APES chapter 5

Eutrophication, followed by hypoxia, is a likely result, ultimately leading to less CO2 uptake and less oxygen released.
What is the likely result of the increasing amounts of sediments and fertilizers in the major rivers emptying into oceans and affecting algal beds, reefs, swamps, and estuaries?
tend to have more productivity than those without much freshwater
Overall, it appears that biomes with more available fresh water ________
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A large ecological unit influenced by temperature, elevation, precipitation, and latitude
Matter contained in living organisms
The solid earth beneath our feet
The process by which water moves from Earth’s surface (such as in lakes or rivers) to the atmosphere
Release of water vapor by plants through their leaves
water table
Upper limit of groundwater in soil or rocks
Water returns from the clouds to Earth’s surface as
a system
Any network of relationships among a group of components, which interact with and influence one another through exchange of matter and/or information, is referred to as ________
dynamic equilibrium
A system receiving inputs and producing outputs without undergoing any changes in size or function is said to be in _______
positive feedback loop
Cattle on an open range, in some areas, may compact fragile soils while grazing. This can damage plant roots, leading to fewer, smaller plants, which may in turn cause cattle to graze more and work harder to obtain food. This is an example of a _______
excess nutrients from fertilizers
The eutrophication that has taken place in the Gulf of Mexico and other locations appears to be due to ________
lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere
The physical, abiotic components of our planet can be divided into the____
an open system of organic and inorganic materials and energy
A natural ecosystem undamaged by human activity is____
The swamplands of extreme southern Louisiana, which contain elements of both the forests and coastal marshes, could be called ______
net primary production
A small section of prairie grasses, over a year, produces enough biomass to feed insects, mice, rabbits, birds, deer, antelope, and a host of decomposers. The amount of food potentially available to the herbivores is the _______
net primary productivity
The rate at which biomass becomes available to consumers is termed ______
transitional zones between ecosystems
Ecotones are the ____
it helps to define the entire closed system
Examining areas from the landscape scale, termed landscape ecology, is useful because ________
are required in large amounts for organisms to survive
the same few macronutrients limit growth everywhere
Experiments done in coastal regions of oceans throughout the world have demonstrated that ________
sedimentary rock and fossil fuels
The largest pools of carbon in the carbon cycle are ______
phosphorus from weathered rock
The origin of all phosphorous in biological tissues is____
atmospheric N2 gas
The origin of all nitrogen in biological tissues is ________
mutualistic and free-living bacteria
Nitrogen fixation is a process that makes nitrogen available to plants and is carried out by ________
as we produce synthetic fertilizers and apply them to crops, lawns, and parks
Humans have dramatically altered the rate of nitrogen fixation into forms usable by autotrophs _______
underground water reservoirs
Aquifers are_____
increasing evaporation
By damming rivers and using methods such as flood irrigation, we are _______
the atmosphere to various pools on the earth’s surface
Human beings have dramatically altered the flux rate of nitrogen from ______
is based on natural ecosystems and helps us design sustainable management strategies
Ecological modeling_____
understand the system functions of and sustainably use
Ecological modeling can help us_______ecosystem services
In an eutrophic aquatic ecosystem dissolved oxygen ________ and dissolved macronutrients _______

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