Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the intent of keeping and protecting the human organic structure against pathogens. Nano is one billionth of one. Nanotechnology is the engineering in which the operations are performed on nanometries. It is the application of different engineerings chiefly interested in the decrease of size.
The credential portion of this paper gives the theoretical application of nanodevices in the intervention of AIDS. There is no engineering for the intervention of AIDS. Some of the drugs of specific composing are given to the patients depending on the strength of the disease. The drugs utilizing presents are able to increase the life-time to a few old ages merely. To do the intervention more specific, we use nanosensors to feel the AIDS infected WBC ‘s. In this we are utilizing nanorobots to acquire back the HIV infected WBC ‘s. By making so changeless degrees of WBC ‘s are maintained in the blood watercourse. Thus the AIDS patient is provided with the immune system so that he can support himself from diseases.
Nano is one billionth of one. Now we have the alleged microprocessors and micro array engineering that would make the Nano degree within a few decennaries, we suppose. Some call this engineering to be nanotechnology and some others name it the molecular nanotechnology, to be specific.
REASONS FOR APPLYING NANOTECHNOLOGY TO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
Most carnal cells are 10,000 to 20,000 nanometres in diameter. This means that nanoscale devices ( holding at least one dimension less than 100 nanometres ) can come in cells and the cell organs inside them to interact with DNA and proteins. Tools developed through nanotechnology may be able to observe disease in a really little sum of cells or tissue. They may besides able to come in and supervise cells within a life organic structure. Miniaturization will let the tools for many different trials to be situated together on the same little device. This means that nanotechnology could do it possible to run many diagnostic trials at the same time every bit good as with more sensitiveness. In general, nanotechnology may offer a faster and more efficient agencies for us to make much of what we do now.
The emerging field of Nanorobotic is aimed at get the better ofing the defects nowadays in the traditional manner of intervention of patients. Our organic structures are filled with intricate, active molecular constructions. When those constructions are damaged, wellness suffers. Modern medical specialty can impact the work of the organic structure in many ways, but from a molecular point of view it remains rough. Molecular fabrication can build a scope of medical instruments and devices with greater abilities. The human organic structure can be seen as a keyword, building site and battlefield from molecular machines. It works unusually good ; utilizing systems so complex that medical scientific discipline still does n’t understand many of them.
BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOROBOTS
The tremendous potency in the biomedical capablenesss of nanorobots and the impreciseness and side effects of medical interventions today make nanorobots really desirable. But today, in this radical epoch we propose for nonomedical automatons, since they will hold no trouble in placing the mark site cells even at the really early phases which can non be done in the traditional intervention and will finally be able to track them down and destruct them wherever they may be turning. By holding these automatons, we can polish the intervention of diseases by utilizing biomedical, nanotechnological technology.
Nanorobot designed to execute cell surgery
WHAT IS MEDICAL NANOROBOT?
Nanorobots are theoretical microscopic devices measured on the graduated table of nanometres ( 1 nanometer peers one millionth of a millimetre ) . When to the full realized from the conjectural phase, they would work at the atomic, molecular and cellular degree to execute undertakings in both the medical and industrial Fieldss that have so far been the material of scientific discipline fiction Nanomedicine ‘s nanorobots are so bantam that they can easy track the human organic structure. Scientists report the outside of a nanorobot will probably be constructed of C atoms in a diamondoid construction because of its inert belongingss and strength. Super-smooth surfaces will decrease the similar goon of triping the organic structure ‘s immune system, leting the nanorobots to travel about their concern unimpeded. Glucose or natural organic structure sugars and O might be a beginning for propulsion, and the nanorobot will hold other biochemical or molecular parts depending on its undertakings.
Nanorobot in Nanoscale
Harmonizing to current theories, nanorobots will possess at least fundamental bipartisan communicating ; will react to acoustic signals ; and will be able to have power or even re-programming direction from an external beginning via sound moving ridges. A web of particular stationary nanorobots might be strategically positioned throughout the organic structure, logging each active nanorobot as it passes, and so describing those consequences, leting an interface to maintain path of all of the devices in the organic structure. A physician could non merely supervise a patient ‘s advancement but change the instructions of the nanorobots in vivo to come on to another phase of mending. When the undertaking is completed, the nanorobots would be flushed from the organic structure.
