APES Succession Quiz

Predictable replacement of one group of species by another group of species over time
Ecological succession
Surfaces that are lacking soil
Primary succession
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Areas that have been disturbed but have not lost their soil (pioneer species)
Secondary succession
Primary – barren in habitat
Secondary – Reestablishment of a community that has been disturbed
How is primary succession different from secondary succession?
Plant communities in an abandoned farm
Describe the example of secondary succession indicated in the simulation
Secondary is faster
How does the rate of secondary succession compare to primary succession?
The amount of soil might decrease.
Imagine a lawn on a campus or in someone’s yard. Are there any examples of succession there now? If no one maintained it for five years, what might it look like?
Shallow rooted herbs, lichen, algae
What are some of the “pioneer” species in glacial moraines?
Nitrogen fixation capability improves the soil
How do alder trees affect nitrogen content in soil?
They improve the soil quality, allowing for spruce tree growth
How do the alder trees influence spruce tree growth?
Secondary, it has supported tree growth before
Is the story of bog succession an example of secondary or primary succession? Why?
Waterlogged areas characterized by mosses and organic matter. Remain wetlands for a while and then develops grasses, shrubs, then trees
What are some characteristics of a “bog” area?
Beavers build dams which water logs trees and plants
Describe how water is diverted and how that contributes to the death of many trees and plants
Overtime, deeper rooted trees are able to grow until it is a forest with a narrow stream
How is the bog animation eventually changed into a bog forest?
800 + years
Over what time period does the course of succession take place in this temperate forest example?
A new generation of trees is established, but how fast this happens is determined by availability of seeds and conifers. For example, drought to competing vegetation could result in a larger time for establishment in the Pacific Northwest
Describe what happens in the post disturbance phase from 1-20 after the initial disturbance
It increases
Over time what happens to the complexity/biodiversity of the temperate forest over the course of hundreds of years after the initial disturbance
Renewal of crops after harvesting, flooding, bogging, and volcanic eruptions
Fire is one cause of secondary succession. List at least four other examples of secondary succession.
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