Adaptation in Children's Literature

Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 1. 0 CHILDREN’S LITERATURE AND TRANSLATING FOR CHILDREN ………………………………….. 3 2. 0 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES …………………………………………………. 6 3. 0 DOMESTICATION IN THE TRANSLATION OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE …………………….. 7 4. DOMESTICATION IN GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES ……………………………………………………………. 9 4. 1 IDEOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………… 9 4. 2 IMAGE ADAPTATIONS – TRANSLATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS …………………………………. 11 4. 3 RHYTHM ADJUSTMENT …………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 4. 4 DOMESTICATION OF NAMES …………………………………………………………………………….. 9 CONCLUSIONS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23 1 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature “Domestication accommodates itself to target cultural and linguistic values: through domestication, we adapt the text according to its future readers, culture, society, norms and power relations. ” (Oittinen 2003:129).

Discuss in relation to the translation of children? s literature. INTRODUCTION In the last forty years, children? s literature, a domain traditionally associated with teachers and librarians, has been made a subject of extensive scholarly research (Tabbert 2002). In fact, research across various disciplines has contributed to better reception and understanding of the value of this genre. Simultaneously, the importance of the topic was brought to the fore and more and more studies have been dedicated to the translation of children? s literature and the translation techniques involved.

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One of the techniques used by translators, which has been also extensively applied to the children? s literature, is the strategy of domestication, first introduced in the work of Venuti (1995). The aim of this essay is to demonstrate and discuss examples in which domestication process is visible. The examples are taken from the classic representatives of children? s literature, i. e. the Kinder- und Hausmarchen fairy tales by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm. In the first part of the study, the main characteristics of children? s literature, including the main features of Grimms? airytales, are described. The primary research material has been narrowed to a few fairy tales by Grimm Brothers (Projekt Gutenberg-Spiegel Online 19942007) and their two Polish translations, by Marceli Tarnowski from 1956 and Aleksandra Michalowska from 2010. The above translations have been published in two different years by two different publishing houses. However, both perform the same function in the Polish system of children? s literature and are aimed at the target reader of 7-12 year-old children. 2 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature

The process of domestication and its application is discussed by reference to the examples taken from the above translations and compared with the contemporary English collection of Grimms? fairy tales from 2008, entitled My Treasury of Bedtime Tales. By referring to the two Polish translations from different periods and the contemporary English one, the aim is to show that the specific time and culture in which a translator works can influence the resulting text and the way it is domesticated. It is hoped that by applying such an approach a deeper understanding of the domestication process will be enhanced. . 0 CHILDREN’S LITERATURE AND TRANSLATING FOR CHILDREN There seems to be little consensus as to the definition of children? s literature. According to the Finish translator and illustrator Riitta Oittinen (2000), children? s books have their own special features, such as illustrations and rhythm, which allow for the text to be read aloud. Oittinen also points out that when translating this type of literature, one of the most important things to remember is that “translation has to function alongside the illustrations and on the aloud-reader? s tongue” (2000:5). As a result, one of the translators? echniques used in the process of translation is to adapt both of the above features to the target-reader audience. As per Oittinen, “children? s literature can be seen either as literature produced and intended for children or as literature read by children” (2000:61). Peter Hunt (1991) argues, however, that the boundaries of this type of literature are very hazy and what should be taken into consideration when distinguishing it from adult? s literature is the tendency of children? s literature to be more directed toward its readers, i. e. children. This situation seems to be more complicated when translating children? literature as it can be ambivalent and have a dual audience, namely children and adults. Shavit suggests that books such as Gulliver’s Travels, Winnie-the-Pooh, The Little Prince, The Hobbit, and Alice 3 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature Adventures in Wonderland exist on two levels, i. e. one directed to children and one to adults (1981 in Oittinen 2000:63-64). Thus, a book originally intended for children might have a different function after being translated and similarly a book which was written for adults may be later on adapted for children. Childhood can be also considered as a social or cultural issue nd the function of children? s literature as well as its translation is then very often defined as communication. Translating for children can be defined as communication between children and adults, as it is usually adults who translate books for children. Moreover, children are “wired” to make connections with the real world around them, to communicate. (Oittinen 2000:44) Therefore, when translating children? s literature, translators are holding a discussion with children and should consider some textual features of the text such as style and vocabulary in order to fully involve the reader in this type of communication.

