Alternative souce of energy



Alternate souce of energy are derived from beginnings that donot utilize upnatural resources and donot harm the environment.

There are no.of alternate beginning of energywhich harm to the environment caused by the dodo fuels.Today most of the energy is provided through the fossil fuel such as coal & A ; gasolene but because of their diminishing militias, high monetary values & A ; most of import their detrimental consequence on the environment, the alternate beginning of energy is being develop.

For the protection of the environment there are different alternate beginning of energy:

1 & gt ; Biofuels

2 & gt ; Naturalgas

3 & gt ; Windenergy

4 & gt ; Hydroelectric power

5 & gt ; Solar energy

6 & gt ; Hydrogen

7 & gt ; Nuclear energy

Alternate Beginnings of Energy in an Energy Conservation and is owned by Laurence O’Sullivan.


As we know that prduction of electricity by thermic workss is non a efficient method for proper production as it cause pollution. In this type of workss the chemical energy of the fossil fuels is foremost used for change overing H2O into high force per unit area steam and so used to run a turbine to bring forth electricity.Galvanic cell helps us to change over chemical energy into electricity and it is extremely efficient.The galvanic cell are design straight to change over energy of combution of fuel like H, methane, methanol etc.into electrical energy.These are known as Fuell cells.

Fuel cells use a chemical reaction, instead than burning, to bring forth electricity in a procedure that is the rearward procedure of electrolysis. In the electrolysis procedure & A ; electric current applied to H2O & A ; produces H & A ; O by change by reversaling this procedure H & A ; H2O are combine in the fuel cell to bring forth electricity and H2O.


Fuel cells are now being treated as a household of engineerings which contains five primary types, based on the type of “ electrolyte ” which is used. Each has the specific features that may do it better for some applications than the others.

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEFC ) or Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell ( PEMFC ) – The electrolyte in this type of fuel cell is an ion exchange membrane made of some type of polymer that is a good music director of protons. This type of fuel cell runs at low temperatures ( normally around 80-degrees Celsius ) , with electrical efficiencies of approximately 45 % , and it is use as the primary campaigner for automotive, little stationary, and portable power applications. PEMFCs require really pure H as the fuel.

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell ( PAFC ) – The electrolyte in this type of fuel cell is phosphorous acid, & A ; it is concentrated to 100 % . PAFCs have an operating temperature of about 100-220 grades Celsius, with an electrical efficiency of about 37-42 % . Buss and stationary applications are presently use PAFCs.

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell ( MCFC ) – The electrolyte in this type of fuel cell is normally a combination of base carbonates, retained in a ceramic matrix. The MCFC operates temperature at 600-700 grades Celsius. The high temperature enables the terminal user to use both the electricity and the thermal energy which is generated by the fuel cell, ensuing in the electrical efficiencies of more than 70 per centum. MCFCs are well-suited to large-scale stationary applications, and are presently being demonstrated for powering edifices. High-temperature fuel cells can more easy be use a broad scope of fuels without utilizing a “ fuel reformist. ”

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) – The electrolyte in the SOFC is a solid, nonporous metal oxide. At the temperatures over 650 grades Celsius, the SOFC can use a hydrocarbon fuel straight, without reforming, similar to the MCFC. Besides similar to the MCFC, the SOFC generates both electricity and useable thermic energy. High-temperature SOFCs are being demonstrated for stationary power applications, while low-temperature SOFCs are besides used for automotive applications.

Alkaline Fuel Cell ( AFC ) – This was one of the first modern fuel cells to be developed, and was used to supply on-board electric power for the Apollo infinite vehicle. The electrolyte in this fuel cell is Alkaline ( KOH ) . AFCs require pure H and pure O as the reactants. The operating temperature for this type of fuel cell is about 200 grades Celsius.

Other Types of Fuel Cells – There are other types of fuel cells that are comparatively newer to the household of fuel cells. The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell ( DMFC ) is really similar to the PEMFC, but it is able to straight use liquid methyl alcohol at the anode. There is besides a Regenerative Fuel Cell, which contains a membrane that can both electrolyze H2O into H and O and, with the flick of a switch, recombine the two elements, bring forthing electricity and H2O. In a Metal Air Fuel Cell, zinc pellets and an alkaline electrolyte are circulated through the fuel cell stack and are combined with O from air to make electricity, heat and Zn oxide ( in a solution of K zincate ) . The zincate can be regenerated in a separate procedure into fresh Zn pellets.


Fuel cell engineerings have the power to alter the manner we make and utilize energy. As a power engineering, they provide a alone combination of characteristics and benefits:

Efficient: –

1 & gt ; Fuel cells are 2-3 times every bit efficient as internal burning engines for the vehicle propulsion.

2 & gt ; Fuel cell power workss can accomplish energy efficiencies over the 80 per centum.

Environmentally Preferable

1 & gt ; South Coast Air Quality Management District found that a fuel cell power works running on natural gas and emits 98 % lessnitrogen oxide than the District ‘s ain tough criterion.

2 & gt ; Fuel cells can take the car out of the clime alteration argument.

3 & gt ; Fuel cell power workss are so clean, some metropoliss have exempted the engineering from air which permits the demands.

4 & gt ; A plan to put in eight fuel cells at effluent intervention workss around New York City expects to extinguish about 170 dozenss of regulated emanations and more than 9,000 dozenss of C dioxide, and cut down fuel oil ingestion by 3,000 barrels a twelvemonth.

5 & gt ; Able to utilize domestically-produced fuels.

Fewer Traveling Partss

1 & gt ; Less noise.

