APES quarterly 1

Lithosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere
What are Earths structural spheres
All Earth’s organisms and the nonliving environent with which they interact
The biosphere is brst defined as
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Sum of all the planet’s living organisms and the abiotic portions of the environment with which they interact
The biosphere consists of the
Stabilize the ecosystem
Negative feedback process tend to function within ecosystems to
Increase; decrease
In an aquatic ecosystem experiencing eutrophication, levels of dissolved macronutrients ___ and dissolved oxygen levels _____
The soil being loose and to little nutrient cycling, allowing new grass roots to grow and prosper
Prairie dog activities probably contribute to
An increase in the prairie dog population
In the late 1800s and 1900s farmers and ranchers slaughtered coyotes, bobcats, wolves, etc one direct result
Their burrows loosened the soil and served as homes for other species; etc
In a previous chapter you read about “keystone species” how the prairie digs in the stir meet that
Once humans change one thing in an ecosystem, they may find unexpected results occurring elsewhere
One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this scenario is
Why we need to be concerned with damage to rainforests
This graph helps explain
Tend to have more productivity than those without
Overall it appears that biomes with more available fresh water
An ecotone
Containing elements of both forests and coastal marshes, the swampland of extreme souther Louisiana would be an example of
Transitional zones between ecosystems
Ecotones are
Tropical forest
Biodiversity is partially influenced by net productivity. Where can the highest terrestrial rates be found
Are required in large amounts for organisms to survive
The same few micronutrients limit growth throughout the world
Experiments done in Canadian Lakes and in coastal regions of the Baltic Sea and Long Island Sound have demonstrated that
Involves constructing and testing simplified representations of ecological systems
Ecological Modeling
Ecological modeling can help us ecosystem services
Productivity in these areas will increase permanently leading to more CO2 uptake and more oxygen release
CHART recall that areas with high net primary productivity not only produce high levels of biomass rapidly etc
In the form of ice
Majority of Earths fresh water exists
The first essential step in changing atmospheric nitrogen into more useable NH3
Sedimentary rock
The largest pool of carbon in the carbon cycle is
Phosphorus weathered from rock
The phosphorus in all biological tissues can trace back to
Mutalistic and free living bacteria
Nitrogen fixation is a process that makes nitrogen available to plants
By producing synthetic fertilizers and applying them to crops
Humans have dramatically altered the rate of nitrogen fixation into forms useable by autotrophs
Increasing evaporation
By damming rivers, we are
Mutualistic relationships between bacteria and certain root modules play etc
Excess nutrients from fertilizers
The eutrophication that had taken place in Chesapeake bay
Positive feedback loop
In some areas, cattle on an open range may compact fragile soils while grazing. this can damage plat roots etc. this is an example of
Dynamic equilibrium
A system stabilized by negative feedback, with opposing process offsetting each other
A system
Is any network of relationship among a group of components, which interact with and influence one another through the exchange of energy
Water return from clouds to Earths surface
Water table
Upper limit of groundwater in soil or rocks
Release of water vapor by plants through leaves
The process by which water moves form Earth surface
Solid earth beneath our feet
Matter contained in living organisms
Productivity in these areas will increase permanently, leading to more CO2 uptake and more oxygen released.
Recall that areas with high net primary productivity not only produce high levels of biomass rapidly, they also take up large amounts of CO2 and give off large amounts of oxygen. What is the likely result of the increasing amounts of fertilizers in the major rivers emptying into oceans?
mutualistic and free‑living bacteria
Nitrogen fixation is a process that makes nitrogen available to plants and is carried out by
by producing synthetic fertilizers and applying them to crops, lawns, and parks
Humans have dramatically altered the rate of nitrogen fixation into forms usable by autotrophs ________.
A J shaped upward curve with a very rapid increase
Which of these graphs show the Kaibab deer population between 1990 and 1923
The deer herd continues to increase so, the resources will continue to be damaged
What is going to happen to the area resources for deer after 1923
One deer per 8 acres
The initial population of Kaibab deer in 1906 etc
Wide Triangle, very wide at the bottom, an very narrow at the top
Mule deer such as the Kaibab population can live 10 to 25 years. Graph question…
The disappearance of a species from Earth
Extinction is
gradual, generally occurring when species cannot adapt genetically to changes in environmental conditions
Most extinction is
Species on Earth today are but a fraction of all species that ever iced
Which of the following is true
extinction and speciation rates
The two processes that determine the world’s current biodiversity are
all species evolve from pre existing species
The fossil record clearly shows that
Individuals of a single species that live and interact in one area
A population is a group of
Found only in one place on the planet
Endemic species
The functional role of a species in its community is its
increase the incidence of disease transmission and food scarcity
High population density can
spatial arrangement of individuals of a single species within a particular area or ecosystem
population distribution describes
indicates the relative numbers of individuals of different ages within a population
A population’s age structure generally
Pyramidal growth
Populations lacking any environmental resistance tend to increase by
average number of offspring carried to term by a species
The carrying capacity is the
include the effects of disease, predators, and food on a single species within a community
Density dependent factors
include the effects of disease, predators, and food on a single species within a community
Density-dependent factors
The groups will probably diverge genetically, and speciation may occur
Heavy rains and mudslides cause a river to change course, isolating two groups of lizards of the same species
An orchid endemic to a mountaintop forest where lodging is occurring
Of the following, ____ would be most vulnerable to extinction
Ecotourism combines wildlife conservation with economic benefits
Which of the following is accurate
broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and brussel sprouts bred from Brassica oleracea
One example of artificial selection is
having a bit more fur to withstand cold weather
In a population of field mice, an example of an adaptive trait that could help with reproduction and/or survival would be
A pod of 40 migrating gray whales
Of the following _____ would represent a clumped population dispersion pattern
Trace the flow of evolutionary change and diversification for a particular group of organisms
Phylogenic trees
cold weather causing lakes to freeze
An example of a density-independent factor would be
a generalist, able to be flexible in major dimensions of its niche
A coyote, which can alter its food intake to match seasonal abdundance of plants, fruits or small animals is considered to be
There will be less genetic variation from sexual recombination and a risk of not adapting quickly to environmental change
A species has evolved an asexual mode of reproduction by having offspring develop from unfertilized . Which of the following will be true of this species response to natural selection
birth rate, death rate, emigration, and immigration
Of the following ____ are the major factors that determine a population’s growth rate
encompasses all the organisms and the physical and chemical environment within an area
An ecosystem _________
At hakalau Forest in ______, ranch land is being restored to forest, invasive plants are being removed, and native ones are being planted
the variety of life in all its forms and combinations and at all levels of organization
Biodiversity is _____
Logistic growth
An S shaped population growth curve best describes
In ecology, a _______ is made up of interacting populations of different species that inhabit the same area
Specialists; generalists
The niche of a species is the functional role of that species in the community that it belongs to
When the organisms of a particular population seek habitats or resources that are unevenly spaced, the distribution of the individual in the population is
Both B and C describe these factors
A small group of leaf-feeding beetles locates a field of snap beans, one of the preferred plants for this species. At first, the population grows rapidly
is an effective barrier to mating and gene-flow between the two populations
The barrier between the squirrel populations
how quickly the squirrels learn to swim between the two habitats
Assuming the populations are of equal size, the length of time necessary for significant divergence to take place in the populations depend on
The population is inter fertile, i.e any male could succesfuly mate with any female
In the initial squirrel population prior to the isolation, it is safe to assume that
mating and gene flow between the two populations
the major force causing the genetic divergence of the two isolated squirrel populations is/are
Many interacting species that live in the same area
Communities and the abiotic material its which their members interact

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