Nanorobot executing operations on blood cells
Nanorobotic scavenger cells called microbivores could police the blood stream, seeking out and digesting unwanted pathogens including bacteriums, viruses or Fungis. Each nanorobot could wholly destruct one pathogen in merely 30 seconds – approximately 100 times faster than natural leucocytes or macrophages – recognizing a harmless wastewater of amino acids, mononucleotides, fatty acids and sugars. No affair that a bacteria has acquired multiple drug opposition to antibiotics or to any other traditional intervention. The microbivore will eat it anyhow, accomplishing complete clearance of even the most terrible blood poisoning infections in proceedingss to hours, as compared to hebdomads or even months for antibiotic-assisted natural phagocytic defences, without increasing the hazard of sepsis or infected daze. Related nanorobots could be programmed to acknowledge and digest malignant neoplastic disease cells, or to clear circulatory obstructors within proceedingss in order to deliver shot patients from ischaemic harm.
More sophisticated medical nanorobots will be able to step in at the degree, executing surgery within cells. Physician-controlled nanorobots could pull out bing chromosomes from a diseased cell and insert freshly manufactured 1s in their topographic point, a procedure called chromosome replacing therapy. This would let a lasting remedy o preexistent familial disease, and permit cancerous cells to be reprogrammed to a healthy province.
IMPLEMENTATION ANTI- HIV USING NANOTECHNOLOGY
The virus responsible for the status known as AIDS ( Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ) , is named HIV ( Human Immunodeficiency Virus ) . AIDS is the status whereby the organic structure ‘s specific defence system against all infective agents no longer maps decently. There is a focussed loss over clip of immune cell map, which allows invasion by several different infective agents, the consequence of which is loss of the ability of the organic structure to contend infection and the subsequent acquisition of diseases such as pneumonia.
The immune system is a system within all craniates ( animate beings with a anchor ) which in general footings, is comprised of two of import cell types: the B-cell and T-cell. The B-cell is responsible for the production of antibodies ( proteins which can adhere to specific molecular forms, ) , and the T-cell ( two types ) is responsible either for assisting the B-cell to do antibodies, or for the violent death of damaged or “ different ” cells ( all foreign cells except bacteriums ) within the organic structure. The two chief types of T-cells are the “ assistant ” T-cell and the cytotoxic T-cell. The T-helper population is farther divided into those which help B-cells ( Th2 ) and those which help cytotoxic T-cells ( Th1 ) . Therefore, in order for a B-cell to make its occupation requires the biochemical aid of Th2 helper T-cells ; for a cytotoxic T-cell to be able to climinate a damaged cell ( say, a virally-infected cell ) , requires the biochemical aid of a Th1 helper T-cell.
Whenever any foreign substance or agent enters our organic structure, the immune system is activated. Both B- and T-cell members respond to the menace, which finally consequences in the riddance of the substance or agent from our organic structures. If the agent is one which goes inside one of our cells and remains there most of the clip ( intracellular pathogens like viruses or certain bacteriums which require the interior of one of our cells in order to populate ) , the “ best ” response is the activation of cytotoxic T-cells ( circulate in the blood stream and lymph ) , which eliminate the agent through violent death of the cell which contains the agents ( agent is otherwise “ concealed ” ) . Both of these sorts of responses ( B-cell or cytotoxic T-cell ) of class require specific helper T-cell biochemical information as described above. Normally, both B-cell and cytotoxic T-cell responses occur against intracellular agents which provide a two-pronged onslaught. Normally, these actions are wondrous protective of us. The consequence of HIV on the immune system is the consequence of a gradual ( normally ) riddance of the Th1 and Th2 helper T-cellsub-populations.
Operation OF HIV
How HIV Specifically Affects the Immune System Remember about the proteins, which are portion of the envelope of HIV? Well, one of these proteins, named general practitioner 120, ( a sugar-containing protein called a glycoprotein, of about 1,20,000 molecular weight ) , “ recognizes ” a protein on helper T-cells named CD4, and physically associates with it. The CD4 [ bunch of Differentiation Antigen No. 4 ] protein is a normal portion of a assistant ( both Th1 and Th2 ) T-cell ‘s membrane.
