As we all know, under the interacting and developing society state of affairs, the survey of what people do and believe in an Administration is going more and more indispensable, therefore we need to acquire a thorough apprehension of organizational behavior and the theories it argues. This essay will specify three of import subjects: motive, leading and personality. It will besides show the application of them and analyze how they work in modern-day Organisations. A important point that will be made is that the three subjects are connected with each other internally. Now we will analysis them severally.
Harmonizing to Buchanan and Huczynski ( 2004, p.244 ) “ motive is the cognitive, decision-making procedure through which end directed behavior is initiated, energized, directed and maintained. ” The application of motive has been widely used in economic practicing. It is rather common to see a group of people in an Administration who are making similar and indistinguishable occupations eventually come to different effects — some perform better than the others. We know that their motivations are chief causes of their behavior. In this manner, directors can do the best usage of the theory of motive to develop employees ‘ high-quality public presentation.
Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory is likely the most celebrated and cardinal content theory in this country. Maslow proposed that people have a constitutional set of five basic demands, which can be arranged in a hierarchy ( Bratton et al 2010 ) , from lower degree to higher degree, they are:
Biological and physical demands
In his theory, one time the lower-level demands are about satisfied, people begin to prosecute the higher-level, for they have an interior demand of recognizing their possible and traveling up the hierarchy. It has been demonstrated ( Pugh1991 ) that “ a demand is non effectual as a incentive until those before it in the hierarchy are more or less satisfied. You are non likely to worry about the sharks if you are submerging, for example. “
First, in the economic environment, we can stipulate biological and physical demands as some motivation factors, such as fillip, public assistance, therefore the direction scheme can bei?sImprove the system of fillip and loan, ameliorate the installations of public assistance and so forth.
Second, we can see from the list above, safety demand is the 2nd lowest of the five, that is to state, directors should pay adequate attending to work safety, for illustration, and they can do probe of different degrees of safety that employees need, so suggest the corresponding safety direction ordinances, like medical insurance and auxiliary commercial insurance.
Third, with the lower-order physiological and safety demands are satisfied, directors have the duty to offer employees back up, encouragement and acknowledgment to assist them work their advantages and abilities, besides, a grade of liberty is besides necessary ( Lau 1975 ) .Microsoft was started 27 old ages ago and was built into the most profitable engineering company in the universe. To be better able to react to environment alterations, its top executives created several new divisions, like Business and Enterprise Division, Home and Retail Division and so on. The caputs of the eight divisions are given the freedom and authorization to run the concern and pass their budgets as they fit, provided they meet gross and net income ends, which makes the new construction radical and effectual ( Daft 2004 ) . The liberty given to them is a symbol of trust and grasp, in this manner the caputs of the new divisions are decidedly extremely motivated.
All in all, although it is non easy to happen which demand is prior over a period of clip, “ directors have to cognize where their employees are located on the demands hierarchy, and guarantee that their lower-order demands are satisfied before appealing to their higher-order demands ” ( Bratton et al 2010 ) . The “ demand ” may alter with age, increased cognition and experience.
However, the theory of Maslow has its restriction, it was put frontward “ as a typical image of what might go on under ideal ( and hence seldom attained ) conditions. “ ( Pugh1991 ) .To some extent, it is ambiguity and obscure, we can non specify the distinct point of the hierarchy needs. An person may prefer being recognized by others to carry throughing his hungriness, or may be a individual would wish to seek for several demands at the same clip. We should do analysis of specific issues and avoid utilizing the theory blindly.
American psychologist Herzberg advocated another theory of motivation-two factor theory, it is better known as “ motivator-hygiene theoretical account ” . One factor is called hygiene factor and the other is incentive. Hygiene factors include company policy, salary, security and working conditions. These factors are associated with an person ‘s negative feelings about the occupation and are related to the environment in which the occupation is performed. ( Hellriegel & A ; Slocum 2007 ) . Motivator factors include achievement, acknowledgment and the work itself. Compared with Maslow theory, hygiene factor is similar to the lower-level demands ( physical, safety and societal demands ) , while incentive is more or less the same as the higher-level demands ( self- regard and self- fulfilment ) ( Hellriegel & A ; Slocum2007 ) .
Herzberg ‘s theory makes a great part to the scientific direction attack. The application of hygiene factor by directors can take dissatisfaction of employees, what is more of import, directors can take full advantage of incentive to increase their motive and public presentation, in making so, material inducement and religious inducement should be combined with each other. For illustration, directors can follow sensible and competitory wage system and give employees honour or care at the same clip. We will take Kingston Technology Co for illustration, the frailty president David Sun and its president John Tu ever say, ” concern is non about money, it is about relationships ” . When the two sold 80 per centum of Kingston to Softbank Corp, of Japan for $ 1.5 billion, they set aside $ 100 million of the returns for employee fillips. However, when people ask why they like working for Kingston, they talk about personal Acts of the Apostless of gradualness and kindness performed by the two top leaders alternatively of adverting money and benefits. And because employees are treated with attention and regard, they pass that attitude on in their relationships with each other and with clients. We can see that employees are extremely motivated to run into organizational ends and maintain the company ‘s repute for making the right thing. ( Daft 2004 )
Nowadays we are surrounded by cut-throat competition of concern, Organisations face major troubles in actuating employees to be competitory, adaptable and effectual. Martin ( 1998 ) has implied that “ Motivation is a construct that may be intuitively attractive in explanatory footings and offer some chance for directors to heighten the nature of work for persons. However, it is non possible to offer a unequivocal definition of the construct or how it is and should be used by directors. It is a societal and a political construct every bit good as being a psychological 1. ”
Leadership is act uponing, actuating and enabling others to lend towards the effectivity and success of the Organisations of which they are members ( Bratton et al 2010 ) .As we all know, it is a sort of necessary ability in our societal work and Organisations, leaders need to actuate others to accomplish ends by utilizing leading accomplishments, we have to state that leading is an effectual factor of organizational development.
