AP Bio - Photosynthesis and Respiration

An autotroph is an organism that can produce its own food (almost all plants). The two strategies they use to make their food are photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.
What is an autotroph?What are the two strategies they use to utilize energy?
Heterotrophs are organisms that require energy from external sources, like autotrophs. They use energy in two ways: cellular respiration and fermentation.
What is a heterotroph? What are the two strategies they use to utilize energy?
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Yes, they also use cell respiration for themselves.
Do plants respire?
Chemosynthesis occurs in places where little to no light is available – extreme environments. Organisms that undergo chemosynthesis utilize chemicals to produce their own food. Hydrogen sulfide, water, and carbon dioxide are the reactants in chemosynthesis while the products are glucose and various sulfure compounds, usually hydrogen sulfate.
Where and how does chemosynthesis occur? What are the raw materials and the products?
alcohol and lactic acid. These processes are different from cellular respiration because they are anaerobic (without oxygen)
What are two types of fermentation and how do they differ from respiration?
6CO2 + 6H20 + sunlight -> C6H1206 + 6O2
Write out the equation for photosynthesis
686 kcal/mol.
What is the Delta G of this reaction?
the chloroplasts of plants
Where does photosynthesis occur?
Light reaction (photo) and Calvin cycle (synthesis)
What are the two parts of photosynthesis?
inside the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
Where does the light dependent part of the process occur?
Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and convert it into NADPH and ATP
What happens in the light reaction?
Water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight are the raw materials and oxygen, ATP, and NADPH are the products
What are the raw materials and products of this process? (light)
the stroma
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
NADPH, ATP, and CO2 are the reactants and G3P molecules, ADP, sugars, and NADP+ are the products of the Calvin cycle.
What are the raw materials and products of this process? (Calvin cycle)
Light – to excite plants and produce ATP and NADPH
Chlorophyll – gets excited by light; allows plants to absorb energy from light
Electron – move through the ETC after it splits off of water and combines with H+ to help make NADPH
Water – an electron doner
Hydrogen ions – creates a gradient for the synthesis of ATP
Role of the following steps of the light reaction
from the water
Where does the oxygen come from in photosynthesis?
the thylakoid lumen
Into which space are the protons being pumped?
what is the charge on the inside of the membrane?
ATP synthase
The name of the molecule through which protons escape is
ATP is synthesized; NADPH, ATP, and CO2 are reactants while NADP+, ADP, inorganicP, and sugars
What happens in the Calvin cycle? What are the raw materials and the products?
Cellular respiration is a catabolic process (breaks down sugars) and photosynthesis is an anabolic process (building sugars)
What is different in cellular respiration from photosynthesis?
-686 kcal/mol (exergonic – breaking down)
What is the Delta G in respiration?
glucose is broken down into two pyruvate and oxidized for the Krebs cycle
How is glucose broken down in glycolysis?
A process in the inner matrix of the mitochondrion that converts ADP into ATP, and produces NADH and FADH2 from NAD and FAD
What is the Kreb’s cycle and where does it occur?
They carry them to the ETC
What does NADH and FADH2 do with the electrons they harvest?
They are transported throughout the system and reduce the oxygen to make water
What is the role of the electrons in the ETC?
across mitochondrial membrane
Where are the protons being pumped into?
ATP synthase complex
Where do the protons escape through?
Oxygen is highly electronegative and the electrons are attracted to it, which pulls the electrons down the transport chain
How are the electrons “pulled” down the ETC?
What is the final electron acceptor?

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