Accounting for Management Control Essay

In this paper we are traveling to analyze the new direction manners and accounting controls that were adapted to pull off the opposition to alter in company when it was changed from public sector type to corporate attack for bettering its public presentation, profitableness, measuring, and authorization with answerability.

The chief issue discussed in this paper is about the jobs and issues faced while transforming the UK H2O industry from public sector to private sector. This procedure has been in procedure since 1980. The chief standards of alteration were accounting marks that were being implemented to better the public presentation of the industry. Power was being decentralized in order to accomplish these fiscal marks by making so it over threw its traditional bureaucratic manner direction.

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Harmonizing to Ojala ( 1997 ) “ Change is the lone invariable in the 21st century market place ” . Carson ( 1998 ) said “ Organizational alteration is any change of activities in an organisation, that may be the consequence of alterations in the construction of the organisation, transportation of undertakings, new merchandise debut, or alterations in attitude of group members or procedure, or any figure of events inside and outside of an administration ” . Change is an speed uping invariable ( Dawson, 1994 ) . In present universe, alteration is indispensable in organisations. It is go oning continuously at rapid velocity.

Because alteration has become an mundane portion of organisational kineticss, Pull offing alteration has become the “ silver slug ” in seeking the concluding constituent of successfully pull offing scheme, procedure, people and civilization in most modern organisations. More and more, remaining competitory in the face of demographic tendencies, technological inventions, and globalisation requires administrations to alter at much higher rates than of all time before. Pull offing alteration good is a uninterrupted and on-going combination of art and scientific discipline that assures alliance of an organisation ‘s schemes, constructions, and procedures.

Reasons for alteration:
Harmonizing to Johnson and Scholes, ( 1999 ) in his book “ managing Corporate Scheme ” Said political, economic, technological and socio cultural factors influence administrations, their schemes, constructions and agencies of operating and including their human resource pattern ( PEST ) . In instance of UK H2O industry we can non state precisely alteration has to be done for peculiar ground, it was privatized for bettering its public presentation, profitableness, measuring, and authorization with answerability many new engineerings have been introduced after denationalization. Burnes ( 1991 ) argues that if the alteration in construction and undertakings are non accompanied by alteration in behaviour, so the aims of the alterations procedure are improbable to be to the full met Chapman ( 2002 ) argues that alteration procedures are designed to better concern efficiencies, provide a better accommodation to external or increase the quality of work life. Here in UK H2O industry accounting marks, new information systems were being implemented to better the public presentation of the industry as the direction thought that every employee would take more duty in accomplishing company ‘s fiscal and operational marks if these processs were implemented.

“ Organizational alteration is any change of activities in an organisation, that may be the consequence of alterations in the construction of the organisation, transportation of undertakings, new merchandise debut, or alterations in attitude of group members or procedure, or any figure of events inside and outside of an organisation ” ( Carson, 1998 ) .

Dunphy and Stace ( 1993 ) said there is no 1 attack which is suited for all fortunes and aims. Argyris ( 1996 ) argued that ‘psychological contract is the perceptual experiences of common duties to each other held by the two parties in the employment relationship, the administration and the employees. Such perceptual experiences may be the consequence of formal contracts. Or they may be implied by the outlook which each holds of the other and which is communicated in a battalion of elusive ways ‘ coming to the instance survey we can clearly see how things were changed after denationalization the direction the senior director powers were cut and in-between directors were given more responsible to accomplish the marks given to them this state of affairs was non at that place earlier.

There are a figure of ways in which alteration can be categorized, Ackerman ( 1997 ) has distinguished between three types of alteration: developmental, transitional and transformational.

Developmental alteration may be either planned or emergent ; it is first order, or incremental. It is alteration that enhances or corrects bing facets of an administration, frequently concentrating on the betterment of a accomplishment or procedure.

Transitional alteration seeks to accomplish a known coveted province that is different from the bing one. It is episodic, planned and 2nd order, or extremist.

