We all know that the find of new oil rich sedimentations have gone down drastically over the past decennary. These fossil fuels are the chief ground behind the planetary heating gripping the universe today. So increasing figure of Government ‘s and research workers are turning to renewable beginnings of energy to do it more low-cost.
Solar energy is one of the fastest turning beginnings of energy in footings of electricity coevals. Solar energy was ne’er looked at for mass production of energy until late. This alteration in perceptual experience is due to the decrease on monetary values of the stuff required for puting up of a solar power works and besides a batch of inducements from assorted bureaus around the universe. In India air current power has been taken up in major manner but due to high monetary values of natural stuffs in India production of solar power based energy is really slow to germinate. The distributions of assorted beginnings of renewable beginnings of power around the universe are given below in the pie chart.
Here in the pie chart we have solar energy beginnings being split into two facets. One being solar aggregators ( solar thermals ) and the other being through the exposure Gur ( PV ) cells. Let ‘s hold a expression at the assorted facets from how much Sun beam we receive and how electricity is generated from it
Solar energy is produced from the Sun rays received from the Sun. The upper ambiance of Earth receives 174 petawatts ( PW ) of solar radiation. Approximately 30 % of the entrance solar beams are reflected back to infinite while the remainder is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land multitudes. The spectrum of solar visible radiation at the Earth ‘s surface is largely dispersed across the seeable and near-infrared scopes with a little portion in the near-ultraviolet. The entire solar energy absorbed by Earth ‘s ambiance, oceans and land multitudes is about 3,850,000 exajoules ( EJ ) per twelvemonth. In 2002, this was more energy in one hr than the universe used in one twelvemonth. There are two ways in which Sun ‘s beam are used to bring forth power:
Solar thermic – Solar thermic energy is a engineering for tackling solar energy for thermic energy ( heat ) . Solar thermic aggregators are defined by the USA Energy Information Administration as low- , medium- , or high-temperature aggregators. Low temperature aggregators are level home bases by and large used to heat swimming pools. Medium-temperature aggregators are besides normally level home bases but are used for making hot H2O for residential and commercial usage. High temperature aggregators concentrate sunlight utilizing mirrors or lenses and are by and large used for electric power production. STE is different from exposure Gurs, which convert solar energy straight into electricity. While merely 600 megawatts of solar thermic power is up and running worldwide in October 2009. There are loosely two engineerings under solar thermal:
Parabolic Trough – Approximately ten big scale parabolic trough workss have been operational since1984 and bring forthing power for commercial usage. The California Mojave Desert works being the oldest among them. There are Fieldss in which parabolic trough are placed in series one beside the other. The get the heat from the Sun and reassign it to the turbine ( Rankin turbine ) these workss produce daily in the scope of 14 to 80 MW and overall 354 MW. The trough is normally lined up on a North to south axis, and rotated throughout the twenty-four hours with the motion of the Sun across the sky.
Solar Power Tower – Solar power towers are immense towers erected in the center of big brooding mirrors ( called heliostats ) which concentrate the solar radiation to this tower. The heat is so transferred to bring forth steam and produce electricity. These types of workss by and large produce in the scope of 30 to 400 MW scope.
World ‘s largest concentrating solar thermic power Stationss
Capacity ( MW )
Solar Energy Generating Systems
Navada Solar One
PS20 Solar Power Tower
Solar Power Tower
PS10 Solar Power Tower
Solar Power Tower
Photo Gur ( PV ) array – In this system an array of photovoltaic cells are put in series and parallel constellation to accomplish the necessary electromotive force and each are connected to invertors to straight bring forth AC type of electricity from the DC type. These photovoltaic arrays are made up of multiple interrelated solar cells. The design is such that they can take any burden required. The power of a individual photovoltaic cell is normally plenty for a place or a standalone concern. Solar arrays are normally measured by the peak electrical power throughput in Watts, kW, or even megawatts.