Leaderships should take the advantage of their leading accomplishments and demonstrate relevant ability, Daft ( 2004 ) one time argued that “ it can offer of import values to employees to heighten organizational effectivity, actions speak louder than words. ” Leaderships could work theories of leading to accomplish this. The leaders of MTW Corp usage leading accomplishments to reform the company, they craft an outlooks understanding with each employee to do certain all of them understand what their demands and aspirations are, which spells out both professional and personal ends. Some employees might desire challenge and chance above everything else, whereas others extremely value occupation flexibleness to manage their household and personal demands, it helps to vouch that employees live up to their committednesss every bit good as that directors follow through on their promises ( Daft 2004 ) . The effectivity of leading make MTW adapt to the competition and the altering economic environment better.
Fiedler ‘s eventuality theory possibly one of the most well-known and oldest theories in this country. It reveals a position that leaders must set their manner in a mode consistent with facets of the context ( Buchanan & A ; Huczynski2004 ) .The theory classifies leaders into two kinds: undertaking oriented and relationship oriented. Task oriented leaders are aimed at accomplishing ends and carry throughing the work, while relationship oriented leaders are concentrated on building good and harmonious relationship with their subsidiaries. As the theory assumes there is no general best method in direction, or to state, “ there is no 1 ideal set of traits or best behavioural form. ( Buchanan & A ; Huczynski2004 ) ” leaders have to be clearly cognizant of the variable factors in each state of affairs and hold on the complicated relationship between cause and consequence, so take steps of different place flexibly. It is obvious that the survey of leading should affect non merely a survey of leaders but of state of affairss ( Wilson2004 ) .
Many eventuality theories suggest that leaders need to alter their leading manner to suit the state of affairs. However, Fiedler ‘s theory argues that leaders should alter the context to do the best of their ability, in this manner, direction could be more effectual. Another point that leaders need to pay attending to is “ invention ” , with the rapid development of economic system, larger graduated table of endeavor and the shorten of update rhythm, the external environment go more and more unsure, therefore leaders need to follow some originative schemes. We can see the illustration of Goldlion, the leader of the trade name have considered the hereafter development status at the beginning of puting it up. It changed its advertisement words from “ tie of Goldlion, universe for adult male ” to “ Goldlion, universe for adult male ” , it reveals that one time its place of tie is established, it can develop into two waies: trade name publicity and endeavor enlargement, in this manner, Goldlion become stronger in the progressively heated competition and happen its ain way of progressing.
Another widely used and extremely influential theory — situational leading theory was proposed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, it comes from the anticipation theory of motive and suggests that leaders should change their behavior to fit the demand of the followings. As Pugh ( 1991 ) delivers, “ situational leaders is an attack to finding the most effectual manner of act uponing which takes into history the sums of way and back up the leader gives, and the preparedness of followings to execute a peculiar undertaking. ” What different from other theories is that situational leading theory is based on the followings, non leaders. It requires leaders to assist followings put ends and manage the value of the aim, in the procedure of making this, leaders can develop their ability and do them satisfied. We besides need to pay attending to two rules: foremost, leaders should follow the leading manner which followings are willing to accept. Second, the leading manner must be actuating, besides leaders need to swear and honor the followings, Ralph Waldo Emerson said “ Trust work forces and they will be true to you ; handle them greatly and they will demo themselves to be great. ” Since the sense of acknowledgment is rather indispensable, followings ever need to be motivated and appreciated.
The theory shows there are four types of leading behavior: directing leading, supportive leading, participative leading and achievement-oriented leading. It is flexible and the four can look on one individual. Leaderships should be able to alter their manner to suit to the current state of affairs. Meanwhile, better followings ‘ sense of designation is really indispensable, that means, if a leader who holds clear and definite values can appeal the same values of the followings, his leading behavior would be more impactful.
Thompson and McHugh ( 2002 ) argue that “ The survey of leading is so straight to the betterment of direction control schemes and to the polish of the tactical options open to directors in the daily pattern of modulating workplace behaviour. ” Leaderships need to set their leading manner clip to clip. Effective leading behavior is assessed by the ability of seting the action of an Organisation and inspiring, actuating followings ; therefore the Administration can come through troubles and accomplish its ends.