Moreover, writing for children, as suggested by Barbara Wall (1991), might be more complex than writing for adults as children? s understanding is more direct. The Russian linguist Lev Vygotsky makes a strong case for the child? s sociality and states that “child? s speech is tied to concrete everyday life and is very social by its nature” (1989 in Oittinen 2000:46). Thus, translators should never translate words in isolation but in their cultural context in order to interact fully with the reader. They should bring to the translation their “cultural heritage, their reading experience, and, in the case of children? books, their image of childhood and their own child image” (Oitinnen 2000:2). In this way, when one writes, illustrates or translates for children, one does it on the basis of the whole society? s image of childhood. 4 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature The above view has been also supported by Lathey in his claim that children? s literature and its translations indicate “whether children are regarded as innocent or sinful in any given historical period or location … and how they are socially or intellectually educated” (2006:6).

According to Puurtinen (1995:17), this is directly connected with the dual character of children? s literature which is read not only for entertainment and literary experience but also used as a tool in education. Moreover, “this dual character affects both the writing and the translation of children? s literature” (ibid). Such cultural expectations of childhood can also give rise to censorship in the process of translation, particularly in the representation of such concepts as violence, taboos or immoral behaviour. Thus, as observed by O?

Connell, translations are always conducted according to “didactic, ideological, ethical and religious norms” (2006:23). As a result translators quite often resort to adaptations in order to educate the reader and avoid contexts which might be socially or culturally improper. Finally, one of the concerns of the translators of children? s texts is the limitation of the young reader? s knowledge of the world. As translators? footnotes are unsatisfactory solution to this problem, Venuti (2004) indicates that one of the frequently used tactics in children? s texts is „localisation? or „domestication?.

As stated by Lathey, such “adaptations rests on assumptions that young readers will find it difficult to assimilate foreign names, coinage, foodstuffs or locations, and that they may reject a text reflecting a culture that is unfamiliar” (2006:7). Therefore, as per Frank (2005), translators have to adapt and sometimes even manipulate the text in order to explain the message to the target reader. The examples of the above assumptions are addressed in this essay in reference to the world-known Grimms? fairy tales. 5 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature 2. 0 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES

Fairy Tale – a traditional folktale adapted and written down for the entertainment of children, usually featuring marvellous events and characters, although fairy tales as such are less often found in them than princesses, talking animals, ogres, and witches. (Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms 2008:124) The brothers Jakob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1895) Grimm were two German scholars and co-founders of the collection of Germanic folk tales, called Kinder- und Hausmarchen (KHM). However, when the two volumes of the first edition were published in Berlin in 1812, nobody was assuming that the collection, reflecting the oral and printed radition of folklore, would ever become known world-wide and widely translated. The Grimms worked at the KHM from about 1806 and it is usually the seventh edition of 1857, with 200 items and the ten Kinderlegenden that people usually refer to as Grimms? fairy tales. Today, Grimms? fairy tales can be defined as the classics of children? s literature which have been commercially successful over several generations and in several countries, among them also Poland. A child? s psychoanalyst Salma Fraiberg, as well as Bettelheim, Ronnberg and Miller (Oittinen 2000: 48-51) stress the importance of fairy tales and fantasy not only in children? life but also in adults? lives. “Fairy tales are not just important for children, but for grownups, too. Through fairy tales, grown-ups have access to the child? s magical world” (ibid. :48). That is why O? Sullivan insists that when adapting the source text, the translators should take into consideration the two types of implied reader, i. e. child reader and adult reader (1994 in Tabbert 2002:337). Fraiberg (1959 in Oittinen 2000:50) also indicates how vital it is to approve of the child? s will to experience excitement or even horror and violence. This topic, which seems to be central 6

Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature in all fairy tales, is very often overlooked by adults and treated as of having no teaching value. On that basis, translators are prompt to domesticate the text to the given cultural and social norms and remove the elements which are seen as too scary for children, even if they might be of a great interest to a young reader. In fact, Blamires acknowledges the presence of domestication strategies in each version of Grimms? fairy tales. It is important to remember that each of the seven editions of the KHM differs in some measure, smaller or greater, from the rest.

Tales were added and subtracted, tales were altered as new versions flowed in, and stylistic changes were made all the time. (Blamires 2006:164) All the above adaptation strategies are also visible in the Polish and English translations of the fairy tales and are discussed in the subsequent parts of this essay. IN THE TRANSLATION OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE 3. 0 DOMESTICATION The origin of domestication can be found in the essay of Schleiermacher (1813 in Venuti 2008) and more recently has been also discussed by Lawrence Venuti (1995). In his book Venuti writes about adapting books to different era and for different purposes.

