The foliages of Chromolaena odarata ( normally called Thailand weed ) which is an ancient redress for the intervention of lesions and many complaints was tested for its antimicrobic activities on staphylococci aureus and Escherichia coli at different concentrations. The agar pour home base method was used to prove for its antimicrobic activity on the trial isolate. the infusions of Chromolaena odorata was introduced straight into the well of the two tested being. Laboratory survey. shows that Chromolaena odorata ( Siam weed ) has antimicrobic action against these beings. This research work establishes a good support to the usage of these workss in herbal and as base for development of new drugs.
INTRODUCTION CHROMOLEANA ODORATA ( SIAM WEED )
Chromoleana odorata ( normally called Thailand weed ) . is a diffuse quickly turning and strongly odorizing perennial bush ( phan. et al 2001 ) . It grows widely in the South and western portion of Nigeria. every bit good as in other parts of West Africa. The works is used by traditional medical specialty practicians in the intervention of many nutriments ( Gill. 1992 ) . Some of the traditional utilizations of the foliages of this works includes intervention of dysentery and concern. The mixture of the foliages with Azadracta indica. is used for the intervention of malaria febrility. The juice of the leave ( sometimes mixed with H2O ) is used to halt hemorrhage. The mending belongings of the medicative workss is normally linked with the presence of secondary metabolites and these differ from one works to another.
It has been reported that a significant per centum ( 38 % ) of prescriptions. contained one or more of the natural merchandise of works beginning. as the curative agent ( Farnsworth and bringel. 1997 ) . The usage of works infusions chemically derived from workss to handle diseases has stood the trial of clip ( Anwannil and atta. 2005 ) . Suck ( 1989 ) . had earlier reported that more than 75 % pure compounds derived from higher workss are used in modern medical specialty and are now produced synthetically. In recent surveies. infusion of the assorted parts of the medicative workss were found to hold brought spectrum antimicrobic activities against infective beings ( Sudhaka. et. Al. 2006 ) ( Khan et. Al. 2006 ) . BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Medical workss have contributed greatly to wellness attention in Nigeria. This is due to the acknowledgment of the value of traditional medical specialty system. peculiarly in Nigeria beginning. and the designation of medicative workss from local pharmacopoeias. which signifier important mending power. This undertaking work is fundamentally concerned with the antimicrobic activity of chromolaena odorata on Staiphylococus aureus and Escherichia coli. since they have been known to be responsible for different diseases in adult male. The staphylococcus genus include 31 species. most of which are harmless. and resides usually on the tegument and mucus membrane of worlds and other being found worldwide. They are little constituent of dirt microbic vegetation ( Holk ; J. G. 1994 ) . Escherichia coli is a bacteria that is normally found in the lower bowel of warm blooded animate beings. Most Escherichia coli strains are harmless. but some strains like serotype ; 0157: H7 can do serious nutrient toxic condition in worlds. The harmless strains apart from the normal floral of the intestine. can profit from their host by bring forthing vitamin K2. or by forestalling the constitution of infective bacteriums within the bowel ( Vogt R. L. Dippold 2005 ) . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose and aims of this undertaking work are:
I. To cognize if the leave infusions of chromolaena odorata will be repressive to the growing of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. two. To measure the antimicrobic activity of the works extracts. three. To be able to urge the usage of this works as intervention therapy. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this work is to:
I. Show the antimicrobic activity of the works
two. Establish a good support to the usage of the works in herbal medical specialty and as a base for the development of new drugs. LITERATURE REVIEW
Chromolaena Odorata ( Siam weed ) is on the watchful list for environmental weeds. dwelling of a list of 28 non-native workss that threaten biodiversity and cause other environmental harm. Siam weed is recognized as one of the world’s worst tropical weed. It has an highly fast growing rate ( up to 20mm per twenty-four hours ) and fecund seeds production. In the Torrid Zones of Africa and Asia. it is a major plague of harvests such as coconuts. gum elastic. baccy and sugar cane. It is besides toxic to stock. It besides has the possible to increase full burden in bush fire. and can do allergic reactions. Siam weed was discovered in Australia in 1994. and is believed to hold entered Australia as a contamination of grazing land seed used on a croping belongings in the sixtiess and 1970s. Siam weed has a really limited distribution in Australia and is confined to a little country in the coastal northern Queens land. Siam weed is perennial unsloped bush turning up to about 5m tall. organizing heavy distributing brushs or sprawling and scrambling workss turning up to 20m high when mounting flora. Its roots are slight and woody towards the base. with many roots produced from a long lived root stock. Side subdivisions are normally in braces.
