Art Histroy Essay

Nistha Pithava Art History 1 December 12, 2012 Take Home Final: Part 1 Section l: Ancient Near East The works of the art that is related to the Near Eastern time period incorporates the arts of Mesopotamia, which is ancient Iran, Syria, and Turkey between the periods of 3500 through 399 B. C. The dates of begin in the Neolithic prehistoric times and end in the historic or dynastic periods, which for the most part is prior to the Christian era. Near East was the place where the first myths and self-conscious art was developed and completed.

The Mesopotamian land that was between the rivers as the central spread of all the activities as fundamental changes in the nature of daily life that occurred there. The Near East was the region that gave birth to the three of the world’s great modern religions, which are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. At the end of the Neolithic period there was urbanization in the area. The first known sacred architectural monuments were temples that were made there with ceramics by the Sumerians. Identify each monument below (according to the schema) and discuss the major characteristics of each monument thoroughly. 1 . Votive Statues. c. 2900 B. C Near Eastern. Sumerian A great deal of insight into Sumerian religious beliefs and rituals can be viewed in their sculptures that were used in the temples. The Votive Statues from the temple of Asmar are carved in the round with soft gypsum. These statuettes represents mortals rather than deities with their hands folded in front of their chests in a gesture of pedestal on what they stand on.

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These monuments are extremely stylized and are made in a geometric cylindrical form with their clothes hanging straight and rigid with no show of natural fall of fabric. They are frontal and not individualized as their aces are not portraits though thy do suggest gender differences. They are also stylized in their faces as their eyes are made too big symbolizes the eternal wakefulness to fulfill their duty. The face has a very calm gesture suggesting an internal calm. Also the hair and beard of the statutes are created stylistically as the hair of the male figure looks like steps where as the females hair looks like a rounded hat.

The body proportions are not made on natural scale, the hands are too tiny than the arms, shoulders are broader than the torso and chest, the neck is too long and arrow while the feet appear to be stumpy as if they are chopped off the stone. The female fgures show a slight suggestion of breast signifying her sexual category. These statues are a good example of how art was approached in the Near Eastern time period with little emphasis on naturalism for humans. 2. Stele of Naramsin. c. 2254-2218 B. C. Near Eastern. urnenan The basic characteristics of the artistic style that came to define the art of the Near East was already established by the third millennium B. C. in Mesopotamia. One of the primary aims of Mesopotamian art was to capture the relationship between he terrestrial and divine realms. They made temples for gods in the middle of the city to signify that religion has a central importance in their belief system. The art created by the artists of the time was highly stylistic for man but animals were naturalistic. There was a special attention to certain details in the work of Stele of Naramsin.

The Victory Stele of the Naramsin is created in low relief. The fgures are extremely flat with arbitrary proportions, the heads larger than the rest of the body, large almond shaped eyes that are on the side, and the torso is too short. The theme s to commemorate the king for his conquest of Lullubi where he is shown to climb a mountain with his army. One can see that the king is made larger than the other fgures and has more space around him. The fgures are in composite view with the arbitrary proportions of the body.

In the belief systems of the time, kings were considered as representatives of gods on earth thus controlled all communal activities. This belief is visible in the monument as the king is made with a more formal, ridged, pose suggesting superiority and godlike sovereignty whereas the rest of the figures are in a relaxed or less formal positions suggestions movement and ower ranks. There is no naturalism in the clothing of any fgure; the clothes are Just straight and flat. The surrounding vegetation and mountains are made in a naturalistic way. The trees show an organic touch with braches and mountains show their natural irregular surface.

Section II: Egyptian The Egyptian culture was established right along the bay of the Nile River. The backbone of Egypt was and still today is the Nile River, whose floods supported all life in that ancient land. The pre-dynastic period of time, Egypt was divided into an upper and a lower Egypt where the rich soil of the Nile Delta islands encouraged more griculture and animal husbandry. Even in the Middle Ages, Egypt’s reputation as an ancient land of wonders and mystery lived on. Until the late 18th century, people looked at the writing and unique monuments as treasures of wisdom.

