Accounting Essays - Financial Accounting Measurement

Choose a fiscal accounting measuring or revelation issue regulated by an FRS and an IFRS

The recent jet in large accounting criterions like Enron and WorldCom has one time once more brought hard currency into focal point. Internet roar saw investors concentrating on possible net incomes with small mention to hard currency flows. The death of larger companies and graduated table of use in net incomes has one time once more turned the tide in favor of hard currency flows.

Discounted hard currency flows theoretical accounts are the basis of fiscal theory. Cash flows offer more credibleness to rating as they are more touchable than accumulated net incomes. ‘Historical hard currency flow information gives an indicant of the relationship between profitableness and cash-generating ability, and therefore of the quality of the net income earned ‘ ( Accounting Standards, 2004 ) .

This paper compares and contrasts FRS 1 and IAS 7, the hard currency flow statement criterions of UK ‘S ASB and International Accounting Standards severally. A hard currency flow statement is required due to difference between the net income and loss statement and hard currency. It is utile in measuring the current liquidness and beginnings of support of a concern.

UK ‘s Accounting Standards Board ( ASB ) foremost promulgated FRS 1 in 1991 and later revised it in 1996. The tantamount international accounting criterion is IAS 7. There are many similarities between FRS 1 and IAS 7 and it is by and large believed that IAS 7 influenced the preparation and subsequent alteration of FRS 1. Both FRS 1 and IAS 7 are similar in the content of information they provide. They show the hard currency flow generated and utilized during the twelvemonth.

Even though FRS 1 is similar to IAS 7, there are still some differences between them. These are chiefly due to categorization of hard currency and coverage formats.

Definition of hard currency

The chief difference between FRS 1 and IAS 7 is in the definition of hard currency flows. ASB ‘s FRS defines hard currency flows to include motions in hard currency merely. Cash is defined as hard currency in manus and sedimentations repayable on demand less overdrafts. IAS definition of hard currency flows is broader than that of FRS and IAS defines hard currency flows as motion in both hard currency and hard currency equivalents. Cash equivalents are short-run extremely liquid investings that are easy to change over into hard currency and carry an undistinguished hazard of loss in value.

Under FRS 1, hard currency equivalents are included individually in the ‘management of liquid resources ‘ . By clubbing together and demoing individually the non so liquid hard currency equivalents, FRS hard currency flows standard is more conservative than IAS criterions. If investors want a more conservative attack, they can rapidly take out ‘management of liquid resources ‘ from hard currency flow statement.

On IAS 7 compliant hard currency flows statements, we would see more ‘cash ‘ than in FRS 1 compliant hard currency flow statements. Lashkar-e-taibas imagine a scenario where two companies have same hard currency and hard currency equivalents. When comparing merely hard currency sums, IAS 7 format company will demo higher figure than the company utilizing FRS 1.

Besides the company utilizing IAS 7 will describe higher liquidness ratios such as hard currency to liability ratio or speedy ratio. IAS 7 will besides impact other ratios utilizing hard currency like net debt to equity ratio. So two companies with precisely same constituents will demo different fiscal statement analysis consequences.

Legal freedom

FRS 1 gives certain companies freedom and they are non lawfully apt to include hard currency flow statements into their one-year histories. This freedom is available to little companies and certain open-ended investing financess among others.

All entities of a company utilizing IAS 7 would besides hold to describe hard currency flow statement. This will let more in depth fiscal statement analysis of subordinates besides.

Foreign exchange motions

Under FRS 1, hard currency flows of a foreign subordinate should be translated at the same rate as the net income and loss history. FRS 1 besides states that existent or estimate of existent rates should be used for intra group minutess. IAS 7 on the other manus provinces that hard currency flows of a foreign subordinate should be translated at the exchange rates predominating at the day of the months of the hard currency flows. In absence of existent exchange rate for each dealing, IAS 7 allows companies to utilize a leaden mean exchange rate that approximates to the existent rate. This leaden mean exchange rate will give same reply as obtained by utilizing existent exchange rate for each dealing.

