A study of the Cylinder Manufacturing Company Essay

The cylinder fabrication company is a big manufacturer of oil armored combat vehicles and located in the North of Buckinghamshire in the United Kingdom. It was started as a company in 1970 and has enjoyed steady growing in both gross revenues and net incomes.

From 1970 to up to 1998 company bring forthing the merchandises utilizing standard accounting system. In 1998, the laminitis ‘s girl Davina Brinkwater fall ining the company after finishing the graduation from the university in histories and finance. After the connection she analyse the company current accounting system and urge to revise the accounting system as there was a demand for more accurate merchandise cost information to back up the house ‘s scheme of offering acute monetary value in a extremely competitory market where a few houses dominated.

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After fall ining the company she analyse the company accounting system which is utilizing “ Traditional Accounting System ” . With The support of his powerful and influential male parent, Davain succeeded to implement the New System, Which is “ Abstract-Based Costing ABC ” . But she faces the job by the members of the house that she is seeking to alter the organisation. Some members of the house are happy who to accept the challenge and understand how new system working. After the retirement of his male parent, she is witting that she must turn out herself.

The Real Problems

Davina is cognizant that break due to the execution of the new system can be disconcerting. And that go oning, when the comptroller stating her that the net incomes are down below of the budget. He is really critical about the current costing system stating that it is out of line with the updated fabrication systems every bit good as manner behind current theoretical thoughts on merchandise costing. Harmonizing to the comptroller, they are still absorbing operating expenses on labor hours and that they have an unnaturally high overhead soaking up rate of ?150 per labour hr. He claims that they are pricing themselves out of the market on their established merchandise line. He suggests that merchandise costs would be more meaningful if absorbed on the footing of machine hours.

On the other manus, Davina decides that she herself investigate the job over the past five old ages. And she got the undermentioned consequences.

Overhead cost had risen to ?599300 per month, which is 46 % addition

direct labor hours have risen from ?168200 to ?170000

Direct labor hours are 4000 compared with machine hours of 6500

Davina asks the fabrication director about the rise in overhead cost, he gives the accounts as below.

23 Different versions of a individual merchandise

Cost of a merchandise is high

stuffs managing is an increasing concern

overtime is traveling through the roof

deficiency of skilled peoples

Davin so decides to speak with the selling director, who says

We are confronting ferocious competition for our high volume lines, merely ca n’t fit the low monetary value in market

However we have successfully increase our gross revenues

We are run intoing our overall gross revenues mark


After the survey of the house ‘s history and establishing a new activity base system over traditional method, In my point of position that every director / employee merely blaming and faulting. They did non gain the exact job even they have increase in the gross revenues and accomplishing the gross revenues mark. And besides there is more demand of the particular merchandise in the market.

I considered that the house is utilizing both method simultainusly. Especially house is focused on Standard merchandise production instead than the Particular merchandise production. Using standard method they are rendering the more service over labour cost and ensue the overhead addition. They did non utilised and increase the machine labor. And which is more demanding merchandise in the market.

“ Realization that overheads do non merely happen, but are caused by activities, such as keeping merchandises in shop, that ‘drive ‘ the cost is at the bosom of Activity-based costing ( ABC ) . The traditional attack is that direct labor hours are a cost driver, which likely used to be true. It is now recognised to be no longer the instance.

Traditionally, we tend to believe of operating expenses as rendering a service of cost units, the cost of which must be charged to those units.

ABC sees overheads as being caused by cost units, and that those cost units must be charged with the costs that they cause. ” ( Accounting and finance by Peter Atrill and Eddie Mclaney )

ABC is the 1 and lone solution for the job and engrafting the new activity cost based system is the large challenge. After implementing the new accounting system we will able to cipher the existent cost of the both merchandises Standard and Specialized merchandise.

Budgeted overhead cost per month

Machines 279500

Set-up and technology support 200200

Materials managing 119600

Entire operating expenses 599300

Direct labour 170000

Entire fabrication cost excepting direct stuffs 769300


Here we will merely cipher the machine hours which tells the overheads recovery base by the ABC method.


