An Understanding Of Project Basics Construction Essay

The audit programme which the CAT compiles as portion of the NCAP consists of audits all of the major programmes and the assets over a 12 month period. These audits are mandated as portion of Network Rail ‘s Health and Safety Management System, they must be done because they are portion of Network Rail ‘s understandings with the Office of the Rail Regulator ( portion of the Government ‘s Department of Transport ) as outlined in the Operating License. However, this is non the lone ground for carry oning these audits – we need a manner to guarantee that we comply with statute law, industry criterions and our ain concern criterions.

Audited accounts are besides used in a proactive mode to foreground good patterns. They enable us to repair any non-conformances that we may happen and besides highlight corporately-related issues which could be a concern across the whole of Investment Projects.

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An illustration audit programme is attached as Appendix A. As can be seen the CAT conducts audits of 2 or 3 Major Programs per one-fourth ( every bit good as extra audits of assets and cross-functional audits ( which feature an audit of a specific subject carried out by an audit squad gathered from Investment Projects, Maintenance and Operations and Customer Services ) ) .

Each Major Programme Audit consists of 7 “ nucleus ” subjects. These are indistinguishable for each programme and are determined by the CAT analyzing Network Rail ‘s criterions and procedures, finding the current chief hazards for the Investment Projects portfolio and measuring them utilizing a hazard matrix technique. Additionally, each Programme is requested to choose 3 specific elements which they have determined to be their 3 principal hazard countries. Hence the audit consists of 10 mini-audits, some of which expression at conformity with criterions and others which examine the effectivity of risk-mitigation steps.

Each Major Programme Audit is conducted by a squad of around 7 or 8 people, resourced from an independent major programme every bit good as those from cardinal Network Rail maps. The audit is led by an person from the CAT. Each of the 10 sub-audits are divided up between the audit squad harmonizing to their specializer cognition.

Appendix B presents a list of nucleus subjects for the 2010-11 NCAP.

Appendix A shows that the Major Programmes of FTN and Building and Civils ( 1 ) require to be audited within one-fourth 1 of the NCAP for 2010-11. Representing the CAT, I have been assigned to take the audit of the FTN Programme. This is the “ undertaking ” which I will utilize as a footing for this assignment.

Identify a simple fiscal tool to look into if the undertaking is feasible

For the undertaking in inquiry, Cost Benefit Analysis ( CBA ) was used to measure its desirableness. The procedure involves ( either explicitly or implicitly ) comparing the entire expected costs against the sum expected benefits in order to find if the action is profitable. The intent of CBA is to estimate the efficiency of the action against making nil.

The procedure involves comparing the pecuniary value of initial and on-going disbursals vs. the expected return. During CBA, pecuniary values may frequently be assigned to intangible effects such as the assorted hazards which could be attributable to the full or partial failure of the undertaking ( such as loss of repute or harm to long-run concern chances ) . In some instances these values must be attached to the cost of a human life or serious harm to the environment and these are hence controversial.

An audit subtraction 90 ( A-90 ) yearss meeting is called. The intent of this meeting is for the lead audit from the CAT to brief to the Programme Team the purposes an aims of the audit every bit good as how it will be structured and for the Programme squad to supply him with background information on the Programme ( i.e. the undertakings that are presently being run, their position in footings of advancement against the Guide to Railway Investment Projects ( GRIP ) , transcripts of Programme Management Plans, etc. ) . The chief purpose of the A-90 meeting nevertheless, is for the Programme Team and the lead hearer to hold a 10-day “ window ” for the audit activity, during which all 10 sub-audits must take topographic point to understate the break on the Programme ( 3 members of staff – 1.5 adult male yearss ) .

The lead hearer so has to bespeak his audit resources. For the FTN audit, it was agreed that the independent programme which would supply resources would be the Thameslink Programme. This means that they will supply a Health and Safety Manager, an Environment Specialist, an Assurance Analysis Specialist, an Engineer and a Contracts and Procurement director who all have scrutinizing accomplishments. In add-on, resource is besides provided by the Central Programme Controls squad ( for the Delivery of Work Within Possessions and the GRIP elements ) .