Personality is an indispensable factor that we have to pay close attending to in an Administration. If a director is capable of placing persons ‘ personality, he will be able to cognize how to set up the places decently. A assortment of steps like personality trial and behaviour appraisal are used by directors to place employees ‘ disposition. Buchanan and Huczynski ( 2004 ) indicate that “ personality is the psychological qualities that influence an person ‘s characteristic behavior forms in a stable and typical mode. ”
Both genetic sciences and societal context influence personality ( Pugh1991 ) . We are born with a peculiar feature ; it is decided by familial factors, while we will besides be affected by the external factors, like life environment and single experience. Ellis and Dick ( 2003 ) propose that “ the nature of personality is a extremely contested sphere in psychological science, and there are other attacks that suggest the human character is likely to alter and develop ” , as single personality can be influenced by situational factors, we can state that personality appears to be dynamic and flexible.
An American psychologist Cooley provided a theory of personality: looking- glass ego. It argues that we begin to see ourselves as others see us through the responses that we generate from others ( Martin1998 ) .Other people ‘s sentiment on you is merely like a mirror, which can reflects the feeling back to you. During this procedure, we can hold a better apprehension of our ain personality and learn to accommodate to the environment more easy. If person responds to you with dissension or other negative emotions, we may hold appeared to hold a “ bad ” image, and so we know we need to better our interacting accomplishments and show a “ positive ” personality to others. It can be widely used in working Administrations by both directors and employees to construct better self-images.
Another theory of personality named emotional intelligence was developed by Daniel Goleman. Emotional intelligence is the ability to place, incorporate, understand and reflectively pull off one ‘s ain and other people ‘s feelings ( Buchanan & A ; Huczynski 2004 ) .It seems to be more indispensable than certain working accomplishments, particularly for senior directors and other leaders. They can utilize this construct to develop better relationships with others, create harmonious atmosphere and eventually consolidate their direction. There are five dimensions of emotional intelligence ( Martin1998 ) :
1. Self-awareness. It is an ability to cognize our emotion and acknowledge our personality, be cognizant of our behaviours.
2. Regulating feelings. It is a rational ability that can command our ain emotion and do something in a good -organized order.
3. Motivation. It is a sort of passion that motives us to make something and maintain up systematically.
4. Empathy. It is an ability to understand other people ‘s emotion and be able to cover with it.
5. Social accomplishments. It is an ability to cover with societal relationships and construct up teamwork.
When following emotional intelligence, persons should pass clip acquiring to cognize each other better and state others what you are believing about actively. The group should believe of methods to creative a relaxing atmosphere and discourse the “ negative ” emotion jobs. There is no uncertainty that Organisations should present developing programmes to better emotional intelligence.
In presents ‘ altering concern status, people ‘s public presentation in the work topographic point is closely related to their personality. Each type of personalities can convey its positive or negative dimension to the Organisation. Hence, it is better to hold a broad assortment of personalities, for they can work their advantages to the full in certain places. Actually there is no specific “ good ” or “ bad ” personality in an Administration, you may happen person with alleged “ bad ” personality is merely the sort of individual you need. We can evidently reason that each type of personality will decidedly be suited to peculiar state of affairss and places, the point is: brand sure they are playing to their ain strength ( Martin1991 ) . We should utilize the cognition of personality to make a more productive environment to accomplish ends more efficaciously.
Choosing the right campaigner for a occupation, or choosing the right individual for publicity, is besides a critical organisational accomplishment ( Pugh1991 ) . A leader who makes a incorrect determination will do employees de-motivated and defeated. In order to avoid choosing unequal employees and doing incorrect determination, directors in an Organisation would follow a series of steps, like personality trial, interviews, e-assessment and so forth. A taking gas company called Lebnskraft is settled in Nigeria, one of the most thickly settled states in Africa. It is German-owned and has developed into an international gas company. Since its reaching in Nigeria, Lebnskraft ‘s most places are filled by employees from Germany. As a manner of broadening its pick of campaigners, Lebnskraft ‘s senior director decided to see people from Nigerian. The company has ever used personality trial for measuring employees during publicity and other related undertakings. For this planned direction enlisting, the company adopted the method once more ; it was applied to compare the abilities, personality traits of the whole campaigners, and so take proper 1s for the current places, the new employees got into their functions expeditiously and showed their advantages of personality in their ain place ( Bratton al2010 ) .We should cognize that different people have different personality, and each personality can give its drama to strong points in a certain country, leaders need to get the hang the accomplishments of detecting and judging one ‘s personality in order to do right determinations. Lebnskraft ‘s senior director adopted a right scheme for enrolling new employees, he used personality trial to measure campaigners ‘ personality and trait, in this manner, the employees can take advantages of their ain disposition and do the best part to the company. From this, we can clearly calculate out the benefits of using good personality scheme.
There has ever been alteration in society, particularly in Organisations, people should larn to accommodate to the new constructs and theories, and so take good advantage of them. It would necessitate to be explicitly linked to motive, leading and personality to demo the meeting of the theories. In decision so, the chief point is that we should larn the benefits of them and utilize them in a more proper manner. Possibly more researches are needed on their long term development.