World ‘s largest photovoltaic ( PV ) power workss
Capacity ( MW )
Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park
Strasskirchen Solar Park
Lieberose Photovoltaic Park
Puertollano Photovoltaic Park
Moura photovoltaic power station
Traveling by the current growing rates of the solar power beginning, it is being predicted that energy generated from these beginnings would be the biggest power beginning for the universe in a few decennaries. A few old ages back in 2008 it was merely approximately 0.02 per centum of the entire energy supply in the universe. This is the sum to displacement we would be witnessing in the energy sector. The entire figure of PV installed worldwide has been traveling up quickly. The PV installings went up by a immense 7.3 GW last twelvemonth which was merely 6,080 MW installed during the earlier twelvemonth 2008. Currently the solar power has a really little portion in the universe energy market. Totally its productions histories for non more than 0.01 % of entire demand for power or energy around the universe right now. Solar Energy demand has grown at approximately 30 % per annum over the past 15 old ages ( hydrocarbon energy demand typically grows between 0-2 % per annum ) .Research confirms that the Asia Pacific, European and United States all are expected to set in really good Numberss in footings of installed capacity and besides the part to their several grids over 5 to 10 old ages. Let ‘s expression at the cost involved of these PV cells. With the procedure of solar Energy ( PV cells ) coming down bit by bit over the past decennary or so this is one engineering which is looking better every twenty-four hours. We have seen over the past decennary that procedure have been traveling down by four per centum every twelvemonth. Progressive and fabricating economic systems of graduated table are the major drive for the same along with a healthy growing in transition efficiencies. By early 2006, the mean cost per installed W for a residential sized system was approximately USD 7.50 to USD 9.50, including panels, inverters, saddle horses, and electrical points. Close to 2 billion people around the universe have ne’er seen electricity or are in far corners where its where hard to provide. For most of them, solar PV would be the cheapest electricity beginning, if they can afford it.
List of top five counties as per coevals of solar energy –
Grid-Connected Solar PV Capacity boulder clay 2009 ( MW )
European states are in front from the remainder of the universe in footings of the installed capacity and besides in footings of undertakings under building. If we look at the above given tabular array we would see that three out of 5 states belong to the EU. Germany and Spain have taken it up really sharply. Renewable energy contributed 10.3 % of energy ingestion in the EU. Half of Sweden ‘s electricity demands are met by solar power followed by Finland at 30 % . India has started its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar program which has a mark to bring forth 1000MW of solar energy by 2013. Japan is the 3rd largest manufacturer of solar energy manufacturer in the universe. In December 2008, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in Japan set a end of 70 % of freshly built places should hold solar power instruments installed, and Japan would be passing $ 145 million across 2009 to promote solar power in places. All renewable resources of power put together including solar, air current, etc provide about 12 per centum of the state ‘s power supply in United States of America as of now. The Department of Energy in US has set the end of bring forthing 10-15 % of US entire power demand from beginnings of solar energy by the twelvemonth 2030. Solar power has been spread outing quickly in the past 8 old ages, turning at a really impressive mean rate of 40 % per twelvemonth in USA entirely. The cost per kilowatt-hour of solar photovoltaic systems has besides been dropping, whereas the power generated out of renewable energy is going dearly-won. As a consequence, the study undertakings that solar power will make cost para with conventional power beginnings in many U.S. markets by 2015.With the turning demand for the PV faculties around the universe, the PV faculty providers are doing hay while the Sun is reflecting. In India Tata BP Solar is the market leader. Around the universe followers is the list of major providers.
List of Major Global companies providing PV Module:
Canadian Solar Inc.
The market for clean energy is turning at a really healthy rate and as the solar power has the most abundant beginning of energy ( the Sun ) so the chances for these providers looks really good. There are assorted revenue enhancement inducements from assorted Governments which are promoting the usage of solar energy.
Potential of Solar power in India
Indian being located in the cheery parts of the universe receives about 3000 hours of sunlight every twelvemonth which is tantamount to 5 trillion kWh of energy. This solar energy can be tapped to run into the turning energy demands of state.
Besides with increasing force per unit area from the developed state to take down the pollution degrees, it has become imperative for India to look for non-polluting beginnings of energy. Solar energy could emerge as one of the best options for clean energy.
Most of the small towns in India are non connected to the power grid. It is less expensive to put in Photo Voltaic ( PV ) modules in these place and small towns instead than doing the grids longer or puting up a power works nearby. So for electricity production in rural countries, solar energy could be a cheaper option.