Transformational alteration is extremist or 2nd order in nature. It requires a displacement in premises made by the administration and its members. Transformation can ensue in an administration that differs significantly in footings of construction, processes, civilization and scheme. It may, hence, consequence in the creative activity of an administration that operates in developmental manner – 1 that continuously learns, adapts and improves.UK H2O industry besides comes under transformational alteration we see that there were many alterations in footings of organisational construction like senior directors losing power to middle directors and a batch of new processs were introduced in working forms like honoring public presentation and punishment for non executing.

John Kotter and Leonard A. Schlesinger suggested a theoretical account of pull offing alteration that related managerial schemes to the beginning of the opposition to the alteration. Kotter and Schlesinger suggest that a eventuality attack should be adapted to every alteration direction state of affairs ; that is to state, there is no 1 manner of pull offing every alteration, but one has to choose an appropriate manner of moving which fits the peculiar state of affairs. For

each type of beginning of opposition, an appropriate scheme for alteration and direction manner should be selected. This is illustrated in the undermentioned tabular array:

Comparing this theoretical account to UK H2O industry the scheme used is participate because the direction extensively used information systems to cognize the public presentation of each single employee and all the determinations were taken harmonizing to that.

Harmonizing to Brooks ( 2003 ) ‘an person ‘s feeling of being powerless is his perceptual experience of the power of other individual vis- & A ; agrave ; -vis his ain power. It is besides the strength of his desire to keep power. Comparing with our instance survey after denationalization powers have been cut for many senior directors and the in-between directors were given powers to accomplish the marks. As the denationalization is under procedure the clients besides expect a better quality of service so earlier and the direction should be ready to reply the stockholders and stakeholders, hence many new nidations were been done to accomplish fight, profitableness, wage, public presentation. Accounting was the chief tool used to mensurate the net incomes, public presentation and efficiency of the industry. This brought about a corporate civilization within the industry where the public presentation of persons and sections was being observed more profoundly.

Harmonizing to Burnes ( 2004 ) there is no best manner to near to alter and the administrations, peculiarly those that are being privatized, should follow attacks that are suited to their ain fortunes and that they should integrate both the structural and cultural facets of alteration. The direction of UK H2O industry fallowed the same thing the work of senior directors were reduced and the in-between directors were given more powers to accomplish marks and they made extended usage of information systems.

Burrell and Morgan ( 1979 ) Social Paradigms in different positions:
Harmonizing to Burrell and Morgan ( 1979 ) there are four types of paradigms they are

Interpretative Paradigm
Functionalist Paradigm
Extremist Structuralist Paradigm
Extremist Humanist Paradigm

Interpretative Paradigm: This paradigm “ seeks to explicate the stableness of behaviour from the person ‘s point of view ” . Researchers in this paradigm attempt to detect “ ongoing procedures ” to better understand single behaviour and the “ religious nature of the universe ” .

Functionalist Paradigm: This has been the primary paradigm for organisational survey. It assumes rational human action and believes one can understand organisational behaviour through hypothesis testing.

Extremist Structuralist Paradigm: Based on this paradigm, theoreticians see built-in structural struggles within society that generate changeless alteration through political and economic crises. This has been the cardinal paradigm of Marx, Engles, and Lenin.

Extremist Humanist Paradigm: Theorists in this paradigm are chiefly concerned with let go ofing societal restraints that limit human potency. They see the current dominant political orientations as dividing people from their “ true egos ” . They use this paradigm to warrant desire for radical alteration. It ‘s mostly anti-organization in range.

Resistance & A ; pull offing the opposition:
Resistance-Why does this go on?

Charles Handy in his book The Age of Unreason ( 1988 ) said opposition is due to

Fright ( e.g. impending take-over )
New faces ( at the top, new broom )
Questions ( are the old ways best? )
New constructions ( give endowment its caput )
New more appropriate schemes / criterions
We can non state that there is opposition in UK H2O industry the merely menace to the employees was as the new information systems were introduced the direction came to cognize the public presentation of each and every single employee, so there was a small spot opposition in presenting information systems.

