APES First Semester Final Exam

Raising crops and livestock for human use and/or consumption
Land use for food or fiber
Ex: corn, wheat, cotton
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Land use for grazing livestock
Ex: goats, cows, sheep
Protein, carbohydrates-sugar, fat, minerals, vitamins, (water)
5 things we need in our diet
North American Free Trait Agreement, Eliminated trade taxes for U.S, Canada, and Mexico and manipulated farmers from other countries to come work for us
Corn, beef, chicken, pork, wheat, potatoes, soy beans, lettuce, apples, bananas, fish, oranges
What do American’s mainly eat?
Goat, lamb, turkey, duck, quail, deer, ostrich, buffalo, dog
What are other type of meat American’s do not usually eat?
About 10,000 years ago
When did agriculture start?
The use of biological organisms to farm (people and animals)
Traditional Agriculture
Using irrigation, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and machinery for farming
industrial Agriculture
Uniform planting of one crops; a large amount of ONLY one crop
Industrialized agriculture spreading to developing nations
Green Revolution
Dr. Norman Borlaug (an Aggie) in the 1950’s. It was a controversial movement that was seen as a way to increase the output of specific crops to combat worldwide hunger through selective genetic breeding. It has brought good and bad.
Who spurred on the Green Revolution?
Cannot talk bad about the food industries
Veggie-Libel Laws
Diverting water for farming use
Essential nutrients, inorganic or organic, added to crops
An area that has suffered from the result of too many critters feeding on it
A reliable source of food available for the people
Food Security
People do not receive 90% of their caloric needs
People receive way too many calories each day
It makes people’s stomach’s inflate with gas, while their body is eating their own muscle tissues
What is Kwurshiorkur?
Corns, beans, and squash
What are some type of companion plants?
Feed over a billion people
Saved forest land
Increased worldwide wheat, corns, and maize productions
Green Revolution Pros
Increased industrialization
Genetically Modified Crops (GMO’s)
Shifted energy productions from sun based to oil based
Green Revolution Cons
Combat to kill pests (critters, bugs, etc)
Pests are starting to become genetically resistant to pesticides, what makes us develop stronger, more toxic chemicals to ourselves.
What are pests doing against pesticides?
Texas melon crop in 1997 was destroyed by the gummy stem blight because of resistance to Benlate.
What is an example of pests overcoming pesticides?
Using one organism to combat another. Ex: parasitic wasps, cactus moth, Bacilus thuringiensis
Biological Control/Biocontrol
Uses biocontrol, chemicals if necessary, transgenic crops, crop rotation, and mechanical removal of pests
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
GMO’s are Genetically Modified Organisms that have had their genetic material altered to fit the needs of a specific purpose
What are GMO’s?
Flavr Savr tomatoes
Bt crops
StarLink Corn
Mansato Roundup Ready crops
Terminator Seeds
Name some GMO crops
factory farm where animals are concentrated into small efficient spaces
1 cow can produce ______ lbs of waste a year.
200,000; Atlanta; Denver
The largest feedlot operation in the US can house over _______ heads of cattle. This amount of waste generated is more than the cities of Boston, ______, St. Louis, and _______ combined.
3,000; 400
In feedlots, on average a steer will eat _____ pounds of grain, and gain ____ pounds in weight.
Eggs are the most efficient; cows are the least.
There are cows, pork, milk, chicken, and eggs. Which of these is the most efficient; which of these is the least?
Farming that does not deplete soil nutrients faster than they can be put back into the system
Sustainable Agriculture
Not artificial, there are no synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, or herbicides
Organic Agriculture
Any food label starting with a _ on the code is an organic product
The farming of aquatic organisms, mostly fish
Virus; antibiotic
Aquaculture does have some negative factors. _____ outbreaks can happen, so can ________ contamination. There are also GM fish.
The average food product travels _____ miles before it gets to your plate.
People have used synthetic fertilizers, GMO crops, irrigation, and overgrazing to increase agricultural production.
What techniques have people employed to increase agriculture production?
Borlaug used selective genetic breeding and developed GMO’s (Genetically Modified Organisms) in poorer countries to help feed billions of people.
How did Norman Borlaug contribute to the Green Revolution?
People supported GMO’s and produced them in developing, usually poor countries, since they fit the needs of people.