The foliages are narrow-head- shaped of 50-120mm long and 30-70mm broad. with three characteristic venas in a “pitch fork” form as the species name “Odorata” suggests. It emits a pungent olfactory property when crushed. Description: Perennial shrub to 7m tall turning in the unfastened or 20m as a climber. Leaves triangular of 15-12cm long. with forward confronting serration’s on the border stems. The pitch seed is brown to black. of 4 -5mm long with white parachute-like hairs ( pappus ) at the top of the seed. Distinguishing Features: Distinguished by the acrid olfactory property of the foliages when crushed. and soft green opposite foliages with three outstanding venas. Dispersion: Seeds are dispersed by air current and H2O. and by motion of root and root fragments. Seeds may be blown to long distances and besides moved in clay on machinery and recreational vehicles. Growth: Siam weed is a perennial that can vie and smother harvests of native flora because of its phenomenal growing rate ( 20mm a twenty-four hours or 5m per twelvemonth ) . and ability to scramble up into taller workss to a tallness of 20m.
It besides produces immense Numberss of wind-borne seeds ( & gt ; 80000 seeds per works per season ) . Siam weed will turn in similar country to lantana. so it readily invades remnant atoms of rain wood. brook and river bank flora. It can besides turn under dense rain forest canopies. but less smartly. Toxicity: Young re-growth Thailand weed contains really high nitrate degrees and in other tropical states. has caused cowss deceases and abortions where stock have been manus fed with taint. Folder stock normally avoid eating the foliages ( acrimonious gustatory sensation ) . but will pinch off flower and seed caputs. Health Issues: Siam weed may besides do tegument ailments and asthma in allergy-prone people. Descriptive Habit/Form: Siam weed looks similar to blue top or Billy goat weed ( Ageratum species ) . but has a growing wont similar to ( Lantana camara ) . Several stems develops from the Crown. and the root system is hempen and shallow in moist dirts. The works besides develop an expansion at the junction of the root and root. referred to as the ” basal ball” .
Siam weed dies back in the dry season but reshoots after rain. Re-growth besides occurs quickly. Leaf and Stem: The foliages of Thailand weed are soft green. hairy. approximately triangular in form. with a typical “pitch fork” three-vein form. They can breathe a typical olfactory property when crushed. New leave growing can hold a violet colour. Flowers and Seeds: There are two signifiers ( Phenotypes ) of Thailand weed in queen’s land. The most common signifier are flowers from May to July and once more in September to October. bring forthing multitudes of pale lilac flowers that appears white from a distance. These turn a darker pink when mature. The less common signifier. are flowers earlier during February and March and so appears to be isolated to one sub-catchments. Most seeds germinate instantly after rains. though some seeds appear to stay hibernating for several old ages. Seed length of service research is go oning. Siam weed has spread throughout the tropical and sub-tropical countries of cardinal and western Africa. tropical America. India and South-east Asia.