The lead hearer makes a series of calls to inform the identified audit squad of the at hand audit and find their handiness within the 10-day window. It is so necessary to “ marry-up ” the audit squad ‘s handiness with those who have been selected by FTN to be the auditees. In this manner, it is possible to dwell an audit timetable which identifies the hearer, the auditee, where and when the audit is taking topographic point. The clip taken to do these agreements is less easy to quantify, because it occurs over a 2-week period, but is non uninterrupted. However, the sum of clip in phone calls and documenting agreements could be around 2.5 man-days.

Project specific executing ( making ) activities

Please refer to Appendix C, which presents a chart with approximative timings on how long a Major Programme audit requires to present.

There is some convergence, as the “ making ” subdivision of the audit besides involves an component of preparation/planning from the side of both the hearer and auditee so that they are prepared on the twenty-four hours for their subdivision of the audit. Because the protocols are circulated in progress, both sides are cognizant of the inquiries which will be asked and the auditee has the chance to fix his responses. Appendix C presents a figure of 54 adult male yearss in entire, from the readying to the completion of the audit activity – this includes each hearer composing up his notes. Including auditee-time, executing likely histories for 79 yearss.

Cost of bring forthing study

Normally the lead hearer will trail the audit squad for their notes which he will utilize to bring forth a drumhead study for the Programme Team. The production and blessing of the study likely takes around 3 adult male yearss.

Cost of follow-up activity

This subdivision relates to the clip spent jointly by the CAT and the Programme to decide all of the audit findings and shut them out. Obviously, this can change depending on the figure of issues found during the audit and the sum of attempt to shut each one. Taking an mean figure of 20 findings, this could take around 10 adult male yearss of combined auditor/auditee clip to decide and shut down.


The benefits of audit activity are mostly intangible. It is hard to set a cost on an betterment in the degree of conformity with company criterions or the grade in eventful decrease in the cost of safety-related issues. This is because it ‘s besides hard to tie in cause and consequence in regard of quantifying an betterment in safety public presentation as being straight attributable to positive parts from audit activity ( although, there is undeniably, some definite part ) .

It could be argued from a moral point of view nevertheless, that if a determination from an audit or review saves one life or a individual from serious hurt or prevents a serious environmental incident, so the benefits far outweigh the costs.

Summary tabular array

Planned Action



Multi-disciplinary audit of the FTN Programme

“ Generic ” planned activity ( protocol development, audit templets, hazard analysis ) – 2.5 adult male yearss

Improved conformity with legislation/company procedures – salvaging non quantifiable

Undertaking specific planning- A-90 meeting – 1.5 adult male yearss

– Identify audit resources – 2.5 adult male yearss

Reduced hazard of a major safety/environmental incident – fiscal cost of one individual human death to an organistation – ?1 million

Execution Activity

– planning, making, writing-up ( hearer and auditee clip ) – 79 adult male yearss

Workforce more hazard cognizant, safer and more occupied – salvaging non quantifiable

Produce Report- 3 adult male yearss

Reduced hazard of Office of Rail Regulator intercession and/or harm to reputation – salvaging non quantifiable

Follow-up activity- actioning findings, meetings to shut down issues – 5 yearss

Reduced employer ‘s liability insurance.

Entire – 96 adult male yearss

Possible nest eggs & gt ; ?1 million per twelvemonth.

Plan the Project utilizing an appropriate Undertaking Planning technique

The multi-disciplinary audit of FTN has been be aftering utilizing a Gantt chart. This is preferred to a undertaking flow-plan because it is of import that the undertaking is delivered within Quarter 1 of the fiscal twelvemonth. Any slippages against agenda demand to be monitored and necessary accommodations made to the program to guarantee bringing on clip.

The Gantt chart besides enables an easy appraisal of which undertakings can be run at the same clip as others and which are mutualist and must follow on after the old one – i.e. the “ critical way ” of the procedure. Thus it can be determined that if a undertaking is delayed, whether it will impact the critical way and therefore detain the whole undertaking.

