Abstraction: The Malayan building industry is undergoing a transitional alteration from an industry using conventional engineering to a more systematic and mechanised system. This new system is now known as the Industrialized Building System ( IBS ) . This new method of building can increase productiveness and quality of work through the usage of better building machinery, equipment, stuffs and extended pre-project planning. This survey becomes really necessary since there is yet no organized organic structure, which can supply the necessary information on the edifice cost comparing between the conventional system and industrialized edifice system in Malaysia ‘s building industry. This survey besides addresses the edifice cost comparing of the conventional system and industrialized edifice system of formwork system. It provides the inside informations constructing cost between the conventional system and the formwork system and indicates which of the two is cheaper. The informations were collected through questionnaire study and instance survey, which dwelling of institutional edifices. Through the statistical trial ‘t-test ‘ it is shown that there is a important difference in cost economy for the conventional system as compared to the formwork system ( industrialized edifice system )
Cardinal words: Conventional, Formwork System, Building Cost, Comparison
The Malayan building industry is undergoing a transitional alteration from an industry using conventional engineerings to a more systematic and mechanised system using the latest computing machine and communicating engineerings. This is critical for the future wellness of the industry, given the tendency towards planetary competition and the coming of the k-economy.
The Industrialized Building System ( IBS ) has been introduced in Malaysia since the 60 ‘s by the usage of precast concrete beam-column elements. Since the demand of edifice building has increased quickly, it is necessary to introduce a building method, which speeds up the edifice building procedure. Abdullah et ad. [ 1 ] has listed the assorted types of constructing systems presently available in Malaysia. Few definitions of industrialized edifice system are besides given by assorted writers [ 2 ] . To sum-up, in general, the IBS is a methodological analysis whereby a local building industry is driven towards the acceptance of an integrated and encouraging key participants in the building industry to bring forth and use pre-fabricated and aggregate production of the edifice at their work sites. This will assist to heighten the efficiency of building procedure, leting a higher productiveness, quality, clip and cost economy.
The building cost of a edifice utilizing precast constituents should be assessed in its overall context. The traditional method of bing by stuff measures with a fixed factor for labour cost can take to wrong appraisal. For illustration, if labour use is halved, this will more than compensate for a 10 % material addition. More significantly, there is salvaging in clip. Besides, if decently designed and executed, precast can take to much better quality of work. The overall cost impact of precast has hence to take all these factors into consideration. With the lifting costs of labour and less confidence of reliable skilled work force, the tendency is that precast building will go progressively competitory compared to cast-in-place building [ 3 ] .
Categorization of Industrialized Building System Industrialization: The Oxford English Dictionary ( 1991 ) defines industrialisation as “ the procedure of industrialising or fact of being industrialized ; besides, the transition of an organisation into an industry ” . However, industrialisation in this survey means industrial methods employed, mentioning to particularly, prefabrication, mechanisation and standardisation. The significance of prefabricated, harmonizing to the same lexicon, is, “ to fabricate, subdivisions of edifice or similar construction, in a mill or yard prior to their assembly on a site ” . However, prefabrication in this survey is the assembly of edifices or their constituents at a location other than the edifice site.
The types of building methods range from a conventional building method to to the full prefabricated building method. By and large, the building methods are classified here into four classs:
* Conventional building method
* Composite method
* Fully pre-fabricated method.
Conventional Construction Method: Conventional edifice method is defined as constituents of the edifice that are pre-fabricated on site through the procedures or lumber or plyboard formwork installing, steel support and cast in-situ. Conventional edifice are, largely built of strengthened concrete frames [ 4 ] . The traditional building method uses wooden formwork. It is much more dearly-won for building, which includes labour, natural stuff, transit and low velocity of building clip [ 5 ] .
Cast-in-situ Construction Method: This system is suited for a state where unskilled labour is limited. There is no heavy machinery or high engineering involved. The system is technically applicable to about all types of edifice. Formwork is used as a mold, where wet concrete, is poured into a impermanent system. The impermanent system besides acts as a impermanent support for the constructions. The aim of unmoved method is to extinguish and to cut down the traditional site based trades like traditional lumber formwork, brickwork, stick oning and to cut down labour content. A carefully planned unmoved work can maximise the productiveness, velocity and truth of prefabricated building. Cast unmoved method utilizations lightweight prefabricated formwork made of steel/fiberglass/aluminum that is easy erected and dismantled. The steel support is placed within the formwork as they are being erected and concrete is poured into the mold. When the concrete is set harmonizing to the needed strength the mold are dismantled. The workers can be trained easy to raise the molds and put the steel support. Its advantages over the traditional building method are, its low accomplishment demand, can be rapidly constructed, care is low, construction is lasting and cost can be less [ 5 ] .
