Abstract What is affirmative action? Affirmative action is an action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, esp. in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination. In the 1940s: President Roosevelt signed an order making discrimination illegal in defense contracting. 1954: The U. S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that “separate but equal” facilities on the basis of race were unconstitutionally discriminatory. The Act of 1964: Congress passed the Civil Rights Act prohibiting discrimination based on race, sex, national origin and religion n employment and education. 965: President Lyndon Johnson signed an executive order requiring federal contractors to undertake affirmative action to increase the number of minorities they employ. 1974: President Nixon declared that affirmative action programs should also include women (http://isis. fastmail. usf. edu/eoa/ affirmative_intro. asp). The affirmative action time line goes on and on, however, affirmative action does not fix past racial issues, it leaves issues unfixed causing a present effect on past discrimination. The question asked today is, is affirmative ction still necessary today in the United States of America.
The question is “Is affirmative action still necessary in the United States today? ” Simply, the answer to the question is yes. Affirmative action is definitely still necessary in the United States. Here in the United States we are still dealing with Supreme Court issues on affirmative action. Affirmative action laws that still exist in the United States were broken by college admissions, women are still facing injustice because of their sex, and there are still laws broken and violated in the workforce.
The purpose of this research is to show you why affirmative action is still a necessary here in the US, in the present time. I believe affirmative action does not fix past racial issues, it leaves issues unfixed causing a present effect on past discrimination. The Beginning of Affirmation Action Although the United States citizen does not know what the future holds for affirmative action here in America, we do know how it started and why it is necessary. According to Marquita Sykes (National Now Times, 2005) the phrase “affirmative action” was first used in President John. F. Kennedys 1961 Executive Order 10925 speech.
This order requires federal contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated fair during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. ” The federal government attempted to make sure that Blacks and other minority groups “played on a level playing field” when it came to promotions, salaries, school admissions, scholarship, financial assistance, and participation in federal contracts. Although designed as a temporary measure, affirmative action assumed permanency after the heir workers on the basis of race. (Affirmative Action, the American Economy, 2013) Affirmative action has accomplished the ideas in the previous statement, all individuals today have the liberty to submit for employment in any workforce. This produces diversity in company teams and organizations. So, yes affirmative action is necessary in the United States today. US Supreme Court Proposal 2 As stated in the previous paragraph, affirmative action was first stated by President John F. Kennedy, this was in his order addressed to the United States workforce. Now n todays time, in order to be a part of in the United States workforce you must have an education.
The United States Supreme court to discuss Proposal 2 is a case part of several other cases that occurred after the court’s 2003 decision on affirmative action. This case involved admissions to the Universitys Law School in Michigan. “Michigan residents voted to ban affirmative action in 2006 ballot initiative, but a case before the United States Supreme Court may reserve that decision and set a new precedent for the way Michigan’s higher education institutions consider race in application rocesses” (US Supreme Court to discuss Proposal 2,2013). This article was posted in 2013, Just one year ago.
This brings me back to my question is affirmative action still necessary, my answer is still yes. In this Supreme Court issue affirmative action laws were still being broken. Injustice was being done toward the new enrollees at the University of Michigan. Wizner Taylor (2013) reported, “Make no mistake: We will find the route that continues our commitment to a richly diverse student body,” Coleman, president of University of Michigan, said in 2006 (p. 1). It is obvious here that we still need affirmative action, this university is still looking for routes to obtain a diverse student body.
The Workforce Here in the United States the colleges and universities are still trying to sort out there issues of discrimination. As the colleges sort out their issues, the workforce here in the US face issues of their own. In 2009, the Supreme Court heard its most recent affirmative action case, Ricci v. Destefano. The case was filed by 19 firefighters who worked for New Haven, Connecticut, 17 of whom were white and 2 Hispanic, alleging hat the city discriminated against them in regard to promotions.
