all digits of a measured quantity, including the uncertain one!
solids have a definite shape & volume, liquids have a definite volume, and gas has neither!
matter classification (look at charts in notes)-
can be observed without changing the identity and composition of the substance (phase change)!
describe the way a substance may change, or react, to form other substances (chemical reaction)!
DO NOT depend on the amount of sample being examined (temperature, melting point, density, color, shape, luster)
DOES depend on the amount of sample (mass, volume, length)!
metric system and SI base units (including micro, nano, and angstrom)!
Celsius + 273.15= Kelvin
Celsius to Kelvin-
Kelvin – 273.15= degrees celsius
Kelvin to Celsius-
1 cm^3=1 mL (lxwxh// graduated cylinder// displacement)
mass/volume (g/cm^3 or g/ml)
In the following list, only __________ is not an example of matter.
D) elemental phosphorus
E) table salt
A. homogenous mixture!
A small amount of salt dissolved in water is an example of a __________.
A) homogeneous mixture
B) heterogeneous mixture
D) pure substance
D. elemental copper!
Which one of the following is a pure substance?
C) salt water
D) elemental copper
C. both homogenous and heterogenous mixtures!
For which of the following can the composition vary?
A) pure substance
C) both homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures
D) homogeneous mixture
E) heterogeneous mixture
B. either an element or a compound!
If matter is uniform throughout and cannot be separated into other substances by physical means, it is __________.
A) a compound
B) either an element or a compound
C) a homogeneous mixture
D) a heterogeneous mixture
E) an element
Homogeneous mixtures are also known as __________.
D. indefinite shape!
Gases and liquids share the property of __________.
B) definite volume
D) indefinite shape
E) definite shape
C. tarnishing of silver!
Of the following, only __________ is a chemical reaction.
A) melting of lead
B) dissolving sugar in water
C) tarnishing of silver
D) crushing of stone
E) dropping a penny into a glass of water
Which one of the following is not an intensive property?
C) melting point
E) boiling point
Which of the following are chemical processes?
1. rusting of a nail
2. freezing of water
3. decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen gases
4. compression of oxygen gas
A) 2, 3, 4
B) 1, 3, 4
C) 1, 3
D) 1, 2
E) 1, 4
B. 220 F
Which one of the following is the highest temperature?
A) The boiling point of water
B) 220 °F
C) 373 K
E) All of the above are identical temperatures
B. 149.20 C
Express the temperature, 422.35 K, in degrees Celsius.
A) 792.23 °C
B) 149.20 °C
C) 695.50 °C
D) 50.89 °C
E) 22.78 °C
D. how close a measured number is to the true value!
Accuracy refers to __________.
A) how close a measured number is to zero
B) how close a measured number is to the calculated value
C) how close a measured number is to other measured numbers
D) how close a measured number is to the true value
E) how close a measured number is to infinity
Which of the following has the same number of significant figures as the number 1.00310?
A) 1 × 106
A. definite, compressible!
Solids have a __________ shape and are not appreciably __________.
A) definite, compressible
B) definite, incompressible
C) indefinite, compressible
D) indefinite, incompressible
E) sharp, convertible
If matter is uniform throughout and cannot be separated into other substances by physical processes, but can be decomposed into other substances by chemical processes, it is called a (an) __________.
A) heterogeneous mixture
C) homogeneous mixture
E) mixture of elements
A separation process that depends on differing abilities of substances to form gases is called __________.
E) All of the above are correct.
The correct answer (reported to the proper number of significant figures) to the following is __________.
11.5 × 8.78 = __________
The number 0.00430 has __________ significant figures.
The quantity __________ m is the same as 5 km.
A. 2.49 x 104
How many liters of air are in a room that measures 10.0 ft x 11.0 ft and has an 8.00 ft ceiling?
1 in. = 2.54 cm (exactly); 1 L = 103 cm3
A) 2.49 × 104
D) 2.68 × 107
E) 8.84 × 105
Osmium has a density of 22.6 g/cm3. What volume (in cm3) would be occupied by a 21.8 g sample of osmium?
D) 2.03 × 10-3
E) 2.03 × 103
in a given compound, the relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant// “compounds have unchanging chemical formulas”
law of constant composition-
the total mass of materials present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass present before the reaction// “mass is neither created nor destroyed”
law of conservation of mass-
if two elements A and B combine to form more than one compound, the masses of B that can combine with a given mass of A are in the ratio of small whole numbers// “sometimes two elements can come together in more than one way, forming compounds with similar, though not identical formulas”
law of multiple proportions-
in 1896 Henry Becquerel discovered that a compound of uranium spontaneously emits high-energy radiation! this is called __________________!
in 1897 J.J. Thompson discovery of the ______________ using cathode ray tube!
in 1909 Robert Millikan measured in charge of the ___________ in his oil drop experiment!
also in 1909 Robert Millikan then calculated the mass of the __________!