Composite Construction Method: The aims of composite building method ( partly prefabricated ) are to better quality, cut down cost and shorten building clip. The construct of partial industrialized is derived from the composite nature of full industrialisation and is used to depict a fabrication or production scheme that selectively uses some industrializing facets, while avoiding or proroguing the usage of others. The prefabricated building method is combined in such a mode the characteristics applied could be conspicuously demonstrated particularly composing assorted work such as impermanent installations, edifice frames, edifice coatings and equipments [ 5 ] .
Fully Prefabricated Construction Method: In this method of building, all elements that can be standardized are prefabricated in the mill. Normally, this method would affect the assembly of precast elements such as floor slabs, in filled walls, bathrooms, stairwaies, etc. into topographic point for incorporation into the chief unit, columns and beams. This method of building has reduced the sum of site labour involved in edifice operations and increased the productiveness of the industry. Precast constructing systems can cut down the continuance of a undertaking if certain conditions are met [ 6 ] .
The last three building methods are considered nonconventional building methods. These types of building are specifically aimed to increase productiveness and quality of work through the usage of better building machinery, equipment, engineering and stuffs. The chief of import point to see here is the peculiar building method most suited for a peculiar undertaking [ 7 ] .
Method of Cost Comparison in Construction Industry: During the past decennary a big figure of such surveies has been carried out and published. In the bing surveies three chief attacks for comparing costs of constructing undertakings among states can be distinguished [ 8-11 ] :
* Comparison of standardised indistinguishable edifices
* Comparison of standard edifices with local alterations
* Comparison of functionally similar edifices Comparison of Standardized Identical Buildings: With the first method precisely the same edifices work is priced on the footing of the same drawings and specifications. This is possible merely in theory, mostly as a consequence of national ( or even regional ) differences which exist in architecture, criterions, handiness of merchandises, etc. The edifice and the costs will be comparable, but they are non needfully representative. Comparison of Standard Buildings with Local Alterations: Better representivity can be achieved when alterations for local fortunes, like edifice codifications, criterions, specification degrees, are taken into history.
Comparison of Functionally Similar Buildings: With the 3rd attack, typical, functionally similar edifices are compared: this means edifice types, which are representative. Not merely locally divergent fortunes and quality-levels are taken into history, but besides assorted public presentation and aesthetic standards, which reflect typical client demands or tenant outlooks for a edifice in that sector. The edifices and the costs are representative, but non needfully comparable. Arguably ‘apples ‘ are being compared with ‘oranges ‘ [ 12 ] . A meaningful comparing must take into history all relevant ( time-dependant and quantity-dependant ) cost constituents, classified as follows [ 13 ] :
* Labour ;
* General disbursals ( site and works )
* Transportation ( for system building merely ) * Overhead
As for this survey the method of cost comparing used is standardized indistinguishable edifices and functionally similar edifices while the unit is cost per gross floor country.
Research Methodology: Data was collected by utilizing mail questionnaire. To beef up the determination of the study and to help in supplying the information about edifice cost comparing survey, a instance survey was besides conducted. However the major attack was utilizing questionnaire, sing such factors on sample size, clip, cost and attempts. Questionnaire method was chosen as the appropriate attack for this survey. Questionnaire can make a big figure of respondents in different locations of the state at a comparatively lower cost, shorter clip and less attempt as compared to other informations aggregation methods. The questionnaires were sent to the general director, undertaking director, proficient executive, pull offing manager and undertaking manager. The questionnaires were mailed to the respondents, accompanied by a covering missive, ego addressed and stamped envelope. The instance survey was conducted on edifice cost comparing of 1 unit 4-storey of school edifice undertaking carried out by Public Works section, Malaysia, which uses conventional system and formwork system. Data gathered on edifice cost of constructing systems in Malaysia were processed and analyzed utilizing Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 1 shows constructing cost-saving in term of per centum. Forty tow per centum of the respondents agreed that conventional building method are more cost economy, 25 % agreed that composite building method are most cost economy, 21 % agreed that formwork system are most cost economy. Last but non least merely 12 % agreed that prefabricated building method are most cost economy.
The old survey showed clearly the advantages of utilizing formwork system ( cast in-situ ) . These were velocity, quality and economic sciences [ 5 ] . However, the consequences of the analysis revealed that the conventional building method is more cost salvaging compared to the IBS method.
Harmonizing to the grounds given by the respondents, the conventional system is more cost economy as compared to formwork system was because of better dialogues and opportunities to acquire the most competitory stamp monetary value appropriate to the developer ‘s budget. There is besides flexibleness in taking alternate edifice stuffs at a lower cost. Therefore, constructing cost can be reduced. As for the IBS, there are limited to a few makers or specialised contractors. This contributed to the higher cost of constructing due to higher licencing cost and they tend to be monopolized by the higher monetary value of the edifice panel or other edifice constituents.