Domestication is defined as a process of adaptation, strictly tied to such issues as time, society, norms and power. Through the strategy of domestication, everything that looks foreign in the source text (ST) is minimized and the target text (TT) is assimilated to cultural and linguistic values of the target reader (Venuti 1995, Oittinen 2003, Munday 2008). The process of domestication is contrasted by Venuti (1995:20) with the strategy of foreignization which entails retention of foreign elements in the target text (TT), allows for the style of translation to be less transparent and makes the readers realize that they are Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature reading a translation of an original work. As per Venuti (1995:305-306), this non-fluent method of translation is also „highly desirable? as it makes the translator? s work more visible than when applying the domesticating strategy. According to Vermeer, however, every act of translation has a purpose, named „scopos? , and translators have to edit the source text (ST) in relation to certain readers and reasons (1986 in Oittinnen 2003:76). For example, when translating for children, translators make assumptions about future readers of the translation, i. e. hildren reading or listening to the text, and should domesticate according to this scopos. Oittinen adds to that theory and indicates that translators are loyal to the authors of the text by being loyal to the target reader and domestication is one of the strategies used to achieve this goal. Adaptations are made for various reasons, and one of the reasons may well be loyalty to children. Translators adapt the texts on the basis of their viewpoint of their own culture and language. When translating for children, taking into consideration the target-language children as readers is a sign of loyalty to the original author. Oittinen 2000:78) As per Shavit, translators are allowed to adapt and therefore manipulate the source text only if they follow the two basic principles which govern children? s literature. The translator is permitted to manipulate the text in various ways by changing, enlarging, or abridging it or by deleting or adding to it only if adhering to two principles on which translation for children is based: an adjustment of the text to make it appropriate and useful to the child, in accordance with what society regards as educationally „good for the child? ; and an adjustment of plot, characterization, and language to prevailing society? perceptions of the child? s ability to read and comprehend. (1986 in Lathey 2006:26) Mazi-Leskovar argues that there is a certain degree of domestication in every translation as there are always some differences between the source and the target language, as well as different cultural and historical backgrounds between the readers of the source text (ST) and 8 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature the readers of the target text (TT) (2003:255). In this way, domestication is a powerful means which helps to bring the translation closer to children by speaking a more familiar language.

In view of the above, Oittinen indicates that there are various reasons why the text might be domesticated. We domesticate for children, for minority cultures, for political ideals, for religious beliefs. Whether it is cultural imperialism or emergent nationalism, whether it is carried out for reasons of propriety or for educational purposes, depends on the situation. Texts may also be domesticated because of political pressures, censorship, and differing moral values or child images. (Oittinen 2000:99) Finally, there seems to be no boundaries as to what can be adapted. Names can be domesticated, the setting localized; genres, historical events, cultural or religious rites or beliefs can be adopted for future readers of texts” (Oittinen 2000:99). 4. 0 DOMESTICATION IN GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES The following examples have been prepared on the basis of the comparative analysis of the two Polish translations of Grimms? fairy tales and the contemporary English one. It is assumed that there might be more examples of the domestication process, however, in the scope of this project only the most representative examples have been described. . 1 IDEOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS Theorists acknowledge that one of the main reasons for the text to be domesticated is adherence to the cultural and social norms of a given community (Shavit 1986, Oittinen 2003, Lathey 2006). According to Shavit, for example, “Robinson Crusoe managed to be preserved in canonized children? s literature for over a century, probably due to its ideological adjustment” (1986 in Lathey 2006:39). Also Fernandez Lopez states that original works are 9 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature ery often modified in subsequent editions to conform to the social standards of a given time. Thus, for example: Violence may be present in a tale provided that the author does not allow more violence to breed from it; likewise, children rarely die except in the case of some martyrs and heroes. If parents die, their death occurs prior to the commencement of the tale, and subjects such as divorce, mental illness, alcoholism and other addictions, suicide, and sex are all avoided; racial conflicts do not arise or are merely referred to in passing, and the tale has a happy ending. Fernandez Lopez 2006:41) In general, the elements of terror or sexuality found in the German KHM are reduced with the intention of making the stories more reassuring and less disturbing to children. As indicated by Shavit, all translators of Gulliver’s Travels “happily give up the scene where Gulliver is suspected of having a love affair with the queen, for such a scene violates the taboo on sexual activity in children? s literature” (1986 in Lathey 2006:35). This process of „purification? , as named by Klingberg (1986 in Tabbert 2002:313), is also visible in the Polish adaptation of the Grimms?