Solar power coevals has lagged behind other renewal beginnings of energy like air current, hydropower, and biomass. As per Ministry of New and Renewable Energy ( MNRE ) , solar energy presently accountA for merely 0.1 per centum of the entire capacity of reclamation energy installed in the state which stands at 13,242.41 MW.
Though India is in the top 10 worldwide for both solar photovoltaic ( PV ) cell production and solar thermic power production, the solar power produced in India is merely approximately 0.4 % as compared to other energy resources.
The current use of solar energy in India is as follows:
Solar street illuming systems: 55,795
Home illuming systems: 342,607
Solar lanterns used in India: 560,295
Solar PV power workss: 1566A kilowatt
Solar thermic production: 140A km2A of aggregator country
Solar cookers: 575,000
Solar PV pumps: 6,818
The chief hinderance in the usage of solar energy is the high cost which is about Rs 15-30 involved in deployment whereas it ‘s Rs 5-8 for thermic power.A Solar energy use has been chiefly limited to small towns which do non hold proper power distribution webs to carry through their basic demands of lighting, warming and cookery.
Tata BP Solar
Tata BP Solar is the largest solar company in Asia. It is a joint venture between Tata Group and BP Solar.
To bring forth electricity from sunshine, the company manufactures silicon cells and solar faculties.
Tata BP executed a undertaking in which they electrified 350 small towns in the province of Chhattisgarh which had ne’er seen electricity before.
The company plans to revamp its supplies to the market by breaking its fabrication capacity of PV cells from 84 MW to more than 180 MW this fiscal twelvemonth.
Moser Baer Solar Limited ( MBSL )
The company has leveraged its nucleus competence in optical media to bring forth high quality solar cells. It is one of largest makers of Photo Voltaic ( PV ) modules in India. It has current production capacity are as follows:
Produces capacity ( MW )
Moser Baer provides broad scope of solutions which include site analysis, system design, hard-on and commissioning, operation and care of solar equipments.
SELCO Solar Pvt. Ltd
SELCO is a societal endeavor which uses solar PV cells to bring forth adequate electricity to illume the houses, pump H2O from Wellss and power assorted communicating devices. It manufactures merchandises for Solar lighting ( CFL and LED ) , Solar Thermal ( Water warmers ) .
SELCO ‘s cook range enterprise is a major encouragement to rural sector which has marks to better quality of life and control pollution by supplying advanced engineering at low-cost monetary values.
Reliance Solar Group
The company offers a broad scope of merchandises, systems andA solutions runing from solar lanterns, place illuming systems, street illuming systems, H2O purification systems, infrigidation systems to air conditioners.
Reliance Industries ( RIL ) has the experience of implementing a figure of solar undertakings in the assorted parts of India. For the Commonwealth games, Reliance Industries ‘ Solar Energy Group set a immense rooftop energy system which can bring forth 1 MWA solar at the Thyagaraj Commonwealth Stadium in New Delhi in April this twelvemonth, doing it the largest solar rooftop of its sort in India. They are presently working on another immense undertaking of a solar farm holding a capacity of 5 MW in Western portion of India which is slated to be the largest of its sort in India.
The companyA currentlyA beginnings solar panels from other companies for puting up power workss but in future the company could even venture into the solar cell/module fabrication concern.
RIL has besides implemented 2.6 KWp solar PV power workss for each of the three tennis tribunals at the R K Khanna Tennis Complex. For the Commonwealth Games Village, it has installed 34 back up solar PV systems of 3 KWp each, 180 solar LED street visible radiations and 500 garden visible radiations. The full solar enterprise is to counterbalance for CO2 emanations to be released through the game.
NTPC has completed or be aftering to setup the following solar power undertakings in the state:
Capacity ( MW )
Andaman & A ; Nicobar
Government inducements and subsidies
The Government is making its spot to distribute the growing of solar energy. It has declared as portion of official policy a 100 % revenue enhancement vacation to any PV works Pr solar thermal works which are installed and up and running by the twelvemonth 2020. They have besides declared to allow travel strike responsibility and diminish the usage responsibility if merchandises are imported from OEM and non to advert the inexpensive loans.