( Machine Hour / Total Hours ) * Entire Over caputs

Standard Merchandise: ( 3500 / 6500 ) * 599300 = 322700

Specialized Merchandise: ( 3500 / 6500 ) * 599300 = 276600

After ciphering machine hr with ABC system we have existent cost of both merchandises. Where we can easy indentify that standard merchandise is utilizing more hours than the specialized merchandise. Because there are already 23 different versions of standard merchandises in the market, and at that place demand is besides less so we can non increase the monetary value of standard merchandise due to the market competition.

Although on the other manus the range for the specialized merchandise is available in the market and its demand is besides high. Specialized merchandise driving the cost more than the standard merchandise. Merely the company needs skilled labor, increase the no of apparatuss and shop orders than the standard merchandise.

Standard merchandise is absorbing the cost of Specialized merchandise.

Standard Product is non giving more net income, so we need to better our new specialised merchandise which has the market and giving more net income. Specialized merchandise giving deriving the net income marks.

Merely the ground buttocks is this, that the company utilizing less machine hours and still depending over the labor, which caused to increase the operating expenses and besides the graph of the net income is traveling down.


As I mentioned before that there is demand of specialized merchandise in the market is high and this merchandise is giving more net income. So there is the demand to increase the monetary value of the merchandise.

Harmonizing with the Market Manager house is run intoing the Overall gross revenues mark, and there is more demand available. There is the demand to increase the Machine hours, so that production of the specialized merchandise addition and besides need to increase the merchandise monetary value. This will bring forth the more net income and assist to get the better of the overhead border. We can increase the machine hours which can increase the production and to set labours we can run the fabrication section in different displacements to utilize maximal Numberss of labor and machine hours to our profitable merchandise.

Section II: – Show how an activity based system would alter the analysis of the costs between the criterion and specializer merchandises.

First we can analysis the job and after that we will be working through these informations. First to see how traditional cost accounting methods might cover with them ; secondly to look at the ABC method itself. Of these attacks we will be looking at, merely ABC will be utilizing all of the informations in any great item. This is consistent with the general nature of the traditional method.

( ref: hypertext transfer protocol: //business.fortunecity.com/discount/29/abcworkex.htm )


The house is utilizing the old accounting system is which they have a individual pool for the operating expenses through which they can non cipher existent thrust of the cost, where the “ ABC system is a technique for more accurately associating the operating expenses to specific production or proviso of a service. It is based on credence of the fact that operating expenses do non merely happen but are caused by activities, such as keeping merchandises in shop merchandises in shop, which drive the cost ” . ( Ref: Accounting An debut by Eddie Mclaney and Peter Atrill. Forth Edition )

By ciphering the cost between standard and specialized merchandise with ABC system we can see difference.

Traditional Direct Labour Hours


( Labor Hour / Total Hours ) * Entire Over caputs


( Machine Hour / Total Hours ) * Entire Over caputs

Standard Merchandise: ( 3500 / 6500 ) * 599300 = 322700

Specialized Merchandise: ( 3500 / 6500 ) * 599300 = 276600

After ciphering the cost of criterion and specialized merchandise we have machine hours and labour hours, where we can easy analysis that standard merchandise is absorbing more labour hours as the consequences Machine hours are bring forthing less merchandises. As far fabrication director is besides worried about the standard merchandise, because he is maintaining the cost low because there are 23 other versions of the merchandise are in the market. Because of the low monetary value and Standard merchandise competition it is non giving net income to the house.

Alternatively, specialised merchandise has the market and running really swimmingly in the market. Harmonizing to the selling director is run intoing the marks and the sale is increased and still there is demand for the specialized merchandise. But fabrication director is worried about the cost of fabricating it. He needs more skill labor, machine set-ups and the cost of stuff handling.

Cost Analysis:

Activity based costing ( ABC ) assigns fabricating overhead costs to merchandises in a more logical mode than the traditional attack of merely apportioning costs on the footing of machine hours. Activity based bing first assigns costs to the activities that are the existent cause of the operating expense. It so assigns the cost of those activities merely to the merchandises that are really demanding the activities.