Formwork System Case Study: The selected industrialised edifice system instance survey is based on formwork system. This system is suited for a state where unskilled labour is limited. There is no heavy machinery or high engineering involved. The system is technically applicable to about all type of edifices. Formwork are used as a mold, where wet concrete, is poured into a impermanent system. The impermanent system besides acts as a impermanent support for the constructions. This In-situ method is to extinguish and cut down the traditional site based trades like traditional lumber formwork, brickwork, stick oning and to cut down labour content. Carefully planned unmoved work can maximise the productiveness, velocity and truth of prefabricated building [ 5 ] . The chief aim of this instance survey is to analyze the cost comparing of school edifice cost of 1 unit 4-Storey ( academic block ) undertaking carried out by Public Works Department, Malaysia, which uses conventional/traditional system and formwork system. The conventional and formwork system constructing cost is based on analysis of the Elemental Cost Analysis ( ECA ) signifier. The formwork system is based on the combination of pre-fabrication and unmoved conventional building, which features the use of lasting concrete for elements alternatively of conventional lumber formwork.
Constructing Cost Information: The chief aim of this instance survey is to analyze the cost comparing of 4-storey school edifices, which used conventional/traditional system and formwork system. The conventional system edifice and the formwork system cost is based on elemental cost analysis signifier from the Public Work Department, Malaysia [ 14 ] .
Cost Comparison: Table 1 shows the average difference between 1 unit four storey school edifice of conventional and formwork system for 20 Numberss of informations. The average cost of conventional system is RM 432 per square metre whereby the formwork system is RM 544 per square metre. The difference is RM112 per square metre. Although the difference is RM112 per square metre the sum of the square metre for 1 unit 4-storey school edifice is about 2000 square metre. This shows that there is a broad difference between IBS and Conventional. In layperson ‘s term the IBS is really expensive. For illustration, if the authorities want to construct 20 school edifice of the same IBS, this means the cost will be really high. Therefore, all attempts must be made to cut down this so as to guarantee the hereafter usage of IBS method is executable.
The t-test analysis is a statistical analysis to prove the difference between two variables. The intent is to demo the significance degree of the edifice cost comparing between 1 unit four storey school edifices utilizing conventional system and formwork system.
The present survey used a two-tailed trial The underlying ground for application of the two-tailed trial over onetailed trial is to guarantee that the consequence obtained is compatible. If merely one-tailed trial is used, so the consequence obtained might non be the same with that of a two-tailed trial. If the consequence shows the difference between conventional and formwork system is non important so, the survey can non reason that formwork system is more expensive than conventional system. Possibly, The formwork system is merely expensive for certain Numberss of edifices based on 20 Numberss of informations available.
Table 2 shows the consequence of the t-test conducted utilizing IBS ( formwork system ) and conventional methods. It has been found that there is a 0.000 ( last column ) or 100 % assurance degree. This therefore, confirms that cost of constructing utilizing formwork system method is expensive compared to the conventional method. The average difference is RM 112 per square metre shows that formwork system is more expensive compared to conventional system. The highest edifice cost difference per square metre is RM 149 and the lowest difference is RM 75 per square metre.
This analysis, which was carried out was based on Elemental Cost Analysis Form ( ECA ) from Public Works Department, Malaysia shows 1 unit 4-storey school edifice cost utilizing conventional system and formwork system. The cost provided uses the same type of contract.
With mention to Postpone 1, the average cost of conventional system is RM 432 per square metre, where as the formwork system is RM 544 per square metre. The difference is RM 112 per square metre from 20 Numberss of informations. The consequences showed that the difference is important with a 100 % assurance degrees. Therefore, the conventional cost is cheaper, compared to formwork system. This determination is in coherency with the consequences already obtained in an earlier study analysis.
Harmonizing to the grounds given by the respondents, the conventional system is more cost economy as compared to formwork system ( IBS ) since it provides better dialogue opportunities so as to obtain the most competitory stamp monetary value appropriate to the developer ‘s budget. There is besides flexibleness in taking alternate edifice stuffs at lower cost. Therefore, constructing cost can be reduced. As for the IBS, there are limited to a few makers or specialised contractors. This contributes to the higher cost of edifice since a higher licensing cost is levied on the IBS panel and they tend to be monopolized by the higher monetary value of the edifice panel or other edifice constituents.
From the consequences of the instance survey, it can be concluded that the conventional building system is more cost economy as compared to the formwork system ( IBS ) . The instance survey consequences are besides in coherency with the consequence from the study analysis. Most of the organized organic structure in the building industry thought that the edifice cost of IBS is more cost economy compared to conventional system. However, the present survey proved the consequences was opposite to what was thought before.