The Gantt chart for the FTN audit is shown as Appendix D.

The chart shows that most of the activities must all follow within a rigorous sequence ( with the exclusion of the distribution of the audit protocols, which are soon expecting blessing and will necessitate distribution within, say, 2 hebdomads of the audit for auditors/auditees to fix for the audit ) . Thus it is possible to see the critical way and how much “ float ” a undertaking can hold before it impacts on the start day of the month of the following undertaking and perchance on the proposed completion day of the month of the undertaking.

Set objectives/milestones to supervise public presentation and reappraisal programs

Milestones for the undertaking have been added to the Gantt chart at the undermentioned points ( see besides Appendix D ) .

Milestone 1 – Hold A-90 Meeting with Programme

Milestone 2 – Hold audit Opening Meeting with Programme squad

Milestone 3 – Complete audit activity

Milestone 4 – Hold Consolidation Meeting between hearers and Programme Head of Health, Safety, Environment and Assurance ( HSEA )

Milestone 5 – Clasp Closing Meeting with Programme squad

Milestone 6 – Produce Audit Summary Report

Milestone 7 – Complete the stopping point out of all audit findings.

Note that for the FTN audit, the A-90 meeting has non purely been held 90 yearss prior to scrutinize activity. This is frequently the instance for Quarter 1 audits, where the CAT has to fix the new NCAP and new protocols before the new Programme can get down.

These mileposts have been set as they all hold peculiar significance to the bringing of the undertaking and any slippage may hold an impact on whether the audit can be completed in conformity with the agenda. In the short term, completion of Milestone 6 on clip, is more important than Milestone 7, this is because a complete near out can non be realistically predicted until Milestone 5 ( when all of the findings are known and the actions and timescales are agreed ) .

All other mileposts have been planned and agreed with the Programme around Milestone 3. The day of the months for the audit activity are truly the first 1s to be agreed, and so all others fall-in around them. It should be noted, that it is non ever relevant to keep a consolidation meeting, this is dependent upon whether there is some disagreement relating to a determination, or its significance. In this instance it is of import to hold this treatment so that all of the findings are agreed prior to the shutting meeting.

The mileposts are reviewed during hebdomadal teleconferencings between the CAT members. If there are problems/difficulties, the squad escalate so to the Principal Assurance Specialist for aid in declaration.

One Project Evaluation technique

The most important Project Evaluation tool that the CAT uses is a “ Lessons Learnt Workshop ” . This is a formal, quantitative rating technique used every one-fourth, to look at how the audit undertakings which took topographic point in that one-fourth progressed and what betterments could be made for the undermentioned one-fourth.

The workshop consists of a meeting between all 5 CAT members ; it besides invites a figure of hearers from the Programmes who took portion in audits to add their parts.

The docket looks at the undermentioned points:

Review of old actions ;

Audit Planning procedure ;

Scope and graduated table ;

Protocols ;

A-90 meeting ;

Presentments ;


Audited account Activity ( executing ) procedure ;

Opening meeting ;

Feedback ( auditee ) ;

Feedback ( to Principal Assurance Specialist ) ;

Note pickings ;

Consolidation and shutting meetings.

Reporting procedure.

National Integrated Audit Database ;

Report ;

Progression of Non-Conformance studies.

The CAT captures any needed actions ensuing from the workshop either as specific actions or as portion of ongoing squad enterprises ( for illustration procedure alterations ) .

Some illustrations of the issues discussed and findings captured are:


pre-meeting held with all new specializer hearers to brief them on the recognized procedure ;

cross-fertilization of thoughts and experiences during the audit activity ;

hearer resource reappraisal conducted by CAT to bring forth a list for all to utilize ;

Positive findings are supports of countries where the Programme squad performs good ; this increases the squad ‘s assurance.


choice of wrong auditees and deficiency of specialist support ;

observations from audits need consistent method of direction ;

Planing stage demands to be robust to avoid single auditees being overloaded during the audit activity stage.


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