Additionally, under the Generation-Based Incentive ( GBI ) programme, the works developers will be offered fiscal aid to cut down the production cost by offering of Rs 12/unit to manufacturer in instance of solar PV and Rs 10/unit if the usage the solar thermal for the following 10 old ages. For this the works must bring forth more than 1MW and lend it to the cardinal grid.
The authorities has besides announced a figure of sops under a particular incentive bundle to better spread of solar energy.Under the authorities ‘s strategy to make solar metropoliss in India, all the local authoritiess of the 60 metropoliss would be provided an aid of Rs 50 hundred thousand, of which Rs 10 hundred thousand would be for outlining of a maestro program, Rs 10 hundred thousand for installing of solar faculties in the the assorted metropolis council edifices, Rs 10lakh as an inducement to finish the undertaking over 5 years and the remainder for advancing this ( Rs 20lakh ) .
State authoritiess are besides supplying discounts in belongings revenue enhancement to house proprietors and commercial constitutions for utilizing solar H2O heating systems.
Future growing Prospects in India
Under the Jawaharlal NehruA NationalA Solar Mission ( JNNSM ) , India plans to bring forth 20,000 MW grid connected solar power by 2022. In the first stage of JNNSM, 1000 MW capacity will be added by March 2013, half based on solar PV equipment and remainder on solar thermic engineering.
Following are the suggestions of a Ajay Shankar commission which if accepted by the cardinal authorities will b a shooting in the arm for JNNSM and a immense supporter for solar energy sector in India:
Up to 2013: Compulsory usage of PV cells and faculties made in India for all grid connected solar power workss.
2012-2013: Compulsory usage of Power Conditioning Units ( PCUs ) which are manufactured in India.
2013-2014: Reappraisal for likely extension to assorted merchandises used in solar power coevals like wafers and Si which are manufactured in India.
On the province forepart, the Gujarat authorities has already signed a MoU with Clinton Foundation which would assist so put in the universe ‘s biggest solar energy works in Gujarat. The 3 GW works would be one of four mega solar workss planned by the foundation to advance the usage of renewable energy. The other proposed sites are in California, South Africa, and Australia.
The authorities has proposed to develop 60 solar metropoliss during the 11th Plan period. The solar metropoliss would be based on the lines of New York in USA, Tokyo in Japan and London in UK. This enterprise will once more move as a encouragement to the solar industry.
After the proclamation of the JNNSM, which aims at a immense leap in solar power coevals capacity in the state by 2022, it has met with a immense response. It was proposed by the some 25 companies that they would be interested in seting in a entire amount of a 1000 chromium over the following 3 -5 year. From the figures, one can state that the hereafter of solar energy in India looks to really bright.
CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS
High Capital Cost
One of the biggest challenges that solar energy faces is that viing energy beginnings have ever been cheaper in footings of dollars per kilowatt-hour ( a criterion step ) . Compared to electricity from coal-burning power workss, solar is more expensive. Let ‘s take India as a state into consideration. The Hunt for better, cheaper Solar cells is due in India. Despite the fact that the monetary value of Solar Photovoltaic engineering has been coming down over the old ages it still remains economically unviable for power coevals intents. The mean cost of Solar PV faculties was around Rs. 2 lakhs per kilowatt. However, the estimated unit cost of coevals of electricity from Solar Photovoltaic and Solar thermic path is in the scope of Rs. 12 -20 per kWh and Rs. 10 – 15 per kWh severally in India. With present degree of engineering, solar electricity produced through the Photovoltaic transition path is 4-5 times costlier than the electricity obtained from conventional fossil fuels.
Solar PV cell fabrication is a technology-intensive procedure necessitating high expertness and know-how. Besides, the engineering landscape in the solar industry PV infinite is altering rather quickly with inventions and R & A ; D. It is disputing for new entrants to retroflex the success of companies holding a long standing in the Solar PV market.
Many sites do n’t have adequate solar energy to do the production cost effectual. Cloudy countries with frequent rain are frequently non good suited for solar panels because typically solar panels need direct Sun to bring forth power.