These 19 firefighters had all passed the test for promotion to management but the city decided to void the test on the basis that none of the black firefighters who took the test passed with scores high enough to allow them to receive a promotion. The city argued that it was afraid of being sued based on a claim of racial discrimination. When the firefighters who qualified for promotion were denied, because of their race, they filed on the basis of racial discrimination.
In June 2009, the Supreme Court anded down a five to four decision, in which it ruled that the city of New Haven had violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Affirmative Action, the American Economy, 2013). The firefighters in New Haven were violated, but because of this case it allowed the affirmative action standard in the US to stand. This affirmative action case shows the benefits of having affirmative action in the US. Having affirmative This Supreme Court case between the New Haven and the firefighters show how the United States is still taking positive steps to end discrimination.
Discrimination toward women. Although discrimination still exists, now more than ever, the continued use of an affirmative action is needed to address todays discrimination. It is needed to break down barriers and to make sure that all individuals have an equal opportunity to demonstrate their talents and abilities. This includes women. According to the Washington Post, (2011) women often do not have the economic advantage many men have when they go into elections. Women could not pander to the voter’s appetite for “what can you give me now” and therefore lose crucial votes. We face these issues daily.
We can learn from other countries of the world how women contribute positively to the development of their nations, through political participation, and the ripple effect that this has on a nation’s socioeconomic development. In the postwar and genocide Rwanda for example affirmative action through constitutional change saw women win 45 of the 80 seats of parliament (Affirmative Action for Women, Washington Post, 2011) The discussion or debate on Affirmative Action, AA has been quite controversial and may have been unfairly judged or misconceived by many, says Suzanne Jumbo.
Suzanne Jumbo is a South Sudanese lawyer, communities & human rights activist and is the current S. P. L. M. secretary for external relations. Jumbo argues cases for women who have been abused by affirmative action. She gives her view point of a women abused by Affirmative Action. We have made progress, but there is still a long road ahead. Women in the US is still look down upon and discriminated against. Affirmative Action Necessary Now. “In the United States Justice is defined as equal treatment of all its citizens under the law.
When one citizen is mistreated an injustice as been committed against all people. Affirmative Action is a program whose purpose is to make sure that citizens are treated equally by enforcing a set of policies which are designed to promote the inclusion of all individuals regardless of race, disability, sex, or religion. In the United States democracy we are all equal, but some groups have been enjoying more advantages in society than others for centuries. Current statistics show the depth of modern day racial gaps, which are rooted in historical discrimination and modern-day structural racism.
Generations of nominal isadvantages have created large barriers to opportunity for many minority groups. It is a very controversial issue in the United States’ society today, some regards it as a step forward to an equal workforce and educational sector as well as society and others as a step back and also reverse racism and think that it has already served its purpose. The need for Affirmative Action has been a hot topic in American society for many years; many argue that it is not needed in our society today because the playing field has been leveled. Affirmative action has proved its need in society over and over again.
SylentJudge (2010) By further researching affirmative action issues, I saw where a deep imprint has been made and where discrimination will continue to be an issue in the United States if we lift affirmative action. Affirmative action holds correct injustices from the past, and decrease present discrimination. It is neutralizes the negativity in discrimination that has help back minorities in various aspects of society. Businesses, education, and government is still under attack of discrimination, we need to recognize the ongoing process where we can gain equality in the United States of America.
Yes, affirmative Action is needed in the United States today. We have made progress, and will continue to fight for equal rights for all people. References Tribune,S. (2013). Women, affirmative action and Justice. Sudan Tribune, (2013, April 4). Supreme Court to discuss Proposal 2. 1Jniversity October 10). Altschiller. D. (2013). Affirmative Action. The Economy. (2013, April). Early. G. (2011). Affirmative Action for Women, Washington Post. (2011, November 7). Sykes. M. (Affirmative Action, National Now Times. (2005, August 10). SylentJudge. J. (2010). Affrmative Action: Is it still necessary. www. studymode. com