Collection OF SAMPLES AND IDENTIFICATION OF TESTED ORGANISMS Urine and feacal samples were collected from few pupils of Auchi Polytechnic. Auchi. utilizing unfertile containers. These samples were cultured severally. Two strains of Gram-negative bacteriums. Escherichia coli. and four strains of Gram-positive bacteriums of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained. Pure civilizations of bacteriums were maintained in their appropriate agar at 40c throughout the period of work and were used as stock civilizations and inoculated into alimentary stock and so incubated at 30c in an brooder. The bacterial isolates were later identified utilizing civilization features and biochemical trial. COLLECTION/PREPARATION OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA ( SIAM WEEDS )
The foliages of Chromoleana Odorata was collected locally along Sabo off Iyakpi route in Auchi. 35cm of the leave infusion was poured into a unfertile container and so sealed with screen. The leave infusions was so kept in the research lab for 24hrs for usage. Using agar diffusion method. the leave infusion was introduced into the sub-cultured being by utilizing inoculating cringle to do a well to a considerable deepness on the alimentary agar prepared. The home bases were left at room temperature till the leave infusions seeped into the agar and the incubated at 30c in the brooder. SENSITIVITY Trial
After incubation for 24hrs. there was a clear zone of suppression on the country incorporating the infusion. The zones of suppression were measured utilizing metre regulation. The terminal point of the anti-microbial activity of the infusion in each zone was defined as the lowest-concentration bring forthing an suppression zone with the control being. Base on the work ( experiment ) performed. the infusion was identified to hold powerful antibacterial activity and the minimal suppression was so determined. BIOCHEMICAL Trial
Some of the trial carried out on the tried being are:
1. Catalase trial
2. Oxidase trial
3. Coagulase trial
4. Sugar agitation trial. and
5. Motility testRESULT TABLE II
Antimicrobial activity of Chromolaena Odorata ( zone of suppression ) against staphylococci aureus Chromolaena Odorata ( leave extract ) Samples of trial micro organismsZone of suppression ( millimeter ) Partially NeatPlate 10. 3
Partially NeatPlate 20. 4
Partially Neat Plate 30. 3
Partially Neat Plate 40. 3
Antimicrobial activity of chromoleana odorata leave infusion ( zone of suppression ) against Escherichia coli Leave extractSample of Micro organismsZone of suppression ( millimeter )
NeatPlate 10. 5
NeatPlate 20. 5
Neat Plate 30. 5
Neat Plate 40. 5
DISCUSSION Chromolaena Odorata ( siam weed ) . has been known for many old ages to hold antibacterial belongingss. The works is used by traditional medical practicians in the intervention of many complaints ensuing from infection by micro-organisms. and for dressing lesions ( Sudhakan Khan 2006 ) . In this survey. infusion of siam weed exhibited action against the selected microbic strains. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of different samples. were susceptible to the infusion of siam weed. By and large. the species of bacteriums from different urine sample have been tested for their sensitiveness to the antimicrobic activity of the infusion of siam weed and were examined individually. The two-tested being were found to be sensitive to the leave infusion but at changing grades.
Plate 1 and 2 of Staphylococcus aureus showed a lower limit cleared zone in the agar good diffusion home bases. bespeaking a partial suppression of growing. While strains of Escherichia coli showed a complete clear zone which indicates a entire suppression of growing. This shows that the being have opposition to certain antibiotic found in the leave infusion. This fluctuations could be as consequence of the measure of the infusion that was used on each well of the agar. All samples on the pure civilization shows zone of suppression. Chromolaena Odorata ( siam weed ) that can be used in intervention of septic lesions and disease can besides be a menace to human life in doing infections such as asthma and skin complaintsinallergy-pronepeople CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION
From this survey ( experimental work ) . it can be concluded that Chromoleana Odorata ( Siam weed ) posses antimicrobic activity. This probe. together with old surveies. supply support to the antimicrobic belongingss of Chromoleana Odorata ( siam weed ) . It can be used to handle assorted sorts of complaints and septic lesions. Attempt has been made to measure the value of siam weed as an antimicrobic curative agent. Surveies besides show that. some beings are sensitive to siam weed while others are immune. However. much remains unknown. which make this a fertile field for farther research on the effectivity of Chromoleana Odorata ( siam weed ) at different degrees of dilution against the growing of micro-organism. This is needed to warrant and farther measure the potencies of Chromoleana Odorata ( siam weed ) as an antimicrobic agent in tropical unwritten application.
I therefore recommend that scientist should demo more involvement in transporting out farther research happening in the usage of siam weed as medical specialty in the intervention of septic lesions. assorted sorts of complaint and other diseases.