By utilizing the exchange rates as on the day of the month of existent hard currency flow transportation, hard currency flows generated under IAS 7 are more close to the existent transportations. If there is a large motion between an existent transportation day of the month and day of the month of net income and loss readying, hard currency flows under FRS 1 could be significantly different from existent hard currency flows. This means that we may meet different fiscal statement analysis consequences under FRS 1 and IAS 7.

Net coverage

IAS 7 allows companies to describe cyberspace of hard currency grosss and payments when such hard currency flows represent the activities of clients and non that of the coverage entity. This facet is of import for companies in the outsourcing services sector. Some companies collect and distribute immense sum of hard currency on behalf of their clients, many a times authorities governments. Reporting a net figure obscures one extra bed of information from investors. It may go on that two companies describing same net hard currency flows have really different magnitude of hard currency grosss and payments. If investors can see the exact magnitude of hard currency grosss and payments, they can judge which of the companies is better in hard currency flow direction.

FRS 1 does n’t allow gauze of client ‘s hard currency flows. Customers ‘ hard currency flow can be an of import beginning of funding for many concerns and hence separate coverage of hard currency grosss and payments may demo investors how the coverage company is using clients ‘ hard currency for its ain benefit.


Cash flow statements under IAS 7 format have three sub classs – ‘cash flow from runing activities ‘ , ‘cash flows from puting activities ‘ and ‘cash flow from financing activities ‘ . FRS 1 on the other manus has eight headers.

Though FRS 1 has more figure of headers than IAS, the format of IAS hard currency flow statement is better suited for fiscal analysis intents. Analysts and investors can clearly see in IAS 7 how much hard currency is generated through operations, investing and fiscal agreements.

Cash flow from operations is the most of import thing that investors look for valuing a company. It shows what is the maximal degree of hard currency that can be withdrawn from the concern and hence defines the upper bound of rating.

But a company besides needs investing to replace and upgrade machinery and engineering. Investors can look at the net hard currency flow after puting to see whether overall activities yield a positive hard currency flow or non.

Last by looking at hard currency flow under funding, investors can see how a company ‘s activities have been funded. Cash flow from funding activities clearly shows whether company has utilised external beginnings of support to finance its activities in that twelvemonth or it has used internal hard currency coevals to refund loans. It is besides utile in foretelling claims on future hard currency flows by suppliers of capital.

By uncluttering demarcating three classs, IAS 7 format makes it much easier for investors to analyze the fiscal statements of the company. Under FRS 1, though there are eight classs but an investor would hold to add them to acquire a clear image.

Reconciliation to net debt

FRS 1 requires companies to hold a hard currency flow statement rapprochement demoing motion in hard currency flows to the motion in net debt. This is shown as a note after the chief hard currency flow statement. IAS 7 does n’t hold any commissariats for such thing.

This is a helpful characteristic for investors as they can see where hard currency is coming from to cut down debt or from what external beginnings of hard currency are being used in increasing debt degrees. Investors look at net debt degrees to see marks of fiscal hurt. Showing a concise statement demoing motion in net debt is a utile tool in investors manus for analyzing companies.

Management of liquid resources

FRS 1 requires hard currency flow statements to incorporate a separate header on direction of liquid resources. Cash flows associating to short term sedimentations and other similar hard currency equivalents are now reported under ‘management of liquid resources ‘ . Now investors can do a clear differentiation between hard currency flows originating from liquid resources from those of other puting activities. This segregation reflects better the manner a company manages its hard currency flows.


FRS 1 and IAS 7 both describe the content and format of hard currency flows. IAS 7 and FRS 1 criterions differ in the definition of hard currency and interlingual rendition methods of foreign exchange. This would ensue in different hard currency flow comparings and different fiscal ratios. IAS 7 format is better suited for fiscal analysis. On the other manus FRS 1 has advantages in footings of more conservative in definition of hard currency and contains more classs and beds of information. FRS 1 besides includes extra notes on net rapprochement.


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