Activity based costing recognizes that the particular technology, particular testing, machine apparatuss, and others are activities that cause costs-they cause the company to devour resources. Under ABC, the company will cipher the cost of the resources used in each of these activities. Next, the cost of each of these activities will be assigned merely to the merchandises that demanded the activities. In our illustration, Standard Product will be assigned some of the company ‘s costs of standard technology, Standard testing, and machine apparatus. Other merchandises that use any of these activities will besides be assigned some of their costs. Specialized Product will non be assigned any cost of particular technology or particular testing, and it will be assigned merely a little sum of machine apparatus.

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In our instance survey, The Cylinder fabrication company is utilizing a individual pool for the operating expenses, the cost of criterion and specialized merchandise is non calculated by their activities. Budgeted overheads cost per month shows the sum of operating expenses so it is non possible to look into which merchandise is absorbing the cost, and how we can bring forth net income from it. The old accounting system is demoing the Machine, Set-ups and stuffs managing as a sum for both merchandises.

Machines 279500

Set-ups 200200

Marterial 119600

Entire operating expenses 599300

This is a individual pool of operating expenses through which we can non cipher the existent cost of the merchandise. This house is fabricating two merchandises Standard and Specialized merchandise. So we have to cipher the cost of each merchandise. Now we look these figures in a more advanced manner by utilizing ABC system and see the alterations.


Machine hours

Standard Product ( 3500/6500 * 279500 ) 150500

Specialised Product ( 3000/6500 * 279500 ) 129000


Standard Product ( 80/280 * 200200 ) 57200

Specialised Product ( 200/280 * 200200 ) 143000

Material Managing

Standard Product ( 160/460 * 119600 ) 41600

Specialised Product ( 300/460 * 119600 ) 78000

By utilizing ABC system now we have activity based costs of the merchandises now we can analysis these alterations. Harmonizing to these new figures Standard merchandise is absorbing the cost and the chief cost driver is our specialized merchandise. We can take few stairss to bring forth net income from our merchandises. Specialized merchandise is our net income devising merchandise and run intoing the mark gross revenues in the market its mean there is a demand of this merchandise

What Company to make?

There is the demand to Increasing the Specialized merchandise monetary value in the market

Increasing the Machine Setups

Increase the Machine hours and labour Hourss

Hire the Skilled Labour

Increase the fabrication of specialized merchandise

Need to command the shop order cost

As above we mentioned that Company needs more skilled labor and demand to increase in apparatuss. Its mean that specialised merchandise hold more ratio in the entire operating expenses. By bear downing the specialized merchandise harmonizing to its activity we can cipher the existent cost.

Decision and advice:

Using the activity based bing method is more accurate in reflecting the existent attempts associated with production. As company began mensurating the costs of activities ( alternatively of concentrating on the comptroller ‘s departmental categorizations ) , they began utilizing ABC cost information to pattern activity based direction.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.accountingcoach.com/online-accounting-course/35Xpg01.html # activity-based-costing-two # ixzz0IBdJkQPx & A ; D

The above figures show that under the traditional attack, the borders are loosely equal between the two merchandises. However, the ABC attack shows that the specialized merchandise is far more profitable. Hence the house should reconsider its fabrication section and seek to increase the production of the merchandise and in marketing section they try to exchange clients to specialized merchandise, with a addition in monetary value.

The chief mark is specialised merchandise which can alter the house ‘s fiscal conditions by increasing the net income border. It is high cost merchandise which is running the large part of the operating expenses so by increasing the Numberss of machine hours and labour hours it is possible to get the better of the operating expense and increase the Specialized merchandise fabrication and selling section can seek to sell it with a high monetary value in the market and gain the high ratio net income. Fabrication and selling section have to work together to acquire the net income borders by increasing the fabrication of particular merchandise with more labors in overtime displacements and carry through the market demand.

Section III: – Advise on the execution of an ABC system. How can Davina ‘s frights be lessened?