Another major challenge is hive awaying solar energy. Cloudy conditions and dark clip darkness interrupt solar energy ‘s handiness. At times and locations where sunshine is plentiful, its energy must be captured and stored for usage at other times and topographic points. The most of import disadvantage about solar energy is that the entree on a short-run footing can be unsure. The entire entrance radiation usually does n’t change much from twelvemonth to twelvemonth ( typically A±5 per cent ) , but it is non easy to foretell on a daily footing. Incoming radiation has seasonal fluctuations that are in an anti-phase with the energy demand for of import countries of applications, for illustration infinite warming. If one is to swear solar energy as the lone energy beginning, either one has to set to the fluctuations given by nature, shop. The first option is impractical, the latter are expensive. Energy storage makes up a significant portion of the cost for both solar warming installings and systems for the production of electricity for distant edifices and workss. Improved energy storage will therefore intend a batch for the solar energy ‘s possibility to vie with conventional solutions.
Another concern country is put ining Solar cells on the land country. The big sum of land required for utility-scale Solar power workss – about one square kilometre for every 20-60 MW generated – poses an extra job.
RAW MATERIAL AND WASTE PRODUCTS
Some of the stuffs ( like Cadmium ) used for bring forthing Solar PV cells are risky and other natural stuffs like plastics used for the packaging of the cells are non-biodegradable, thereby impacting the environment. Although some of the waste generated during the fabrication procedure is reclaimable ( Si ) , non all other stuffs are reclaimable and disposal of the same is a ambitious procedure.
AESTHETICS AND DESIGN
Another barrier to wider acceptance of solar cell and solar faculty merchandises and systems among commercial and residential consumers is aesthetics and design. Historically, consumers have resisted solar merchandises for aesthetic grounds. Established solar merchandises are heavy, stiff, delicate and non-modular. Solar cell and solar faculty makers can better aesthetics by developing merchandises that can be more beautifully integrated into edifice constructions, and that are lighter, flexible and modular and therefore more executable.
Growth in future and impulsive factors
Concentrated Solar Vs Photovoltaic Solar
Solar energy use engineerings can be loosely classified into two classs as
Concentrated Solar Technology
Photovoltaic Solar Technology
In Concentrated Solar Technology the solar energy converts heat liquids into steam, which is so used to drive turbines to bring forth electricity, warming and chilling intents, supplying hot H2O etc. In PV Solar, solar panels are used to bring forth electricity. The Concentrated Solar engineering provides a good option to PV solar, one that is less expensive and more versatile.
Benefits of concentrated solar engineering are:
It uses bing resources like generators, shrieking and mirrors. Due to which the production costs are much lower than PV solar
In bring forthing solar energy no risky stuffs are used. Thus it is free from production fusss that could originate due to future authorities Torahs or policies.
It can besides hive away the heat that is generated during the twenty-four hours, and utilize it at a ulterior clip when the electricity is needed. Storing heat is much more efficient than most signifiers of hive awaying electricity, and does non necessitate expensive equipment or big paths of land.
Due to the aforesaid benefits Concentrated Solar Technology is presently a more sought after method. But the possible for PV Solar Technology is higher and is being worked over across all states.
Major per centum of the solar energy production has been backed by the authorities universe over. Few of the authorities inducements in the undermentioned ways are:
FIT ( chiefly in Europe )
Direct Subsidy on panels
Renewable Portfolio Standards ( RPS, in US )
ITC ( Investment revenue enhancement credits, in US )
Some of the ends with regard to solar energy of different states driven by authorities enterprises are:
TheA European UnionA has linked ends to acquire 20 % of its energy from clean beginnings by 2012.
China ‘s Renewable Energy Law aims to raise the entire per centum of renewable energy used in the state to 15 % by 2020.
The U.S. Stimulus Bill of February of 2009 included $ 60 billion in loan warrants for companies constructing solar and air current workss with the end of duplicating renewable energy production from 2009 to 2012.
In June of 2008, Germany approved a jurisprudence cutting its solar subsidies by 10 % . Further, under the jurisprudence subsidies will fall another 8 % -10 % each twelvemonth for the following three old ages.
The Spanish Government cut its solar subsidies by 30 % .
Renewable energy demand
Shifts in renewable energy demand are a major driver for the solar market. Two major drivers of this displacement are climate changeA andA peak oil.