Aschenputtel (Cinderella). For example, the last scene of the doves pecking out the eyes of the wicked stepsisters is completely removed from the Polish collection of 1956. Primarily, as it was associated with the taboo of violence and cruelty, by removing any reference to this scene, the translator adhered to the expected social norms of that time and created more appropriate happy ending for the child? s tale. Moreover, due to the domestication process, the Polish translation had a markedly different tone from that of the Grimms text.

According to current translation trends, this feature would be treated as betrayal to the source text and should be rather avoided. However, the simple manipulation of the text, by deleting inappropriate elements or whole paragraphs, is not always available to translators. As per Shavit, when it is impossible to remove undesirable scenes without damaging the basic plot or action in the story, translators often resort to alterations (1986 in Lathey 2006:34). Hence, in the Polish translation of 10 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature

Cinderella (1956), the scene where the dying mother talks to her daughter and refers to the basic Christian values of being good and listening to God is significantly altered: Liebes Kind, bleib fromm und gut, so wird dir der liebe Gott immer beistehen, und ich will vom Himmel auf dich herabblicken und will um dich sein. (Aschenputtel SpiegelOnline 1994-2007) Dear child, be good and pious, and then the good God will always protect you, and I will look down on you from heaven and be near you. (Cinderella 2008:98) Dziecko ukochane, pamietaj, badz zawsze dobra, cokolwiek sie stanie. My beloved child, remember to be always good, whatever happens. )1 (Kopciuszek 1956:5) One has to remember that Poland in this period was under the influence of communism and Russia, and therefore any references to God or faith were strongly censored. For this reason, the Polish version refers only to the features of being good and does not mention the concepts of God or Heaven. 4. 2 IMAGE ADAPTATIONS – TRANSLATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS The importance of illustrations in children? s literature was discussed for the first time by Stolt.

Ideas of fairy tale characters, castles, princes and princesses are frequently formed for life from childhood picture books. Thus great emphasis must be put on the quality of illustrations. (1974 in Lathey 2006:78) According to O? Sullivan, when translating a genre which combines both pictures and words, the translator should not only take into consideration the significance of the source text but also be aware of the relationship between the visual and the verbal. Furthermore, an ideal 1 All glosses in brackets are my own translation 11

Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature translation should not verbalize the interaction, but leave gaps that make the interplay possible and exciting for the target reader in the same way as they did for the reader of the original text (O? Sullivan 2006:113). Oittinen (2000:75) also takes this theory in account and stresses that illustrations in children? s books are often more important than words. It is the translators? responsibility to translate the whole scene, including words and illustrations when translating this genre.

In addition, illustrations also give extra information and complete the meaning of words. The illustration of a story gives a background and places the characters in homes and milieu … details about setting in time, place, culture, society as well characters and their relationships. (Oittinen 2003:131) Furthermore, as the main functions of illustrations is to support the plot of a story and at the same time influence the reader emotionally, both illustrations and their translations might have to be domesticated (Lewis 2001:87-101).

In practice, this means that “translators need knowledge about visual cultural differences like the symbolism of colors … they need to know when to domesticate and give additional information, and when to leave it to the visual” (Oittinen 2003:139). The Polish versions of 1956 and 2010 as well as the English version of 2008 of Daumesdick (Tom Thumb) and Schneewittchen (Snow White) reveal how the image of characters in children? s books can be substantially altered through changes in illustrations. Figure 1.

Paluszek (1956) 12 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature Figure 2. Paluszek (2010) Figure 3. Tom Thumb (2008) As per Fig. 1 and 2, it can be noticed that the perception of the Polish Paluszek (Tom Thumb) with a face of a boy will be different than that of the English one (see Fig. 3), in which Tom Thumb looks rather like a teenager. According to Pereira (2007), such representation of a character as a teenager or a child can provide completely different prisms through which the story can be seen.