Alvin Zander ( 1950 ) an early research worker on this topic, defined opposition to alter as “ behaviour in which it is intended to protect an person from the effects of existent or imagined alteration ” ( cited in Dent & A ; Goldberg, 1999 ) . Zaltman & A ; Duncan ( 1977 ) define opposition as “ any behavior that serves to keep the position quo in the face of force per unit area to change the position quo ” ( cited in Bradley, 2000, ) . Harmonizing to Folger & A ; Skarlicki ( 1999 ) opposition is defined as “ employee behaviour that seeks to dispute, interrupt, or invert prevalent premises, discourses, and power dealingss.

Harmonizing to ( Wilbur, 1999 ) those who are in charge of implementing a alteration must understand all that the alteration will affect and impact. “ Pull offing alteration occurs in four wide phases. An organisation determines a demand for alteration, creates a alteration direction squad, and develops a program of action. The 2nd phase is “ the implementing, managing, and keeping phase when the alteration program needs to be executed. The 3rd phase involves developing tracking and supervising instruments to measure the successes or failures of the alteration so that necessary accommodations can be made. The last phase consists entirely of uninterrupted tracking and supervising until the organisation has institutionalized the alteration ” .

Piderit ( 2000 ) believes that the definition of the term opposition must integrate a much broader range. She states that “ a reappraisal of past empirical research reveals three different accents in conceptualisations of opposition: as a cognitive province, as an emotional province, and as a behaviour ”

The literature on alteration direction stresses that people ‘s reactions to alter are non merely logical, but besides emotional. One such theoretical account of emotional reaction is that of a four-stage passage, from denial and opposition to geographic expedition and committedness. In this theoretical account, people ab initio feel threatened by the hereafter alterations and frequently hence deny the demand to alter and defy it ; they frequently feel a sense of loss, similar to that experienced in mourning

Weick and Quinn ( 1999 ) said organisational alteration can be classified as two types they are:

The alteration being continues and gradual where the employees may non recognize the alteration in the administration
The other is a dramatic one, which overthrows the bing system wholly
When comparing this to instance survey we can state that 2nd one is applied to UK H2O industry because the alteration is been done in all degrees of the administration.the duties are changed for every employee so the employees will experience hard to work in new manner. Zeira ( 1989 ) had argued that the magnitude of sensed personal hazard from alteration and degree of dissatisfaction with current state of affairs are the chief issues to larn if the directors are willing to travel towards new state of affairs and to what extent they resist to the alteration. Due to the decentalisation of power the senior direction was brought down with which they were dissatisfied.

Harmonizing to Carnell ( 1990 ) the procedure of altering attitudes to individual ‘s opposition to alter might impact the person ‘s public presentation and ego -esteem. Harmonizing to Carnall ( 1999 ) the five phases of procedure are denial, support, flinging, version and internalisation comparing this theory to the instance study it was much evident that when the alteration was introduced it was non at all accepted and the staff found it unacceptable despite of the best attempt from the direction.

This is the first and 2nd phase of denial and supporting as per Carnall ‘s theory, Discarding and version phases are that the senior directors had to carry somehow and authorise the in-between troughs with the new set of duties despite of the refusal to acceptance ab initio. This phase shows how the senior directors had to fling the certain affair and coerce the lower degree directors to implement the alteration. The in-between degree directors so accepted more duty this shows the phase of version to the alteration. At the terminal we can see that how the center directors have found the alteration more efficient as it rewards better for their part, the senior trough have become more comfy with the new system in topographic point when compared to the pre-privatized epoch.

Harmonizing to Schein ( cited in Darwin et Al, 2002 ) , organisational civilization has three degrees. The bosom degree is the basic premises people unconsciously accept without any inquiring ; the 2nd degree is the nucleus values, in which schemes ends and doctrines are identified ; the 3rd degree, viz. the surface degree, is about the organisational constructions. Harmonizing to schein the UK H2O industry comes under 2nd degree in which there were ends identified and the company has made several alterations to accomplish these ends.