You will happen implementing Activity Based Costing is a powerful tool in mensurating public presentation. Activity-based costing is used to place, depict, assign costs to, and study on bureau operations. Traditional accounting is non as accurate for usage as a cost direction system. Activity based bing identifies chances to better the concern procedure and efficiency by finding the ‘true ‘ cost of a merchandise or service.

You can utilize activity based bing to concentrate direction attending on the entire cost to bring forth a merchandise and to find the footing for full cost recovery. You will happen that support services are good suited for activity based resourcing because they produce mensurable units of end product.

Activity-Based Costing is:

aˆ? Is a direction tool that provides better allotment of resources

aˆ? Is applicable to both appropriations and go arounding financess

aˆ? Relates entire cost ( resources consumed ) to work complete ( end products produced )

aˆ? Aligns costs to end products, thereby increasing cost visibleness

aˆ? Is utile in calculating fiscal baselines

Execution of ABC

Activity based costing assigns costs to resources and merchandises to bring forth units of cost. A unit cost is the “ mean entire cost ” of bring forthing one unit of end product. You calculate the unit cost by spliting the entire cost of production by the entire figure of units of end product produced.

When you make a clear connexion between the costs and end products you have a true fiscal image. You will see the costs are move seeable and expressed which will assist you do good determinations when apportioning resources.

Entire cost visibleness takes into history all of the costs associated with bring forthing or presenting a merchandise. For illustration, if you have a household member working in your concern

And you pay them by supplying them a vehicle. Your household member ‘s labour is non free and you must cipher the cost of the vehicle into your entire costs.

You have four stairss in activity based costing:

1. Identify activities-perform an analysis of the operating procedure of each section used to make the merchandise. You may necessitate to be really elaborate depending on your concern.

2. Assign costs to activities-you must find all the costs in each activity. You must include administrative costs all the manner to stuffs and labour.

1. Direct-costs that can be traced straight to one end product. For illustration, the stuff costs ( varnish, wood, and pigment ) to construct a chair.

2. Indirect-costs that can non be allocated to an single end product ; in other words, they benefit two or more end products, but non all end products. Examples: care costs for the proverb that cut the wood, storage costs, other building stuffs, and quality confidence. )

3. General & A ; Administrative-costs that can non moderately be associated with any peculiar merchandise or service produced ( overhead ) . These costs would stay the same no affair what end product the activity produced. Examples: wages of forces in buying section, depreciation on equipment, and works security.

3. Identify outputs-identify all of the end products for each section in the operating procedure. Outputs can be merchandises, services, or clients.

4. Assign activity costs to outputs-assign activity costs to outputs utilizing activity drivers. Activity drivers assign costs to end products based on the end products ‘ usage of resources. For illustration, a driver may be the figure of times an activity is performed ( dealing driver ) or the length of clip an activity is performed ( continuance driver ) . Activity based costing encourages directors to place which activities are add value. Those activities that will outdo carry through a mission, present a service, or run into a client demand. Activity based bing improves efficiency and improves the determination doing procedure by concentrating on the existent costs.

Davina ‘s terror: –

After winning the statement over the traditional accounting method, Davain ‘s confronting the existent jobs. Because she knows that in practical its spot hard to implement the new system and but she traveling to panic when everyone who are non happy with this system is faulting her. After acquiring the analysis she got disquieted that where is the existent job? She is succeeded to implement new system but failed because she have no skilled labor and besides she do n’t hold the skilled direction. Who can understand and run the ABC system.

My Advice to Davina is that: –

There is the demand to Increasing the Specialized merchandise monetary value in the market

Increasing the Machine Setups

Increase the Machine hours and labour Hourss

Hire the Skilled Labour

Increase the fabrication of specialized merchandise

Need to command the shop order cost

As above we mentioned that Company needs more skilled labor and demand to increase in apparatuss. Its mean that specialised merchandise hold more ratio in the entire operating expenses. By bear downing the specialized merchandise harmonizing to its activity we can cipher the existent cost.

As supra, if Davina take some bold stairss, harmonizing to my opnion she will win to get the better of the operating expense ratio, and besides she proves herself in forepart of them who are indicating her. And after that the company once more starts a value net income by its specialized merchandise merchandising.


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