Ex: Chickens – bigger breast
Cows: more milk/beef
GMO Corn
Describe several different reasons why many people support the development of genetically modified organisms, and name several different organisms and their uses
Positive- They are more efficient
They take up less space
Negative- Disease run ram-pet
Unsafe, unhealthy conditions
Leading cause to E-coli in our food
Bad, nasty, smelly, unhealthy conditions for both the cows and the workers
List several positive and negative factors of feedlots operations.
Beef is inefficient food because it takes up a lot of energy to operate the feedlots. It uses up a lot of gas, electricity, water, oil, etc
Why is beef an inefficient food from the perspective of energy consumption?
To put the nutrients back into our soil; to go back to traditional farmer techniques; and to decrease the industrialization of the food industries
What are the objectives of sustainable agriculture?
People are taking notice more to what they are eating and decreasing on eating GMO’s, and are increasing their dowsing of organic foods.
What factors are causing organic agriculture to expand?
Cuba is quite a champion on sustainable agriculture. Do you think if their economic situation was different, they would ultimately revert to industrial agricultural means? Why or why not?
A complex substance made up of distinguished rock, sediments, broken down organic matter, gas, water, nutrients, and biological organisms.
What is soil?
To support the plants, water the plants, hold the plants, and bring us food.
What is the purpose of soil?
100; 500,000; 100,000; 50,000
1 teaspoon of soil can hold up to ___ million bacteria, ________ fungi, ______ algae, and ______ protists.
Because of the diversity, soil is actually considered to be a __________.
A geological material that breaks down and forms sediment. Could be mountainous rock, lava, sand dunes, glacier, river sediment, or bedrock.
Parent Material
The rock beneath the parent material, it’s solid and where sediment comes from
Parent material that is broken down by either chemical or physical processes
Weathering, erosion, and then compacting
What are the steps of soil formations?
The movement of particles from one location to another
O Horizon: Organic litter layer
A Horizon: Topsoil
B Horizon: Subsoil
C Horizon: Parent Material
*R Horizon: Bedrock
What are the different horizons in soil?
The most important layer with respect of plants as this is where they gain their nutrients and food from. Nutrient content, ability to hold water, and depth will ultimately determine how well a plant will grow
The movement of nutrients through layers; organic matter decreases as you travel down the horizons
The process of growing plants in sand, gravel, or liquid, with added nutrients but without soil
Gellisols – Cold climates
*Histosols – Mostly organic material, cold soil forest
Spodosols – Wet, swamps, lakes
Andisols – Volcanic ash
*Oxisols – Rainforest, nutrient soil (because of rain low?) leading
*Vertisols – River deposits, plains, rivers, not common, Ex: Australia, Africa
*Artdisols – Desert soils
Ultrisols – Nutrient rich, mostly in areas where leave fall
Mollisols – Grasslands
Alfisols – ?
Inceptisols – ?
Entisols – ?
Soils we NEED to know (all soils, but the important ones will be stared)
Black-land Prairie – Savannah; East
Cross-Timbers – East of Sherman Dr.; Central
Grand Prairie – ?; West
What type of soils are in Denton, TX? ***Need to know apparently
Soil color: Can sometimes indicate fertility
Soil texture: Size of parent material particles
Soil structure: The ‘clumpiness’ of soil
Soil pH: The acidity of soil
What are some soil characteristics?
Consists of three categories: silt, sand, and clay
Be sure you are able to depict what type of category the soil texture is by using this graph: http://www.oneplan.org/Images/soilMst/SoilTriangle.gif
*Soil Textures (IMPORTANT)
How plants uptake nutrients. Finer texture and more organic matter make for better cation exchange
Cation exchange
Over-cultivating fields
Overgrazing range-lands
Clearing forests
What practices have increased erosion?
Splash Erosion: Bad for soil
Gully Erosion: Like a riverbed, water erosion
Rill Erosion: Elevated area, water falls
Sheet Erosion: Rain overflowing caught in a certain part of an area
What are the four main types of soil erosion?
After a long time of erosion, the end product is the removal of topsoil and loss of nutrients of plants. As this happens, plants and vegetation die, driving erosion even deeper
Crop rotation
Contour farming
Shelter belts
Nostill cropping
Ways farmers can fight soil erosion
Over-irrigation can deposit salt and excess nutrient sediments on the soil’s surface as the water evaporates
Irrigation, again
Build up of salt levels on surfaces and leads to ultimately killing plants. You can stop by not over-watering!