Harmonizing to Hultman ( 1995 ) , there are two theoretical accounts of oppositions to alterations they are active-resistance or inactive opposition. Symptoms of active-resistance include happening mistake, roasting, appealing to fear, and pull stringsing. Passive-resistance symptoms include holding verbally but non following through, shaming ignorance and keep backing information. Coming to the instance survey we can see that they found many mistakes and they implemented a alteration in accounting marks that will hike the public presentation of the company.

Rashid, Sambasivan and Rahman, ( 2003 ) said “ Difference in organisational civilizations besides drives different attitudes in peculiar alterations ” comparing this to UK H2O industry there was a batch of difference in old direction and present direction, the old direction was tall pyramid manner. Orders and determinations were taken by merely senior direction and all the center directors had to fallow their orders. There was no large determination doing involved in their occupation and duties were minimal to the center directors. With the new direction center directors were supposed to take determinations and responsible for their public presentations and they had adequate determination doing involved in their occupations.

Previously there was no hazard in their occupation and after denationalization they had ever menace of occupation security. Previously the senior directors could be held responsible for public presentations since determination devising did non mostly affect center directors. This was non the instance under the new direction. Now the center directors had added duties and as a consequence of authorization. They felt that this authorization and added duties would do their occupations more hazardous and insecure.

Jeffrey D.F, Laurie W.F and Randall.T.M ( 2002 ) told that there are three generic resistance-giving backgrounds.

The complacent background which is constructed on the footing of old success.
The resigned background which, are constructed from historical failure instead than from success in an organisation where things had gone incorrectly.
The misanthropic background which is besides constructed from historical failure either straight or vicariously experienced through narratives and narrations of others experiences. ‘

Comparing this to the H2O industry we can look at the instance from background of complacent we can non state that it was a failure but it was privatized for better public presentation and efficiencies. We can see that the duties of in-between degree directors has changed and they even did non hold a occupation security.they thought that the senior direction is doing them to work more than the needed marks one of the senior director were reasoning that the company ‘s chief job would be that the basic construction that prevailed as a public administration will non accommodate the private sector and that the direction will still stay excessively hierarchal. Therefore in the instance of the UK H2O industry we can non wholly agree with the three theoretical accounts of opposition background. It is apparent that employees did non state that the alteration was unacceptable at all or they dint say that the new system would n’t work. Hence we can non wholly agree that the opposition background applicable to UK H2O industry.

Driving forces against the alteration:
Individual opposition to alter Harmonizing to Dent & A ; Goldberg ( 1999 ) , persons are n’t truly defying the alteration, but instead they may be defying the loss of position, loss of wage, or loss of comfort in UK H2O industry as the power was being decentralized center directors had a menace in occupation securities because they were given a batch of powers and the consequences will hold an impact on their occupation.

Potential loss of power base among the professionals After the denationalization the entire construction has been changed from the old bureaucratic manner it has been replaced with flatter and less direction construction. about all the directors has the power to take determinations for which they are responsible for some senior directors lost power in some extents that they used to hold.

Honoring the public presentation After privatising the H2O industry the company had an first-class information system through which each and every employee ‘s public presentation can be known this made them honor the person for high public presentation.

Kotter and Schlesinger have suggested six alteration attacks to cover with this opposition to alter:

Education and Communication -the best manner to get the better of the opposition to alter is to educate employees good about the advantages of alterations. This gives them an thought about what they are to face and fix themselves to accommodate to the alteration.
Engagement and Involvement – harmonizing to this attack the employees welcome the alteration attempt. When the employees are involved in the alteration they really welcome alteration instead than defy it.
Facilitation and Support – in these attack employees resist due to adjustment jobs. Here directors can head-off possible opposition by being supportive of employees during hard times. This helps employee experience tenseness loose so that he can travel on making his plants more efficaciously. This attack involves particular preparation, reding etc.