The Egyptian Egyptian art, which was all statues, paintings, and architectural forms that seemed to fall into place as if they obeyed one single law. For the most part the art was conservative and never changed under the new pharaoh. The works were greatly affected by the belief system. The Egyptians did not make a sharp distinction between the body and soul, which is the basic concept to many other religions. The Egyptians rather believed that man is accompanied by another self which is also known as “the Ka” and the Ka can inhabit the dead body or corpse after the individual has died and will live forever.

Therefore, the statues that were made for the kings that were considered gods depicted an unchanging ability in their poses and were carved out of a strict grid. The same theme was followed throughout the arts works such as paintings and relief sculptures. -Identify each monument below (according to the schema) and discuss the major characteristics of each monument thoroughly. 1 . Palette of Narmer. c. 3000 B. C. Egyptian. Old Kingdom The pre-dynastic time ended with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by king Narmer. This Palette of Narmer is a stone slab and is carved in low relief with no creation of deep space or depth.

This piece is made in a very organized manner with registers (or bands) depicting scenes of a ceremony possibly unification of the Kingdom (upper and lower). The human fgures in ancient Egypt were created more stylistically than animals. On one side of the palette there are three registers, the top register has cows head with a woman’s face known as the goddess Hathor with Narmer’s name in the middle. The second register has human fgures. The biggest figure of a man is king Narmer’s name in the middle suggesting his importance and royalty. The kings wore crowns that were different for both Upper and Lower Egypt.

On this side, he is wearing a high, white, bowling pin shaped crown of the Upper Egypt and is accompanied by an official or a slave who caries his sandals, however on the other side of the palette he is wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt. He is shown to slay the enemy, with his right hand going back in the air holding a stick. This pose became a standard pictorial formula signifying the inevitable triumph of the Egyptian god-kings over the enemies. Narmer’s pose is very frontal, rigid, and flat. He is standing in a composite view that is waist up frontal and waist down and face in profile.

This position is significant for all human fgures in the ancient Egypt art works. He is highly stylized in his proportions; his face is flat with large almond shaped eyes, no eye sockets, his ears look like a motif or a design pattern. Also his body proportions are stylized, for example, his shoulders are broader than the waist and torso, upper thighs are shorter than lower legs, the muscles in his arms and legs seems like design patterns and does not give a naturalistic view. The hair of the nemies is also carved stylistically that looks like a hat.

The other human fgures follow the same format with frontal, fat bodies in composite views expect they are made smaller in scale than the king, whereas the king is always made central, taller and more powerful as each register in this palette suggest his strength and divine right to rule. 2. Judgement before Osiris. c. 1285. New Kingdom The Egyptian art has many significant characteristics, one of them being the greatest aspects of Egyptian art, which was all statues, paintings, and architectural forms that seemed to fall into place as if they obeyed one single law. The works were greatly and were carved out of a strict grid.

Osis the god of the underworld is appeared on the right, crowned in a richly ornamented tower. Here souls of the dead were thought to be subject to a “last Judgment” to determine whether they were worth of eternal life. Osiris weres drapings of the mummified dead with the double crown. Unified upper and lower Egypt, the crown plus the false beard and bearded collar brandishes the symbolic canes. The god Thoth is the bird headed man symbolizes invention of writing. Section Ill: Aegean Aegean civilization denoted the Bronze Age civilization that was developed in the asin of the Aegean Sea.

The Aegean period has three major cultures that were the Cycladic, the Minoan and the Mycenaean cultures. The early Cycladic art from 3000-2000 B. C. mainly had marble statues that are the major surviving artworks of this time period, but little is known about the fgures. Many of these Cycladic works were buried in graves and may represent the deceased but the others did not. The late Minoan art from 1700-1200 B. C. was also called the Old Palace period. The largest art form in the Minoan world was fresco painting on walls, usually illustrating palace rituals like bull leaping.