Method of infection of HIV
Therefore, CD4 is a specific receptor for HIV. This virus nevertheless, can besides infect other cells which include macrophages and certain sorts of cells which can steep substances through a procedure known as phagocytosis. As a effect of the interaction with CD4 on helper T-cells, HIV specifically infects the really cells necessary to trip both B-cell and cytotoxic TZ-cell immune responses. Without helper T cells, the organic structure can non do antibodies decently, nor can infect cells incorporating HIV ( an intracellular pathogen ) be decently eliminated. Consequently, the virus can: multiply, kill the helper T-cell in which it lives, infect next helper T-cells, repeat the rhythm, and on and on, until finally there is a significant loss of helper T-cells.
The battle between the virus and the immune system for domination is uninterrupted. Our organic structure responds to this onslaught through production of more T-cells, some of which nature to go helper T-cells. The virus finally infects these marks and eliminates them, excessively. More T-cells are produced ; these excessively become septic, and are killed by the virus. This battle may go on for up to ten old ages before the organic structure finally succumbs, seemingly because of the inability to any-longer green goods T-cells. This loss of helper T-cells eventually consequences in the complete inability of our organic structure to ward-off even the weakest of beings ( all sorts of bacteriums and viruses other than HIV ) which are usually non of all time a job to us. This acquired status of immunodeficiency is called, AIDS.
Structure of AIDS virus
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome by itself is non a slayer disease. The cause of AIDS is the HIV virus that is capable of destructing the immune system. Thereby the host system is vulnerable to little diseases which will turn into a fatal one but really it is non a fatal disease. The HIV virus onslaught the WBC ‘s by change overing them into the HIV. Thereby all the WBC ‘s are converted into HIV, so the immune system will neglect. This is the ground for the decease of the patient. Our thought is to change over the AIDS affected WBC ‘s dorsum into the original signifier of the WBC by utilizing a Nanorobot, thereby the patient is made to hold a changeless sum of immune system. Nanorobot performs the reverse procedure of the HIV.
The HIV converts the WBC in a faster mode. So the transition by the A-HIV Nanorobot should besides be really much faster than that of the HIV, so that a changeless degree of WBC ‘s are maintained in the blood watercourse. Because of this, an AIDS patient can desert himself from assorted diseases. The transition rate should be at least five times greater than that of the HIV transition rate.
The basic equation for the transition of the HIV infected WBC ‘s dorsum to its original signifier is given below. The host system is the WBC and is converted by the HIV into an septic WBC. This is the ground for AIDS.
Creation OF NANO DEVICES
The creative activity of the nano devices can be done utilizing any of the two techniques that are available. They are
CHALLENGES FACED BY NANOROBOTS
While planing nanorobots in nanoscale dimensions there should be a better apprehension of how matter behaves on this little graduated table. Matter behaves otherwise on the nanoscale than it does at larger degrees. So the behaviour of the nanorobots must be taken attention so that the bash non impact us both inside the organic structure.
Other challenges apply specifically to the usage of nanostructures within biological system. Nanostructures can be so little that the organic structure may unclutter them excessively quickly for them to be effectual in sensing or imagination. Larger nanoparticles may roll up in critical variety meats, making a toxicity job. So we need to see these factors as they anticipate how nanostructures will act in the human organic structure and effort to make devices the organic structure will accept.
Design OF NANOROBOTS
The nanorobots that we describe here will be drifting freely inside the organic structure researching and observe the HIV virus. So, while planing such a Nanorobot for AIDS intervention, the chief factors that are to be considered are given below.
We use bottom-up attack, which involves piecing constructions atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule which will be utile in fabricating devices used in medical specialty.
Nanorobots will typically be.5 to 3 micrometers big with 1-100 millimeter parts. There micrometers is the upper bound of any nanorobot because nanorobots of larger size with block capillary flow.
The nanorobot ‘s construction will hold two infinites that are,
It will be a closed, vacuum environment into which liquids from the exterior can non usually enter unless it is needed for chemical analysis.
It will be subjected to assorted chemical liquids in our organic structure.
Carbon will probably be the chief component consisting the majority of a medical nanorobot, likely in the signifier of diamond or diamondoid/fullerene nanocomposites mostly because of the enormous strength and chemical inertness of diamond. Many other light elements such as H, sulfur, O, F, Si, etc. may besides be used.
