By mention to both art works and writings- within the period of 1950-1970, critically discuss to the extent in which Andy Warhol has produced ‘art after Modernism ‘ . In what ways has the creative person upheld, adapted or rejected modernist values.
This essay will critically discourse the extent to which Andy Warhol upheld, adapted or rejected Modernist values which will further look into how Warhol created ‘art after Modernism.
In order to reply this inquiry the chief Modernist values will be discussed, these include thoughts such as vanguard, the machine age, transhistorical, equilibrium, aesthetic, individuality, signifier, pureness, essentialism, catholicity. This will so organize the footing to which a decision will be made as to whether or non Andy Warhol upheld, adapted or rejected these Modernist values.
Modernism described cultural inclinations and a cultural motion which started in the late nineteenth century and ran into the early twentieth Century which fixes its beginnings at the ‘shattering of cultural symbols and norms. ‘ Modernist creative persons believed that the ‘traditional, societal and political order is no longer able to portray the modern demands as different from the yesteryear. They sought stylistic inventions that could break expose their present world. ‘
The first Modernist value to be discussed is daring. The Modernist daring pattern can be defined as the ‘combination of three qualities: technological experimentation, aesthetic battle with the agencies of meaning and an subjective societal political committedness. ‘ This definition refers to Modernists experimental and advanced art which pushed boundaries of what was socially accepted.
Warhol emerged aboard Neo-avant-garde in the mid 1950 ‘s, where Modernist values were subverted by the values associated with modern art within the Modernist period through the eruption of more diverse, new patterns. Warhol and his ‘Pop Art ‘ work was an illustration used to demo that the neo vanguard is an daring that ‘exists as a mere unauthentic mirage of the vanguard of the 1910 ‘s and 20 ‘s. ‘ Warhol ‘s usage of the ‘photographic silk testing procedure was the decisive measure by which Warhol aligned his working method with the content of his pictures. It was through this measure that he made conspicuous and rather specific part to the progress of daring art. ‘
The neo-avant-garde was a new return on vanguard which wanted to bridge the spread between ‘life-as-art and art-as-life ‘ and reconstruct our twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours being. Pop Art was used to state a ‘melancholic narrative of humanistic disciplines inability to conceive of socially better plants. ‘ Warhol hence adapted the Modernist value of the vanguard where he added to the thoughts of this Modernist value. He did this by accommodating to the of all time globalizing society and created new agencies of making and sing graphicss.
In the sixtiess, A Andy WarholA created several “ mass-produced ” images from exposure of famous persons such asA Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor. He used the technique of silkscreen printing, this is seen as neo-avant-garde. This can be seen in his Turquoise Marilyn ( Fig 1. ) is based on a promotion still of Marilyn Monroe, with graphic colorss foregrounding her eyes, lips and earrings. He besides famously replicated the same image in a assortment of different colorss.
Warhol created many pieces utilizing the silk screen print technique which was a utile technique as many of the same image was easy replicable. This thought leads me onto the following Modernist value of the Machine Age.
Within the Modernist period, creative persons had to come to footings with the thought of machines. Many embraced the thought, ‘soughing to blend art and life through an expanded attack to mass civilization, public presentation and production. ‘ For illustration the Italian Futurists encompassed the of all time progressing machine age. They created work whereby they repeated ‘shapes over and over ‘ like a machine.
Warhol sought to be machine like in his mundane life and besides his graphics. He did this by utilizing repeat in a batch of his work. He stated: ‘I think everybody should be like a machine, I think everybody should be like everybody. ‘ Within his twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life he acted like a machine and this was reflected within his work entitled Campbell ‘s Soup Cans ( Fig.2. ) He claims he created this piece of work because he drank it daily, it was a everyday. ‘I usage to hold the same tiffin everyday, for 20 old ages… the same thing over and over once more. ‘
Warhol liked the thought of other people making the same work as him ; he said ‘I think it would be so great if more people took up the silk screens so that no 1 would cognize whether my image was mine or person else ‘s. ‘ Peoples thought that this would turn the art universe upside down yet Warhol argued back by reiterating that he merely wanted to be machine like ; ‘I experience that whatever I do and make machine like is what I want to make. ‘
While working as a commercial creative person Warhol believed the ‘process of making work in commercial art was machine-like, but the attitude had feeling to it. ‘ This feeling within work was seen as bad to Warhol as he wanted to be more detatched from his work, therefore the wanted to be machine like.