As regards the stepmother of Snow White, in the Polish translation of 1956, the queen is illustrated as being proud and vain (see Fig. 4). On the other hand, in the present English and Polish version, the illustrations highlight the features of the queen as being furious and jealous (see Fig. 5 and 6). There is a difference between the perception of childhood in 1956 Poland and today, and that is probably also the reason why both the translator and illustrator decided to emphasize certain characteristics of the queen and omit the ones that might have been too scary to the child of that time.

Figure 4. Sniezka (1956) Figure 5. Snow White (2008) 13 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature Figure 6. Sniezka (2010) Similarly, the reader also visualise the queen differently in the Polish and English translation when the mirror informs her that Snow White is more beautiful than her: Da erschrak die Konigin und ward gelb und grun vor Neid. (Schneewittchen SpiegelOnline 1994-2007) When the queen heard this, she turned white with fury and jealousy. (Snow White 2008:115) Przerazila sie krolowa, zzolkla i zzieleniala ze zlosci. It terrified the queen and she turned yellow and green from anger. ) (Sniezka 1956:5 and 2010:6) As per the above examples it can be noticed that the fury and jealousy of the queen in the Polish and German version is associated with the yellow and green colours, whereas the English translator adapted the text to the English language idiomatic system and used the white colour instead. These considerations lead to the conclusion that both, illustrating a book and translating a book, involve cultural and linguistic adaptations. 4. 3 RHYTHM ADJUSTMENT

Rhythm is an important factor that has been stressed by several scholars in the field of translation (Lehmuskallio 1983, Bassnett and Nord 1991, Oittinen 2000). According to Lehmuskallio, human emotions may be expressed in literature through “paralinguistics elements such as intonation, tone, tempo, pauses, stress, rhythm, duration, as well as through a whisper or a sigh (1983 in Oittinen 2000:35). Bassnett compares translation to a performance and indicates that similarly to a play text, it can be „auditive? or „visual? as well as „performance-oriented? or „reader-oriented? : 14

Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature The play text is written for voices, the literary text contains also a set of paralinguistics systems, where pitch, intonation, speed of delivery, accent, etc. are all signifiers. (Bassnett 1991:132) Bassnett? s idea may also be applied to the translation of children? s literature, as when the translator is domesticating the text to the target reader he/she must also take into consideration how the text will be performed when reading aloud. Dollerup argues that “translating for reading aloud is an art requiring great competence of translators” (2003:82).

Similar challenge faced by translators is also described by other translators: Repetition, rhyme, onomatopoeia, wordplay and nonsense are all common features of children? s texts that unable a child to engage in discovering the power of language and therefore require a linguistic creativity that is a challenge to any translator. (Lathey 2006:10) Moreover, Oittinen (2000) draws attention to the fact that children? s books are not just a combination of words and illustrations but they have also sound and rhythm which can be felt by the reader even if not read aloud. That is why Oittinen suggests using punctuation to give rhythm to the text:

I even go as far as to insist that a translator, especially when translating for small children, should not necessarily punctuate according to the rules of the grammar, but according to rhythm. (2000:109) The analysis of the different translations of Aschenputtel (Cinderella) proved that translators indeed resort to different punctuation, sentence length, onomatopoeia and even wordplay to maintain the rhythm in the text when read aloud. “rucke di guck, rucke di guck kein Blut im Schuck Der Schuck ist nicht zu klein, die rechte Braut, die fuhrt er heim. ” (Aschenputtel SpiegelOnline 1994-2007) 15

Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature “Turn and peep, turn and peep, no blood is in the shoe, the shoe is not too small for her, the true bride rides with you. ” (Cinderella 2008:101) Prowadz prosto konika!… Krew nie plynie z trzewika!… Trzewik nie jest za maly!… Krolewicz wiezie prawdziwa narzeczona. (Kopciuszek 1956:11) Also in the Polish translation of Schneewittchen (Snow White) (1956 and 2010), in the scene when the queen asks the mirror to tell her who is the most beautiful, the translators changed slightly the wording to maintain the rhyme.