Climate Change – With more people than of all time being cognizant of planetary heating and its possible effects, and fright of the reverberations of a carbon-based energy strategy is driving consumer demand for options like solar. With increasing figure of people being cognizant of planetary heating and its harmful effects, lifting fright caused due to carbon based energy production, the demand for alternate energy resources are in demand. The figure of awareness runs to advance the usage of alternate resources has increased enormously over the past few old ages and will go on to lift in the hereafter. Wind and Solar energy are the first possible measure taken into consideration.
Peak Oil and Energy Independence – The of all time lifting oil monetary values and the scarceness of happening the mines and oil militias are a turning concern. It is predicted that the oil resources will dwindle to such an extent that the growing of any state will be a standstill if steps are non taken today to restrict the dependance. Furthermore, a big portion of the universe oil supply can be found in politically disruptive states ; with OPEC holding dominant control over universe oil supply ( and, hence, monetary values ) , many states desire energy options in order to interrupt dependance on geopolitically unstable states.
Technology and Silicon Supply
Silicon was antecedently used extensively by the semiconducting material industry. But, with the coming of solar power and its rapid growing the demand for them has increased exponentially, ensuing in an under-supply of Si unable to run into the current demand. Thus the higher monetary values in Si mean higher production costs for solar companies – and lower borders. For a sustainable growing and control in costs of production in the hereafter the demand-supply equilibrium must be in cheque.
In recent old ages the proficient promotions in the field of solar power has been rapid and enormous. Everyone across the value concatenation, makers and providers are working towards bring forthing more solar energy out of the bing solar equipment. Promotions have included increasing cell energy efficiency, utilizing dilutant wafers, and increasing bring forthing power in low-light ( coevals of energy even on a nebulose twenty-four hours ) . The promotion in two new fabricating procedures viz. string-ribbon engineering and thin-film engineering, designed to drastically cut down theA siliconA required to do PV cells, could dramatically diminish the cost of new PV cells.
The usage of a new nanotechnology based attack utilizing Tetrapod Quantum Dots ( TQ-Dots ) is being considered. It is an economical option to replace the Si wafer based solar cells with flexible TQ-Dot solar cells and has the advantage of bring forthing electricity from UV and infrared wavelengths leting coevals 24/7.
As the solar industry continues to turn at 25 % per annum, the authorities is faced with the challenge to modulate the industry to let for just distribution of the industry benefits. The Union Ministry has set up a separate Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources subsequently renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. The authorities is seeking hard to convey India to the figure 1 degree by presenting grid based inducements and supplying grant at assorted degrees of fabrication and distribution in its recent budget 2010-11.
Consequence on the Environment: There is an on-going argument on how Concentrated Solar Plants particularly are impacting the environment. There is a concern how the usage of huge sums of public land for Solar Energy development will impact local dwellers. Local Government and Environmental organic structures have raised concern for dependable regulative steps to be setup to understand the affect on the operations of such big workss on the environment. It is expected that the authorities will border certain ‘special energy zones ‘ , where concentrated solar workss will be setup.
Permiting: The license fees to put up Solar Plants varies in different countries in the states, which causes fluctuations in the setup monetary value doing a quandary in the heads of prospective investors.The cost of Solar Installation in a metropolis varies from Rs.15,000 to Rs. 50,000.Many states that used to confront such issues are now migrating to a unvarying license fees system to promote investing in this field.
Regulating Solar Energy Suppliers: As portion of JNNSM, authorities has dedicated NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam, for the purchase of Solar Energy by independent solar workss, the monetary values of which are fixed by the Central Regulatory Electricity Commission for a given period of clip.
The power distribution companies will buy the power generated from these workss at the monetary values set by the regulator. They would besides follow the below mentioned norms:
CERC has announced duty of Rs. 18.44 per unit for solar PV power and Rs. 13.45 per unit for solar thermic power for 25 old ages ;
Zero or concessional responsibility to be applied on import of some specific points ;
Zero Excise responsibility on industry of many solar energy devices within the state ;
NTPC VVN will buy solar power for a period of 25 old ages at fixed duty announced by CERC ;
CERC will reexamine the costs every twelvemonth and repair duty consequently for new undertakings.
Union Budget 2010-11: Government has announced an allotment of $ 10bn for the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission. The budget besides provides inducements to private solar companies by cut downing imposts responsibility on solar panel by 5 % and relieving excise responsibility on photovoltaic panels.