estrogen Receptor alpha Signing Regulates Breast Tumor-initiating Cells by Downregulating miR-140 which Targets the Transcription Factor SOX2. J Biol Chem, 2012.

15. Ye, F. , et al. , Expression of Sox2 in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2011. 137 ( 1 ) : p. 131-7.

16. Smith, B.N. and V.A. Odero-Marah, The function of Snail in prostate malignant neoplastic disease. Cell Adh Migr, 2012. 6 ( 5 ) .

17. Huang, R.Y. , C.V. Yee, and J.P. Thiery, Targeting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition ( EMT ) in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Curr Drug Targets, 2012.

18. Lin, F. , et al. , Sox2 targets cyclinE, p27 and survivin to modulate androgen-independent human prostate malignant neoplastic disease cell proliferation and programmed cell death. Cell Prolif, 2012. 45 ( 3 ) : p. 207-16.

19. Kelberman, D. , et al. , SOX2 plays a critical function in the hypophysis, prosencephalon, and oculus during human embryologic development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 93 ( 5 ) : p. 1865-73.

20. Pedace, L. , et al. , A novel heterozygous SOX2 mutant doing anophthalmia/microphthalmia with venereal anomalousnesss. Eur J Med Genet, 2009. 52 ( 4 ) : p. 273-6.

21. Cavallaro, M. , et al. , Impaired coevals of mature nerve cells by nervous root cells from hypomorphic Sox2 mutations. Development, 2008. 135 ( 3 ) : p. 541-57.

22. Lin, C.W. , et al. , Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Regulates Tumor Initiation and Tumorigenesis via Activating Reprogramming Factors and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Genes Expression in Colon Cancer. J Biol Chem, 2012.


Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out