Apologia Exploring Creation with General Science 2nd ed. Module 6

Question Answer
Catastrophism The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of large-scale catastrophes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, etc.
Uniformitarianism The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of slow, gradual processes that have been at work for millions or even billions of years.
Humus The decayed remains of once-living creatures.
Minerals Inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth.
Erosion The process by which rock and soil are broken down and transported away.
Unconformity A surface of erosion that separates one layer of rock from another.
Sedimentary rock Formed from sediments (sand, silt, minerals, and other components of soil) that are laid down by water or some other agent.
Igneous rock Forms from molten rock (magma) that cools and solidifies.
Metamorphic rock When either sedimentary or igneous rock has undergone change due to extreme heat and pressure.
Lamination When a single layer of rock is less than 1 centimeter.
Nonconformity When stratified layers rest on top of unstratified layers.
Disconformities When there are parallel, stratified rock Layers above and below the unconformity, but there is a clear surface of erosion between them.
Paraconformities Unidentifiable unconformities.
Intrusion "Veins" of igneous rock that shoot right through several layers of sedimentary rock.
Sills Intrusions that run in the same direction as the strata.
Dikes "Veins" that run perpendicular to the direction of the strata.
Weathering The process by which rocks are broken down to form sediments.
Stalactite Deposits that start on the ceiling and form an icicle-like structure hanging down.
Stalagmite Deposits that form a structure that rises from the ground.
Column The meeting of a stalagmite and stalactite to form a single structure.

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