2 & gt ; Less Maintenance.


1 & gt ; Do n’t worry approximately losing power during electrical storms.

2 & gt ; High quality power for concerns that lose 1000000s of dollars per hr when the power goes out.

3 & gt ; Make the grid your backup.


Hydrogen is the most abundant component in the existence and the lightest gas to be known. It is colourless, odorless, tasteless, and nontoxic at room temperature and force per unit area.

Hydrogen can associate today ‘s fossil-based energy supply with the renewable energy of tomorrow..Hydrogen contains more utile energy per lb than any other fuel. This means H is more efficient on a weight footing than any of the fuels presently used in air or land transit.

The chief variety meats of a fuel cell are the negatively and positively charged electrodes, referred to as the anode and cathode. Hydrogen comes into the fuel cell and travels to the anode – -where it is split by the accelerator into protons and negatrons. Each molecule of H has two H atoms, and the reaction at the anode creates two positive H ions and two negatrons.

The positive H ions so travel to the cathode through an ion-conductive membrane, where they mix with O atoms. This reaction at the cathode creates the merchandise H2O.

The H2O that is produced at the cathode must be removed continuously to avoid take downing the cell efficency. Electrons are carried off along the wires taking to the electrodes to whatever device demands power.

Hydrogen ( fuel ) is fed into the anode of the fuel cell. Oxygen ( from air ) is fed into the cathode side. Encouraged by a accelerator, negatrons are stripped from the H atom. Freed of the negatrons, the protons pass through the electrolyte, while the negatrons are forced to take a different way to the cathode. As the negatrons travel their separate way, they create an electric current that can be utilized. At the cathode, another accelerator rejoins the H atom, which so combines with the O to make a molecule of H2O.

Use of Hydrogen Fuel Cells to supply power for places and cars will assist cut down pollution and fuel costs. There is ongoing research towards cut downing the costs associated with Hydrogen Fuel Cells and doing the cells more dependable and sustainable. More attempt should be placed on probe and development of Hydrogen Fuel Cell engineering in order to better the quality and cost of populating throughout our society. While the cost benefits entirely have made Hydrogen Fuel Cells appealing for many people, the wellness benefits besides provide important inducement for fostering this engineering.


Fuel cells are evidently used to do electricity, but due to the manner they are displayed and discussed in the media, it would be easy to presume that the lone usage for fuel cells is in autos. But there are really four chief classs — all of which cover a wide scope of utilizations.

First, there is the transit application — which takes the topographic point of internal burning engines. Many construct autos have already been produced to exemplify how they would work, and some are now traveling into production. However, fuel cells of the hereafter will besides be able to be used in trains, boats, aircrafts, places and concerns.

Second, there is stationary power applications – which produce electricity in the same manner as any other types of power station do. They are easy and inexpensive to construct compared with current methods of bring forthing power — and would supply an attractive option to powering topographic points that the grid doesn ‘ T range.

There are some distant locations – such as farms, beacons and belowground composites that could trust on the usage of fuel cells. There ‘s besides the possibility for them to be used to provide industrial provinces or university campuses without the demand to be connected to the grid — so the constitution can modulate and command its ain power supply.

Backup power is one of the topographic points where we need progresss — and fuel cells provide the solution. A coal-burning power station can take several hours to acquire up to rush. Fuel cells have speedy start-up — so whether they ‘ rhenium endorsing up full power Stationss or single devices — they will be able to assist maintain changeless power, provided they ‘ve got changeless fuel.

Finally, they can be used as portable power beginnings. Battery engineering is equal, but by no agencies perfect. For the mean technological individual, laptops, cell phones and MP3 participants running out of battery power after merely a twosome of hours of usage is one of the most bothersome things possible. Fuel cells, nevertheless, can be made to be really similar to normal batteries — but much longer permanent — work outing one of our current energy jobs.

This article has merely touched on the possible utilizations for fuel cells, but as you can see — – they have the possible to wholly take over from current methods of bring forthing energy, and run the planet single-handedly. All we now need is persons to go on to develop fuels cells, and assistance with the passage to the H economic system.

Fuel cells can supply electricity in an about limitless figure of applications thanks to their modularity – you can construct a fuel cell to supply every bit much power as you need, depending on the application. Fuel cells can supply long run-time power to your cellular telephone, or supply power for the coach you take to work, or the edifice you work in.

Fact Sheets on Fuel Cell Applications:

  • Industrial/Commercial Power Applications
  • Residential/Small Commercial Power Applications
  • Transportation system Applications
  • Portable Power Applications
  • Fuel Cell Components

The most normally used fuel cell stack constituents and stuffs include:

-Proton conductive membrane
– Gas diffusion beds
– Catalyst beds
– Bipolar home bases
– Gaskets
– End home bases


From the above treatment we conclude that the production of eletricity by thermic workss is non a efficient method for proper production as it cause pollution as it happens merely in early times.But now a yearss galvanic cell helps us to change over chemical energy into electricity and it is extremely efficient.As the fuel cell uses a chemical reaction to bring forth electricity.There it has been besides discussed different types of fuel cell.


  1. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEFC ) or Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell ( PEMFC )
  2. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell ( PAFC )
  3. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell ( MCFC )
  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC )
  5. Alkaline Fuel Cell ( AFC )
  6. Other Types of Fuel Cells

Their benefits and about the H fuel cell.As we know that H is the most abundant component in the existence and the lightest gas to be known.There has been besides disscussed about the working of H fuel cell and besides their application & A ; constituent.


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