A study stack for the final Science Evaluation, 7th grade

Question Answer
What is a fossil? A fossil is the preserved remains of a species that lived in the past
Give three examples of things that could become fossilized. A footprint,
A piece of bone,
A tooth
How do fossils help scientists collect evidence that evolution has occurred? Fossils allow scientists to understand when former species lived as well as make observations and inferences about the way they lived.
What type of scientist studies these fossils? Scientists that study fossils are known as paleontologists
What does it mean for a species to become extinct? A species becomes extinct when the final member of the species dies and there are no surviving offspring
What could cause extinction? Environmental change,
Loss of food source,
Introduction of new competitors or predators…
What types of life are the oldest on Earth? Single-celled organisms are the oldest forms of life on the planet.
They first appeared on the planet MILLIONS of years ago.
What does “diversity of species" mean? Diversity of species means there are many different kinds of organisms
What is natural selection? The process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.
Who proposed the theory of natural selection? The theory was proposed by Charles Darwin after his observation on FINCHES and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution.
How long does the process of natural selection usually take? The process usually takes thousands of generations to see an effect
What is an observation? Give an example. The act of viewing or noting something with one of the senses (see, hear, smell, taste or touch—is a fact)
EX. The footprint has 3 toes
What is an inference? Give an example. A proposed conclusion based on an observation. It does not always have to be correct.
EX. After looking at fossilized footprints you decide the organism had started to run
TRUE or FALSE: Humans have had no impact on the evolution of other species. FALSE: Humans impact the evolution of other species in many ways
Hunting, Habitat Destruction, Pollution
What is genetic variation? Genetic variation is differences that are caused by an organism’s genes
What causes genetic variation? Variation is usually caused by a MUTATION in the organism’s DNA

How does genetic variation lead to natural selection?

This variation allows certain individuals to be better suited for their environment and have a higher chance at reproducing and passing their genes to their offspring.

Ex. The beige worms were easier to see so they got eaten in Activity 91

What is a mutation? A mutation is any change in an organism’s DNA
Typically these mutations occur during the fertilization
Ex. A hornless cow gives birth to a cow with horns
How do they affect an individual? Some mutations are beneficial and lead to organisms having a greater chance at reproduction
Some are harmful and do not help an organism
Some have no effect on the organisms
Give an example of a helpful mutation. 4-tined beak
Give an example of a harmful mutation. Genetic disorder, Crooked Beak(can't pick up food)
Give an example of a mutation that has no effect. A different colored coat on a dog

What is the difference between an acquired and inherited trait?

Inherited trait—Traits that are determined by an individual’s genetic makeup and are determined during fertilization.

Acquired trait—Traits that an individual gains during the course of their life that are not genetic

Which type of trait gets passed to offspring? Inherited traits
If two species have DNA that is very similar they are (MORE or LESS) closely related. If two species have very similar DNA they are MORE closely related than individuals with DNA that is not similar.
This means they shared a common ancestor relatively recently.
Describe bacterial resistance using natural selection. Originally most bacteria were non-resistant to antibiotics and died
Some had the resistance gene and were able to survive the medicine, which they passed to offspring
After many generations most bacteria now have resistance gene due to natural selection

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