Thus, it is the small mirror that the queen asks to tell her who is the most beautiful and not only in the land but the whole world. “Spieglein, Spieglein an der Wand, Wer ist die Schonste im ganzen Land? ” (Schneewittchen SpiegelOnline 1994-2007) „Mirror, mirror, on the wall, Who in this land is the fairest of all?? (Snow White 2008:114) Zwierciadelko, zwierciadelko, powiedz przecie, Kto najpiekniejszy jest na swiecie? (Sniezka 1956:5) Lustereczko, lustereczko, powiedz przecie, Kto najpiekniejszy jest na swiecie? (Sniezka 2010:6) 4. DOMESTICATION OF NAMES The translation of names has always been a very important issue in translation studies. This topic is of particular importance also in the area of children? s literature, especially 16 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature educational ones, as names can be a strong indicator of place, time and culture in which the plot is set and in this way allow for easy identification with the story. Christian Nord draws attention to the naming of fictional characters, which are also central to Grimms? fairy tales:

To find a name for their fictional characters, authors can draw on the whole repertoire of names existing in their culture, and they can invent new, fantastic, absurd or descriptive names for the characters they create. (Nord 2003:183) Drawing on this approach, it can be noticed that Grimms? fairy tales contain many of descriptive, animated, diminutive and magical sound names, to name few Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten, Der Froschkonig, Bruderchen und Schwesterchen or Rapunzel. Nord also emphasizes that in some cultures “fictional proper names can serve as culture markers, i. . they implicitly indicate to which culture the character belongs” (2003:184). Thus, for example, in Polish literature, if a man called Martin appears in a story with a plot set in Poland, he will automatically be assumed to be German. Yet, when looking at translated texts, one can find that translators refer to different techniques in order to domesticate the names and make them more accessible to the child reader. Nord (2003:182-184) mentions, for example, such techniques as morphological adaptation to the target language, cultural adaptation or substitution.

Moreover, geographical names can also have different forms, specific to a given culture or language. According to Nord, they can either be different lexical entities or they may differ in pronunciation, spelling as well as morphology (ibid). 17 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature The analysis of the Polish and English translations of three Grimms? fairy tales showed that translators made use of the above techniques to adapt both proper names and geographical names (see Table 1). German Rapunzel Hansel und Gretel Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten Polish 1956 Jagodka Jas i Malgosia O czterech muzykantach z Bremy

Polish 2010 Roszpunka Jas i Malgosia O czterech muzykantach z Bremy English 2008 Rapunzel Hansel and Gretel The Musicians of Bremen Table 1. Adaptation of names Thus, for example, the English translator employed the foreignization technique and the name Rapunzel has been transferred unchanged into English as it is uncomplicated and easy name to pronounce. On the other hand, as the word Rapunzel does not have any meaning in Polish, the translator of the Polish collection from 1956 decided to resort to substitution of the German name and used the term denominating a wild berry.

Moreover, the word has been used in the diminutive form in order to add affectionate tone to the way the main character was called in the tale. However, the translator of the 2010 Polish version of Grimms? tales, decided not to use the same naming strategy and invented a name which sounds similar to the original one, namely Roszpunka. Similarly, the names Hansel und Gretel have been adjusted to the English morphological rules and the non-existent letter „a? was removed from the name. The Polish translators decided to use two names often associated with children? characters in the Polish culture, i. e. Jas i Malgosia. Moreover, the names of children were also used in diminutive form as that was and still is socially accepted form of addressing 18 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature children in Poland. Finally, the geographical name of the town from which the musicians in Grimms? tale come, was morphologically adapted in all three versions to suit the grammatical requirements of the target languages. CONCLUSIONS The aim of this study was to explore the meaning and validity of Oittinen? statement as regards the characteristic features of the domestication strategy and its accommodation to the cultural and linguistic values of the target reader. The above study indicated that the strategy of domestication is commonly employed in translation of children? s literature. The analysis of only one type of this genre, i. e. the Grimms? fairy tales, on which this study was based, proved that both Polish and English translators adapted the foreign text to the cultural and social norms of the target reader.

Domestication is visible in the way translators tackle differences in culture and society as well as values and norms present in the target language. Personal names are very often substituted or adapted in children? s literature, especially if they tend to be automatically associated with child? s referential knowledge and experience. Equally, taboo topics might be purified and any foreign culture elements which might not be understood by a child are omitted or substituted. Finally, within the framework of a fairy tale, rhythm and illustrations are adjusted to target cultural and linguistic values.

In this way the target text (TT) can not only function in a similar way as the source text (ST), be it of educational or entertainment function, but it can also have equally emotional impact on a child. Thus, despite Venuti? s critics of this method as being too transparent and sometimes even violent in removing any traces of the foreign, the examples of the translation of fairy tales 19 Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature prove that translators often resort to this strategy in order to bring the text closer to the young reader and adhere to target-language cultural values.

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