Negotiation and Agreement – in this instance the directors should promote the employees by offering inducements to employees non to defy alteration. This can be done by leting alteration resistances to blackball elements of alteration that are endangering, or they can be asked to go forth the company through voluntary retirement in order to avoid confronting alteration.
Manipulation and Co-option – if all the above factors do n’t look like working so Kotter and Schlesinger suggest that an effectual use technique is to co-opt with obstructionists. Here he suggested to choose the resistances or resistance leaders and leting them to take part in the alteration attempt. These resistances are given a symbolic function in the determination doing without endangering the alteration attempt
Explicit and Implicit Coercion – this type can be used merely as a last here the directors force the Directors can explicitly or implicitly force employees into accepting alteration by doing clear that defying to alter can take to losing occupations, fire, reassigning or non advancing employees.
Harmonizing to Harrison and Bayer there are 8 considerations to be taken when altering organisation civilization they are:

Capitalize on propitious minutes: devising certain that alteration is indispensable.
Combine cautiousness with optimism: to make mentality what the alteration gets to the company
Understanding opposition to civilization alteration: knowing why the staff is defying altering and work outing it in a peculiar manner by converting them.
alteration component but remain community: the chief purpose of these is some people get used to peculiar divisions when the alteration occurs they might experience that they may be sent to the section that they do n’t hold a thought about this fright should non be in the employees

Select, create, and modify appropriate signifiers: employing symbols, narratives, rites, myths, and ceremonials
Modify socialisation tactics: the manner that people gets used is the manner the get used in the beginning so by altering the environment we can acquire really we need to acquire.
Acknowledge the importance of execution: the company should acknowledge what alterations have to be done and implement it.
Find and cultivate advanced leading: the leader of the employees should be confident and should be capable to convert others.
Six stairss for effectual alteration:
Beer et Al. ( 1993 ) have mentioned six stairss to effectual alteration. They are

Include mobilising committedness to alter through joint diagnosing of concern jobs.
Develop a shared vision of how to form and pull off for fight.
Foster consensus for the new vision, competency to ordain it and coherence to travel it long.
Dispersed revival to all sections without forcing it from top.
Institutionalize revival through formal policies, systems and constructions.
Monitor and adjust schemes in response to jobs in the revival procedure.
Learning & A ; Decision:
Pull offing Change is the kernel of leading. It is a changeless procedure that ne’er seems to complete, like running towards the skyline. It is possibly besides the most hard undertaking that any director has to confront, because it deals non with proficient cognition or expertness but with pull offing people ‘s emotional reactions, attitudes, and outlooks, and finally their working lives and callings. Hence, it is non ever possible for the leader to be popular when pull offing alteration, but the demands of people must ever be considered when doing alterations that are for the good of the administration.

I think be aftering and measuring the employs in their position is really of import before implementing alteration because if the alteration is non received so the entire administration will be in problem. Everyone involved in and affected by alteration goes through a typical rhythm of emotional reaction, which must be understood and efficaciously managed. Many people resist alteration, either covertly or openly and rebelliously, and this opposition has to be overcome and converted to enthusiasm and commitment to the new order if it is to be efficaciously implemented. Understanding the beginnings of opposition can assist in make up one’s minding on an appropriate scheme and direction manner to cover with them. There is no 1 scheme and manner that will accommodate all fortunes and a eventuality attack must be adopted. The procedure can be assisted and facilitated by alteration agents from either within or outside the administration.

I feel in the present competitory universe, alteration is inevitable procedure for any organisation. Implementing new techniques is necessary in order to prolong or to better market place. Implementing any major alteration in a big and complex administration is a hard undertaking.

To successfully pull off alteration, leaders must demo understanding and compassion for those affected, but must however be determined and resolute. Despite the importance of emotional intelligence, holding a thick tegument besides helps. Vision, scheme and leading are indispensable elements of pull offing alteration, as are energy, consistence and a deficiency of complacence. In drumhead, there are ne’er any easy replies in implementing scheme and managing alteration, but the procedure needs to be carefully considered and a program prepared and worked through.

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