Intraspecific competition
Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of _______ ________.
Feed on and harm
By definition, parasites ______ their host.
_________ capture solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars
Species Coexistence
Birds of Paradise in New Guinea have developed intricate means of finding mates in many dancing and plumage rituals. A theory is that they their ancestors were trying to differentiate themselves based on their mating rituals. Because they have found a way to specialize within their species regarding resources, we call this ________.
Tropical Rainforest
Which terrestrial biome has the most biodiversity?
Have low temperature throughout the year
Taiga and tundra both
____ are typical primary consumers in a temperature deciduous forest
Microbes in our digestive tract that help us digest food demonstrate a(an) ________ association
Sea Otters
Which of the following are examples of a keystone species we have seen in class?
Public education, introduction of suitable predators, examination of imported goods
Environmentally and economically acceptable means of controlling introduced invasive species include
Dynamic Equilibrium
A system receiving inputs and producing outputs without undergoing any changes in size or function is said to be in ______
Positive feedback loop
Cattle on an open range, in some areas, may compact fragile soils while grazing. This can damage plant roots, leading to fewer, smaller plants, which may in turn cause cattle to graze more and work harder to obtain food. This is an example of a ___________
Excess nutrients from fertilizers
The eutrophication that has taken place in the Gulf of Mexico and other locations appears to be due to ______
Lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere
The physical components of our planet can be divided into the
An ecotone
The swamplands of extreme southern Lousiana, which contain elements of both the temperate deciduous forests and the coast, would be called
The poles and boreal forest
Where are the areas of most productivity found?
Water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Plants conduct photosynthesis, making glucose and other carbohydrates. To do this they need
Atmosphere N2 gas
The origin of all nitrogen in biological tissues is
As we produce synthetic fertilizers and apply them to crops, lawns, and parks
Humans have dramatically altered the rate of nitrogen fixation into forms usable by autotrophs…..
How much of our landmass is considered forest?
If they are all about the same size, then Delta will have the least biodiversity
There are four islands. Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta. Alpha is the closest to the mainland, Beta is next, Gamma is farther away, and Delta is the farthest from the shore. Which statement is true?
The rate of immigration is highest on Alpha
Regarding the same four islands in the previous question. Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta, it is true that
The offspring of some matings are sterile
A population of birds is found on a remote island. Which of the following information is most important in deciding if the birds all belong to a single species?
The greatest diversity (numbers of different species) of organisms can be found in
Elly! – Herbivory
Good Lord I’m hungry! I feel like eating some broccoli Bear Grills style. So I jump outside to my garden, find a broccoli plant and start going to town like I’m a starving dog. This form of ravenous hunger is most commonly called…
Removal of which of the following species from a given area, but not globally is called…
Endemic Organism
The species most often vulnerable to human impact is the…
The country of Belize depends on lobster for a major portion of its income, along with fishing and tourism. Over the past 30 years, the average size of an individual lobster has dropped, even as increasing numbers of Belizeans buy boats, build lobster traps, and enter the industry. This is an example of….
An invasive species has reduced the genetic diversity of indigenous species
European rabbits were introduced into Australia and quickly spread, reproduced, and become a terrible pest. They eat up to $600 million worth of food and pasture crops annually, and have damaged the populations of many native plants and the populations of animals that eat the plants. Twice in the past 50 years, rabbit diseases have been introduced to try to control the population, with little success. This is a case where….
Critters that get their energy from breaking down compounds are called…
Invasive species are a species that invade a certain area and reduce the genetic diversity in that area. Ex: Snake-heads, fire ants, zebra muscles, kudo, etc
Define the term of invasive species and give two examples from class
Jaguar, star cactus, Texas horned lizard, Finn-back Whale
List 4 organisms that are endangered in Texas
Fish, rabbits, horseshoe crabs, etc
Describe an animal in North America that has suffered from over-harvesting and be as detailed as possible including why.
Nutrients from fertilizers
What three factors contribute to the “dead zone” in the waters off the Gulf of Mexico?
