they have thick, luxurious fur
What was the primary reason the southern sea otter nearly went extinct by the early 1900s?
They are a keystone species
The primary reason why southern sea otter recovery is important is
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Which of the following is the most common interaction between species?
resource partitioning
If multiple species find themselves competing for the same resource, the competition can be reduced by which of the following?
Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other?
interspecific competition
Which of the following is said to occur when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources?
Which of the following is said to occur when one organism feeds on another organism by living on or in the other organism?
Which of the following would not considered predators?
protective shells
Which of the following is not a method predators use to capture prey?
Which of the following is not a method prey species use to avoid capture?
When populations of two different species interact over long periods of time, changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to
changes in the gene pool of the other. This is called
The relationship between clownfish and sea anemone is
Plants such as bromeliads share a commensalism interaction with large trees in tropical and subtropical forests. The bromeliads are an
example of
using the energy or body of another organisms as a food source
All of the following are forms of nondestructive behavior between species except
sea otters
Kelp forests are a very important ecosystem in marine waters by supporting important biodiversity. These kelp forests are threatened by
all of the following except
resource partitioning
Species can, over a long period of time, develop adaptations that allow them to reduce or avoid competition by sharing resources. This is called
All: emigration, deaths, immigration, births
Population size is determined by which of the following?
A group of interbreeding individuals of the same species in the same geographic region is called a(n)
The most common distribution of populations is which of the following?
the one-way movement of individuals out of a population to another area
Emigration is
Which of the following is not a limiting factor for populations in aquatic life zones?
Which of the following is not one of the age structure categories?
All: rise in population of orcas, parasites from house cats, thorny-headed worms from seabirds, human pollution
Which of the following has caused the population of the southern sea otters to fluctuate?
carrying capacity
“The maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely without being degraded” is the definition of
logistic growth
Exponential growth followed by a steady decrease in population growth until the population size levels off is typical of
exponential growth
When plotting the number of individuals in a population against time the data yield a J-shaped curve, which indicates which of the
a reproductive time lag between birth and death rates
Which of the following would cause a population to overshoot its carrying capacity?
habitat destruction
Which of the following is an example of a density-independent population control?
competition for resources
Which of the following is an example of a density-dependent population control?
a rock exposed by a retreating glacier
Which of the following would exhibit primary succession?
recently flooded land
Which of the following exhibits secondary ecological succession?
Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate to severe disturbance?
The ability of a living system to survive moderate disturbances is called
Late successional plants are largely unaffected by plants at earlier stages of succession, a factor called
a tipping point
If the resilience of a damaged area is low enough, the degraded area may not be restored by secondary succession. When this
happens, the damaged area has reached
The southern sea otter is a tool-using mammal
The most common interaction between species is commensalism
humans compete with many other species for space, food, and other resources
detritus feeders and decomposers are considered predators
animal predators tend to kill the sick, week, aged, and least fit members of species, therefore increasing the fitness of the prey species
in predator-orey relationships, the predator is seeking food for itself and its offspring, while the prey is seeking not to become food for the predator. As a result, predator and prey populations exert tremendous natural selection pressures on each other.
at the population level, parasites are always harmful to the host species
species whose ecological niches overlap will be in competition for whatever the resource is in the overlap
There are always limits to population growth in nature
organisms with clumped distribution are fairly rare
a population will most likely increase if it is made up mostly of individuals in the “reproductive” or “near reproductive” stages
a population’s growth rate will increase as the population reaches its carrying capacity
the carrying capacity of any given area is not fixed
ab example of top-down population regulation in predator-prey species is predation
humans are exempt from population overshoot and dieback
large mammals are especially vulnerable to extinction because of their reproductive patterns
in communities and ecosystems, the types and numbers of species change in response to changing environmental conditions
Scientists have changed their view about a stable type of climax community as the end product of succession and are now suggesting we cannot predict the course of succession
grasslands have a high resilience and therefore can quickly recover following a fire
succession leads inevitably toward an ideally adapted climax plant community or ecosystem
primary and secondary succession tend to increase biodiversity and the sustainability of communities and ecosystems
keystone species
The southern sea otter has been classified as a
interspecific competition
____________ is a competitive interaction between species for food and/or space
______ occurs when a member of one species feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species
In _______ two species behave in ways that benefit both by providing each with needed resources.
The most common interaction between species is
When two or more species compete with one another, their niches are said to
competitive exclusion principle
The concept that no two species can occupy the same ecological niche for an extended period of time is known as the
When two different species interact over a long time, changes in the gene pool help both species to become more competitive or avoid
competition. This is called
warning coloration
Species that are bad-tasting, bad-smelling, toxic, or stinging-prey species advertise their characteristics using
behavioral strategies
Some prey species make themselves larger, startle the predator, or mimic a predator, all of which are called
______ is like an arms race between interacting populations of different species.
Vast armies of ____________________ inhabit the digestive tracts of humans and help break down or digest their food.
resource partitioning
Five warblers in the state of Maine have evolved to share food resources and reduce food competition through ____________________
The most common form of population dispersion found in nature is ____________________
early in life; generation
Individuals in populations with a high intrinsic rate of growth typically reproduce ____________________ and have short
____________________ times.
dieback; crash
A population exceeding its carrying capacity suffers a(n) ____________________ or ____________________, unless the excess
individuals can switch to new resources or move to a new area.
environmental resistance
___________________ is the combination of all factors that act to limit the growth of a population.
logistic growth
A plot of the number of individuals in a population against time yields a sigmoid or S-shaped curve, typical of
A species whose population size fluctuates slightly above and below its carrying capacity is said to have a fairly ____________________ population size.
ecological succession
The gradual change in species composition in a given area is called _______________
One of the factors determining at what rate succession occurs is _______________, in which one set of species makes an area suitable
for other species with different requirements.
primary succession
____________________ involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil.
tipping point
Systems, such as the global climate, can reach a(n) ____________________, where any additional stress can cause the system to change in an abrupt and usually unpredictable way that often involves collapse.

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