Peter Halley admired Warhol ‘s work and felt that ‘one had a sense that 1 could really take part in the devising of the work. ‘ This was what Warhol was taking for. He upheld the Modernist value of the machine age and brought it further frontward into a more developed art pattern ideal. Warhol upheld the Modernist value of the machine age through his usage of repeat and other people making his work for him.
Earlier mentioned was that Warhol wanted to be like a machine, therefore intending that he rejected the Modernist value of Individualism. His work has been described as holding ‘a sense that 1 could really take part in the devising of the work. ‘ The thought of art non being single caused ’emphasis on depersonalized production procedure, organizing an onslaught on the creative persons function. ‘
Transhistorical is another Modernist value which can be said to make eternity among Modernist art. It described the same manner yet a alteration in stuffs throughout history. The purpose of graphics has been described as carry throughing the thought of the transhistorical, ‘it specifies the invariant status for something being art in every universe and which there is art at all. ‘
The transhistorical construct of art is the ‘largely unacknowledged foundation for the first general art history. ‘ Warhol ‘s art has been described as supplying an illustration of the indispensable emptiness of art. His art can be seen as the ‘termination point for the ocular humanistic disciplines in universe history… when art as a medium… has become unequal, exhausted. ‘ In relation to the inquiry, Warhol would be seen to reject the modernist value of the transhistorical, this is because he changed art itself, non merely the mediums used.
The following Modernist issue which I am traveling to turn to is the thought of Equilibrium. Equilibrium stands for a balance, where by a considered harmonious determination doing procedure takes topographic point within art.
Warhol seems to reject the thought of equilibrium,
‘when the equilibrium is non in itself so per se compelling, and the handling of the pigment is kept inexorable, the consequence is that the painting tends non to keep the oculus: the witnesss oculus keeps resiling off, no affair how hard he tries to maintain it fixed on the picture… that has no built-in deepness… and ends up raising a sort of manus ball tribunal for the oculus.
Another Modernist value is aesthetic which is an emotion derived from the visual aspect of graphics. The aesthetic was really of import to Modernist creative persons as they aimed to make a religious topographic point for the spectator detecting their art.
Warhol incorporated the thought of the symbolism between the aesthetic of art plants and those of other non art merchandises. ‘Warhol as it were redefined aesthetic experience in footings of critical opposition. ‘
Warhol developed his ain comprehensive aesthetic theories, so we can state that Warhol adapted the Modernist thought of the aesthetic. He did this by altering the manner in which we viewed work by altering the manner in which work was made.
Form was another of import value in Modernism where Clement Greenberg drew much attending to the importance of signifier and in peculiar ; two-dimensionality. Greenberg believed two-dimensionality was wanted in art because it was what something which was sole to painting. He says: ‘For picture, such a focal point means, most significantly, the geographic expedition and averment of ‘flatness, ‘ that is, of the two dimensionality that distinguishes a picture from a sculpture. ‘
Warhol used signifier in his work, but in a manner that differed to most Modernists work. Form is the administration of stuffs. Warhol ‘s ‘ … usage of exposure silk screens… plays a function… in the progressive discarding of pictures tradition-laden luggage, while continuing its signifier. ‘
The Modernists values of Purity and Essentialism link together in Modernist work, as they refer to what is needed in art plants and what is indispensable and left after everything is taken off.
‘It was Warhol himself who revealed as mearly inadvertent most of the things his predecessors supposed indispensable to art… he brought the history to an terminal by showing that no ocular standard could non work out the job through art entirely. ‘
Warhol reproduces instead than represents, he seems to reject artistic edification, he does non take writing for his work. Earlier mentioned he was said to wish for others to make his work for him, nevertheless, he strips his plants down into a limited pallet of colorss, instead than specifying every item he uses merely the indispensable lines so that the spectator can recognize what the capable affair is. Warhol has adapted the thoughts of pureness and essentialism.
The concluding Modernist value is universality and the thought that art applies to everyone and that everyone can react to art work. He does this by utilizing celebrated people so that the mundane adult male could recognize his capable affair, he besides believed that anyone could be an creative person and wanted equality in society.