1911 Rutherford discovery of the _______________ of the atom in gold foil experiment!
each of two or more forms of the same element (average masses of its isotopes and their relative abundance (look at notes & practice problems!)
average of all isotopes!
each row on the periodic table!
all of the elements in a period have the same number of atomic orbitals!
each column in the periodic table!
the elements in each group have the same number of electrons in the outer orbital (valence electrons)!
alkaline earth metals!
nonmetal to nonmetal; sharing of electrons!
metal to nonmetal; attraction of oppositely charged ions due to a reaction in which electrons are transferred!
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2!
diatomic molecules (make a 7 on periodic table):
in general, metal atoms tend to lose electrons to form cations and nonmetal atoms tend to gain electrons to form anions! ion is a charged particle, cation positive, anion negative!!
(1. prefix except mono) (2. prefix & ide)
naming covalent compounds (PRACTICE)-
________________ __________ide (transition metals use roman numerals except for Cd, Ag, and Zn)!
naming ionic compounds-
C. (ii) and (iii)
Consider the following selected postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory:
(i) Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
(ii) Atoms are indivisible.
(iii) Atoms of a given element are identical.
(iv) Atoms of different elements are different and have different properties.
Which of the postulates is(are) no longer considered valid?
A) (i) and (ii)
B) (ii) only
C) (ii) and (iii)
D) (iii) only
E) (iii) and (iv)
C. Millikan drop oil experiment!
The charge on an electron was determined in the __________.
A) cathode ray tube, by J. J. Thompson
B) Rutherford gold foil experiment
C) Millikan oil drop experiment
D) Dalton atomic theory
E) atomic theory of matter
In the Rutherford nuclear-atom model, __________.
A) the heavy subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, reside in the nucleus
B) the three principal subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons) all have essentially the same mass
C) the light subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, reside in the nucleus
D) mass is spread essentially uniformly throughout the atom
E) the three principal subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons) all have essentially the same mass and mass is spread essentially uniformly throughout the atom
Which atom has the smallest number of neutrons?
There are __________ electrons, __________ protons, and __________ neutrons in an atom of .
A) 132, 132, 54
B) 54, 54, 132
C) 78, 78, 54
D) 54, 54, 78
E) 78, 78, 132
Which isotope has 36 electrons in an atom?
Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of __________ but differing number of __________.
A) protons, electrons
B) neutrons, protons
C) protons, neutrons
D) electrons, protons
E) neutrons, electrons
The nucleus of an atom contains __________.
D) protons and neutrons
E) protons, neutrons, and electrons
In the symbol below, X = __________.
E) not enough information to determine
Silver has two naturally occurring isotopes with the following isotopic masses:
The average atomic mass of silver is 107.8682 amu. The fractional abundance of the lighter of the two isotopes is __________.
Element X has three naturally occurring isotopes. The masses (amu) and % abundances of the isotopes are given in the table below. The average atomic mass of the element is __________ amu.
In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in __________.
A) alphabetical order
B) order of increasing atomic number
C) order of increasing metallic properties
D) order of increasing neutron content
E) reverse alphabetical order
Which pair of elements would you expect to exhibit the greatest similarity in their physical and chemical properties?
A) H, Li
B) Cs, Ba
C) Ca, Sr
D) Ga, Ge
E) C, O
An element that appears in the lower left corner of the periodic table is __________.
A) either a metal or metalloid
B) definitely a metal
C) either a metalloid or a non-metal
D) definitely a non-metal
E) definitely a metalloid
Elements in the same group of the periodic table typically have __________.
A) similar mass numbers
B) similar physical properties only
C) similar chemical properties only
D) similar atomic masses
E) similar physical and chemical properties
Which one of the following does not occur as diatomic molecules in elemental form?
Which compounds do not have the same empirical formula?
A) C2H2, C6H6
B) CO, CO2
C) C2H4, C3H6
D) C2H4O2, C6H12O6
E) C2H5COOOCH3, CH3CHO
Which type of formula provides the most information about a compound?
A molecular formula always indicates __________.
A) how many of each atom are in a molecule
B) the simplest whole-number ratio of different atoms in a compound
C) which atoms are attached to which in a molecule
D) the isotope of each element in a compound
E) the geometry of a molecule
Which species below is the nitride ion?
Which species below is the sulfite ion?
B) S O3-2
Which species below is the nitrite ion?
Aluminum reacts with a certain nonmetallic element to form a compound with the general formula Al2X3. Element X must be from Group __________ of the Periodic Table of Elements.
The charge on the iron ion in the salt Fe2O3 is __________.
Which formula/name pair is incorrect?
A) FeSO4 iron(II) sulfate
B) Fe2(SO3)3 iron(III) sulfite
C) FeS iron(II) sulfide
D) FeSO3 iron(II) sulfite
E) Fe2(SO4)3 iron(III) sulfide
Which one of the following is the formula of hydrochloric acid?
The suffix -ide is used primarily __________.
A) for monatomic anion names
B) for polyatomic cation names
C) for the name of the first element in a molecular compound
D) to indicate binary acids
E) for monoatomic cations
The charge on the __________ ion is -3.
Which one of the following polyatomic ions has the same charge as the hydroxide ion?
The formula for the compound formed between aluminum ions and phosphate ions is __________.