ABILITY TO DEFEND FROM IMMUNE SYSTEM
Immune system response is chiefly a reaction to a ‘foreign ‘ surface.. Passive diamond outsides may turn out to be ideal. Several experimental surveies hint that the smoother and more flawless the diamond surface, the less leukocyte activity and the less fibrinogen surface assimilation we will acquire. So it seems sensible to trust that when diamond coatings can be laid down with about unflawed atomic preciseness, doing nanorobot exterior surfaces with near-nanometer smoothness that these surfaces may hold really low bioactivity. Due to the highly high surface energy of the passivated diamond surface, the diamond outside is about wholly chemically inert and so opsonisation should be minimized. If unflawed diamond surfaces entirely do non turn out to the full bioinactive as hoped, active surface direction of the nanorobot outside can be used to guarantee complete nanodevice biocompatibility. Allergic and daze reactions are likewise easy avoided.
It could metabolise local glucose and O for energy. Another possibility is externally supplied acoustic power, which is likely most appropriate in a clinical scene. There are literally tonss of utile power beginnings that are potentially available in the human organic structure.
Having nanorobots inside the organic structure it is really indispensable to cognize the actions done by it. There are many different ways to make this. One of the simplest ways to direct broadcast-type messages into the organic structure to be received by nanorobots is acoustic messaging. A device similar to an ultrasound investigation would encode messages on acoustic bearer moving ridges at frequences between 1-10 MHz.
A Navigational web may be installed in the organic structure, with station maintaining navigational elements supplying high positional truth to all go throughing nanorobots that interrogate them, desiring to cognize their location. Physical places can be reported continuously utilizing an in vivo communications web.
STRUCTURE OF NANOROBOT
The nanorobot consists of three chief parts like the DNA detector, CPU, RNA convertor and the power system. The intent of DNA detector is to place the HIV infected cell. The RNA convertor is used to alter the RNA of the HIV. The CPU controls all the activities. The power system provides the necessary energy for the working of the nanorobot.
Components OF NANOROBOT
Deoxyribonucleic acid SENSOR
The Deoxyribonucleic acid detector is a cantilever type. In one arm the existent sample is placed and in the 2nd arm the sample from the WBC is placed. Even if the samples differ by a individual base it can be identified. The construction is given below.
Carbon nanotube web field-effect transistors ( NTNFETs ) that map as selective sensors of DNA immobilisation. NTNFETs with immobilized man-made oligonucletides have been shown to specifically acknowledge mark DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism ( SNP ) favoritism in the HFE cistron, responsible for familial iron-storage disease. The electronic responses of NTFETs upon single-standard DNA immobilisation and subsequent DNA hybridisation events were confirmed by utilizing fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and so were farther explored for label-free DNA sensing at Pico grinder to micro molar concentrations.
The nanorobot uses the glucose molecules present in the human organic structure as the beginning. The transition of this glucose molecule into the energy is accomplished by the energy convertor, which is an of import portion of the nanorobot.
REQUIREMENTS OF NANOROBOT
It should be really little so that the blood capillary flow is non affected.
It should non be affected by the WBC.
It should be capable of feeling the HIV infected WBC merely and its action is restricted to the infected WBC merely.
It should do its operations in the RNA to change over back to the original Deoxyribonucleic acid of the WBC by suited altering the bases like the A, G.
It should change over the septic WBC into the original WBC in a really faster mode.
It should be made of cheaper rates, so that the patient can afford it easy.
The designed anti-HIV nanorobots are injected into the blood watercourse. These nanorobots continues the procedure of transition in the bone marrow, blood and in the Thymus glands where the concentration the WBC ‘s are more. This procedure takes topographic point in the normal decease of the patient.
More than million people in this universe are affected by this awful disease. Presently there is no lasting vaccinum or medical specialty is available to bring around the disease. The presently available drugs can increase the patient ‘s life to a few old ages merely, so the innovation of this nanorobot will do the patients to acquire rid of the disease.
As the nanorobot do non bring forth any harmful activities there is no side consequence. It operates at specific site merely.
The initial cost of development is merely high but the fabrication by batch processing reduces the cost.
The paper is merely a theoretical justification. But the recent promotion in the field of nanotechnology gives the hope of the effectual usage of this engineering in medical field. This paper starts by giving an debut to nanorobots and its importance as recognized by assorted other technocrats. This is the beginning of nano epoch and we could anticipate farther betterments such as a medical specialty to AIDS utilizing nanotechnology.