Age on executive functioning Essay

Effectss of age on executive operation

Executive working refers to a set of cognitive abilities that chiefly regulates the behaviour of other people ( Morgan & A ; Lilienfeld, 2000 ) . Basically, executive operation denotes high degree abilities that affect basic abilities such as attending. Executive operation controls memory abilities as it ‘s allows individuals to use effectual schemes that help them to retrieve information. Executive operation is hence imperative for the public presentation of existent life state of affairss. Deficits in executive operation are therefore associated with developmental and psychiatric upsets, such as autism, depression, ADHD among other mental upsets ( Buckner, 2009 ) .

Harmonizing to research, age affects the several aspects of executive operation. Executive working appears to worsen among older people. This is because of the fact that most of their cognitive abilities are normally impaired or slow to react to stimuli ( Jahanshahi et al. , 2000 ) . Response among old aged people is ever slow, therefore impacting negatively on their executive operation abilities. On the other manus, the immature are frequently speedy to acknowledge things much faster than the old people.

We will write a custom essay sample on
Age on executive functioning Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

Furthermore, old people are more likely to be down therefore impacting their executive operation abilities. Depression normally affects the ability of the head to react to certain stimulations ( Meltzer, 2007 ) . Executive operation is largely affected by mental upsets and other developmental and psychiatric upsets s before mentioned. While it is a known fact that older people are more vulnerable to depression than younger people, it is of import to observe hence that depression affects Executive operation, hence will impact older people than the younger coevals.

The immature are considered to be really active compared to the older people. Therefore, they are likely to be active in thought and in executing most of their day-to-day jobs. This energy helps the encephalons of the immature to develop faster than their older opposite numbers and as such develop their executive operation. On the contrary, old people are bound to be slow to react ; hence they are likely to be slow in their executive operation.

Older individuals have better judgement than the young person. This therefore affects the determinations that they make. Executive working AIDSs in the finding of determinations that persons make. There is an old expression that, ‘old people are wise. ‘ Based on this stating, we can therefore presume that the encephalons of the older people are more developed and hence can treat information better than the young person.

Most people experience the demand to show themselves or arrant certain words within a societal assemblage or scene. Some of these words may acquire them into problem. However, it is their Executive operation that will find whether they utter certain words or non. Therefore, younger people will about express anything with really small respect to the audience. On the other manus, older people will mensurate the weight of their perceived address before expressing utilizing their executive operation and therefore find whether it is deserving adverting or non ( Pennington et al. , 2008 ) . Hence, age affects executive working well as it dictates the extent of the usage of executive operation in make up one’s minding whether to state certain things or non. Executive working hence helps us to suit into the society with much easiness. Older people fit in within their older webs. The contrary is true.

Since executive working governs most of the low degree activities such as retrieving information, age plays a critical function in set uping the extent of memory use. For case, older people have more developed encephalon capacity and are hence bound to retrieve more facets than younger people. Furthermore, younger people tend to be unretentive. This is because of their encephalon development which is still at its stamp phases compared to the encephalons of the older folks.

In add-on, statistics indicate that more youth engage in drug and substance maltreatment than older people. Substance maltreatment impairs the encephalon ‘s capacity to thinks and shop memory. The long-run effect of this is that it impairs the executive operation of the encephalon ( Richeson & A ; Sophie, 2000 ) . Hence age affects executive operation in this mode. In fact, more anti-social behaviour is apparent among younger people than older people. This is chiefly due to the usage of drugs which cause them to act in a certain unsought mode. Executive working would guarantee that the immature do non prosecute in unwanted societal behaviour. However, the usage of drug substances such as heroine impairs executive working wholly therefore the immature can non be able to state what is good from that which is bad. The old can nevertheless be able to compactly place unsought societal behaviour out justly.

Furthermore, the immature are more involved in hazardous ventures which are bound to convey about encephalon harm. On the contrary, older individuals are calmer in their day-to-day life styles and are less vulnerable to injury emanating from their day-to-day modus operandi ( Willcutt et al. , 2009 ) . As such encephalon harm may do the malfunctioning of the executive operation of the encephalon.

Executive operation is associated with high degree processing abilities. Harmonizing to Wecker et Al ( 2000 ) , most of the Executive maps do non usually develop until one reaches or attains adolescent. Therefore, individuals aged younger than the adolescent age normally exhibit lesser Executive working abilities. For case, a kid aged 12 would non concentrate longer in category and be able to do illations at the same clip. Likewise, the kid aged 12 would non be able to articulate words fluently when subjected to the verbal eloquence trial.

On the other manus, older people and striplings have good developed executive maps. They are hence able to efficaciously utilize their high degree abilities to make to a decision or do a formidable determination, unlike the kid aged 12. It must be remembered that in really old people, their executive maps is normally impaired and therefore can non be able to utilize their high degree processing abilities with much efficiency ( Kodituwakku, 2001 ) . This therefore implies that, age is of import in finding the usage of executive maps.

Attention shortage upsets and autism are most common mental upsets among kids. These upsets cause the Executive operation shortages. What this therefore means is that executive operation shortages are more prevailing among kids than in grownups. Hence, such upsets being virulent among kids will intend that the executive maps of kids will be comparatively lower than that of grownups.

In decision hence, executive operation is affected by drug and substance maltreatment which is common among the young person. Older people are hence able to do usage of their high degree abilities which is a characteristic of executive operation ( Meltzer, 2007 ) . On the other manus, high degree abilities does non normally develop until the kid reaches adolescent, therefore reenforcing the fact that executive operation is affected by age.

It is besides true that depression and other mental upsets cause executive operation shortages ; which are prevailing among kids. Disorders such as autism and heedlessness or hyperactivity affect a individual ‘s ability to utilize their high degree abilities. Such people can non be able to retrieve or memorise information for long. Therefore age influences executive working to a great extent.


  • Buckner, R. Memory and Executive Function in Aging and ADMultiple Factors that Cause Decline and Reserve Factors that Compensate, Neuron, vol.44, no.1, 2009, pp. 195-208.
  • Jahanshahi, et Al. The impact of deep encephalon stimulation on executive map in Parkinson’s disease. Brain, Vol. 123, No. 6, 2000, pp.1142-1154.
  • Kodituwakku, et Al. ( 2001 ) . The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Executive Functioning.
  • Retrieved April 16, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: // docId=5002435533
  • Meltzer, L. ( 2007 ) . Executive map in instruction: from theory to pattern. Berlin: Guilford Press.
  • Morgan, A.B. , & A ; Lilienfeld, S.O. Relation between Antisocial Behavior and Neuropsychological
  • Measures of Executive Function. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2000, pp. 113-136.
  • Pennington, B.F. , et Al. Neuropsychology of Early-treated Phenylketonuria: Specific Executive Function Deficits, Child Development, vol.61, no.6, 2008, pp. 1697 – 1713.
  • Richeson, J.A. , & A ; Sophie, T. Why Do Interracial Interactions Impair Executive Function? A Resource Depletion Account, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.88, no.6, 2000, pp. 934 – 947.
  • The Unity and Diversity of Executive Functions and Their Contributions to Complex “ Frontal Lobe ” Undertakings: A Latent Variable Analysis Cognitive Psychology, vol.41, no.1, pp. 49-100.
  • Wecker, N.S. , et Al. Age effects on executive ability, Neuropsychology. Vol.14, no.3, Jul 2000, pp.409-414.
  • Willcutt, E. , et Al. Cogency of the Executive Function Theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review, Biological Psychiatry, vol.57, no.11, 2009, pp. 1336-1346.

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out