The extremely low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the “dead zone” represent a condition called…
The process of nutrient enrichment, subsequent increased production of organic matter, and eventual ecosystem degradation is known as…
The term _____ describes all of the interacting organisms and the abiotic factors that occur in the particular place at the same time
We have yet to discover the total amount of all the different types of species on this plant.
There are still undiscovered areas on this planet that we yet to visit.
Provide two reasons why our estimates of species numbers are incomplete
Natural selection;
Increases in species diversity result from the process of ______ and decreases through the process of ______.
The total diversity of species in a given area (includes all species)
What is biodiversity?
Be sure to be able to draw a Fundamental and Realized Niche for four species competing for a similar resource.
List and describe the four theories of the origin of life
Describe how over fertilizing wheat crops in Kansas can kill Manatees in Mississippi
Sachiko and Fred are having a discussion about the scientific method. Sachiko makes the comment that every time she sees people carrying open umbrellas, she also sees several small car accidents. This is a(n)
Should be conserved
In general, natural resources….
Means consuming resources without compromising future availability
Sustainable development…
Use the peer review process
A study’s results are deemed worthy of acceptance into the body of scientific knowledge if they are published in journals which…
Growth is good
Which of the following is an assumption of neoclassical economics?
Which of the following values included volunteer work and pollution in a country’s goods and services?
People who predict disaster
Cassandras are…
A(n) ________ is best defined as one who evaluates an action based on its impact on human health, economic costs and benefits, and aesthetic concerns.
Aesthetic and cultural value
Modern market economies generally do not address
________ is best defined as the knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life shared by a group of people.
Grassroots and other nongovernmental organizations have brought lawsuits to correct environmental damage
The judicial system is important for environmental policy because….
Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation
The takings clause means that…
Focused on chemical pollutants, including pesticide use
Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring, published in the 1960’s
International conventions or treaties
International environmental law arises from
Indicate the relative numbers (frequency, or percentage) of individuals in each age class
Age pyramids, used to show the age structure of population, generally…
Began about 100,000 years ago
Which of the following is NOT (Kelsey) a mark of the agricultural revolution?
We have developed monoculture, which has led to us eating certain types of foods consistently which leads ultimately to obesity
How has the industrial revolution indirectly impacted the obesity of Americans?
Texas Horned Lizard
Which of the following is not a species that has gone extinct that we have discussed in class?
Your “handsome” teacher’s personal beliefs
Which of the following would not shape your worldview?
Gert B. Frobe and Clete Buckaloo are having an argument one day on how the US should make interrogation of foreign captives. Gert says that it doesn’t matter where on earth you are, everyone should maintain a similar ethic. Clete says that situations should vary with different cultures and cannot be compared. By these two definitions, Clete Buckaloo is most commonly defined as a….
Regulate consumption prices
Which of the following is not a role of the government in a mixed market economy?
A country becomes more industrialized and ultimately, will find a large stable population with low birth rates and low death rates
Which of the following is the best example of the demographic transition?
John Muir
The first person to come up with the idea of a preservation land ethic in this country was…
Annexation Laws
Environmental policy is traditionally very unpopular. Which of the following reasons is not something we discussed as a reason for this?
Which of the following is an administrative agency regulated by the Department of Commerce?
Indian removal/replacement
Which of the following is a mark of the first era of US environmental policy?
Army Corps of Engineers
Which of the following is not an NGO (non governmental organization)?
National Environmental Policy Act of 1970 (N/EPA)
The law that was a precursor to the EPA was…
At a 1.2% growth rate, what year can we expect our population to reach 14.1 billion people?
The country of Smithiscoolistan has seen 210,000 babies born, 190,000 people die, 13,000 people move out, and 11,000 people move in the past year. What is Smithiscoolistan’s natural rate or population change?
The Tragedy of the Commons is that if resources are not regulated, then they will run out.
What’s the Tragedy of the Commons?
Is being able to meet standards environmentally, economically, and socially
What’s the theory of meeting a Triple Bottom Line?
-Virtue, the personal achievement of moral excellence in character through reasoning and moderation
-Categorical Imperative, Basically the golden rule. Treat others the way you would like to be treated
-Utility, Something is right when it benefits the most people
List and describe the 3 ethical standards
Anthropocentrism: No other entities have rights
Biocentrism: Certain living things have rights
Ecocentrism: The whole ecological system has rights
List and describe the 3 ethnic perspectives

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