Warhol besides used mundane objects or topics in his work, so that everyone could associate to his art. He upheld the Modernist Value of catholicity, for illustration in planing his Brillo Box-Soap Pads ( Fig.3. ) out of an every twenty-four hours stuff to demo ‘the specifying function of theory to be a cosmopolitan truth about all art. ‘ Warhol speaks of doing his Brillo Boxes in concurrence with his Campbell ‘s soup tins:
‘I did all the ( Campbell ‘s soup ) cans in a row on a canvas, and so I got a box made to make them on a box, and so it looked amusing because it did n’t look existent… I did the tins on the box, but it came out looking amusing. I had the boxes already made up. They were brown and looked merely like boxes, so I thought it would be great merely to make an ordinary box. ‘
The 2nd portion of the inquiry asks how Warhol created ‘art after Modernism ‘ , through influence of modernist values Warhol successfully created art after modernism in the motion entitled ‘Pop Art. ‘
Lawrence Alloway was the first individual to render the thought of ‘Pop Art ‘ in 1958 which he described as ‘mass produced civilization ‘ , it so became normally used to depict new plants of art which had been produced in the period that had become a ‘central stylistic construct of the dad scene and a equivalent word for the cultural motion for the period in general. ‘ Warhol became portion of this motion through his usage of coloring material and topic.
‘Art is anything you can acquire off with ‘ was a celebrated statement by Andy Warhol, who produced graphics after the Modernist period which influenced and inspired many. Warhol was born in Pittsburgh in 1928 and died in 1987. He moved to New York and became a successful in writing interior decorator in the early 1950 ‘s, he worked for shoe manners and as interior decorator of show Windowss, so towards the late 1950 ‘s he began to bring forth and exhibit his ain drawings, in 1960 he produced his first canvas and so he developed into an smart creative person going portion of the up and coming daring motion known as ‘Pop Art ‘ .
‘If they told me to pull a shoe, I ‘d make it, and if they told me to rectify it, I would-I ‘d make anything they told me to make, rectify it and make it right. I ‘d hold to contrive it and now I do n’t ; after that ‘correction ‘ those commercial drawings would hold feelings, they would hold a manner. The attitude of those who hired me had feeling or something to it ; they knew what they wanted, they insisted ; sometimes they got really emotional. The procedure of making work in commercial art was machine-like, but the attitude had feeling to it. ‘
Warhol was described as ‘mercilessly exposing Modernist protocols. ‘ Warhol took an anti-Modernist attack in some facets of his art work and disregarded the Modernist thought of Abstract Expressionism ; a motion ‘deeply informed by its capable affair and the creative person ‘s attitudes towards their subjects directing their attitudes towards signifier and procedure.
Warhol ‘s procedure of making Silkscreens was a whole new technique. The silk screen print is merely a stencil, nevertheless Warhol combined it with photographical techniques which created different tonic terminals. Warhol selected his images from newspapers and magazines he so ‘sent it to a commercial silk screen print shapers with a note as to the coveted dimensions of the screen and the figure of colorss to be printed. When the screen had been prepared for printing, it was returned to Warhol ‘s Factory. ‘ This procedure of silk testing meant Warhol could reproduce work rapidly, merely and identically. Warhol besides ’employed helpers to publish his silk screens in his Factory. ‘ Warhol ‘s usage of silkscreening can besides be linked to the earlier point of universiality as this technique was mass produced and indistinguishable mirrored his positions on an equal society.
Warhol was openly homosexual and his anti Modernist place educated his most celebrated topics, Marylin Monroe ( Fig.4. ) and Elizabeth Taylor. These famous persons ‘were every bit much homosexual icons as objects of male heterosexual desire, non merely because of their publicized agony in heterosexual relationships, and his silkscreen-printed ‘portraits ‘ of 1962-3 the brassy inks virtually functioned as makeup, making ‘drag queen ‘ intensions. ‘
The Coca Cola bottle represents an image of mass produced consumer civilization which was encountered frequently in American society. Andy Warhol ‘s 210 Coca Cola Bottles ( Fig. 5. ) was made utilizing the printing technique common to most of his work. ‘ The ‘stacking ‘ of his merchandises in ‘rows ‘ implied a entry to the routinisation of supermarket-era shopping, every bit good as miming the techniques of mass production. ‘ This besides links to the earlier mentioned thought of universiality
In decision, Andy Warhol changed art as was one time know. He upheld the Modernist thoughts of the machine age and the universal, whilst rejecting the thought of equilibrium, pureness and essentialism and eventually accommodating the thoughts of the daring and aesthetic.
Finally he said: ‘Someday everybody will believe merely what they want to believe and so everybody will decently be believing likewise ; that seems to be what ‘s go oning. ‘ I feel that this sums up art after Modernism as it shows how the altering thoughts are accommodating the of all time changing universe.