Minoan sculptures were on a smaller scale consisting of statuettes of snake goddesses and reliefs on stone vases. The last period, Mycenaean from 1700-1200 B. C preserved monumental sculptures in Greece, mostly Mycenae’s Lion Gate, date to the end of the Mycenaean period. Aegean art is mainly noticeable for its naturalist vivid styles, which originated in Minoan Crete. Not much was known for the Aegean time period until the late 19th century, when the archaeological excavations began at the sites of the legendary cities of Troy, Mycenae, Knossos, and the other centers of the Bronze Age.

Aegean art as the main link between Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Greek art. There was a first conscious step toward the aesthetic perfection by gasping the idea of design fits the form. The tremendous driving force was to achieve a perfect form and create art that is true to reality. -Identify each monument below (according to the schema) and discuss the major characteristics of each monument thoroughly. 1 . Harvester Vase. c. 1650-1450 B. C. Minoan. Minoan Art was playful and full of rhythmic motions, special characteristics that were not used in the Near Eastern or Egyptian arts. They were accomplished potters.

The finest surviving example of Minoan relief sculpture is the so-called Harvesters Vase from the Hagia Trida. Only the upper part of the vase has been able to be preserved. The vase is carved in high relief with no creation of space. It has formulaic scenes of sowing and harvesting that were staples of Egyptian funerary art, but the Minoan artists shunned static repetition in favor of a composition hat bursts with the energy of its individually characteristics figures as the faces of men seems to be happy, shouting or singing showing animation. The artist vividly captures the forward movement and lusty exuberance of youths.

The largest part of the pot has recedes the design gets lighter. The figures are made naturalistic with human looking muscles of arms and chest, natural body proportions and skeletal structures. Although the faces are quite generic, there is close attention to create tension and relaxation of facial muscles creating movements and excitement in the scene. Most fgures are carved in composite view but one in specific is carved in full profile showing his lungs inflated with air and ribs coming out. This appears o be a giant leap forward in the time where such a keen interest to details is presented naturally n human anatomy. . Octopus Flask. c. 1500-1450 B. C. Minoan. The Octopus Flask, created roughly around 1500-1450 B. C. was during the time of the Palace Period. This Minoan piece shows an evolution of stylistic practices, and tells quite a bit about Crete at the time. This style vessel draws upon how the culture viewed the sea at the time. Using the sea, the Minoans had the ability to connect with the mainland, and explore worldly objects. The Minoans celebrating the sea, and what it had to offer the Minoans, the work decoratively shows an octopus spread over the vessel, with other sea life surrounding it.

The potter has put much detail into the work because the stylization and composition of the work as extremely good. The main body of the octopus is in the center, so the arms extend out around the rest of the vase. The simple black and off white add a nice touch to the work. Section lv. Greek Ancient Greek art was occupied with a special and unique place in history of art through the ages. Many of the cultural values of the Greeks, especially the exaltation of humanity as the “measure of all things”, remain as the fundamental tenets of Western civilization.

The humanistic view led the Greeks to create the concept of emocracy and to make seminal contributions in the field of art, literature and science. The Greeks or Hellenes as they called themselves appear to have been the product of an intermingling of Aegean people and Indo-European invaders. Still their culture and even their gods differed in kind from those of the neighboring civilizations. In 776 B. C. the separate Greek speaking states held their very first ceremonial games in common at the Olympia. The later Greeks calculated their chronology from these first Olympic games, which was the first Olympiad. Identify each monument below (according to the schema) and discuss the major haracteristics of each monument thoroughly. 1 . Korous. c. 600 B. C. Greek. Archaic Greek art changed continuously in their quest to improve and seek perfection through “ratios and proportions and “measure of all things” while moving away from Egyptian convention and formulas. The monument of Korous represents evaluation and changes that happened between the Greek Archaic and Greek Classical time. The work is carved in the round, closed and frontal.

It serves a function, and was used as a grave marker in cemeteries and were male figures because the female fgures are called Kore. The posture of the fgure is frontal, ridged, with hands flat on he sides, fists clenched, left foot forward and knees locked. The body proportion of the sculpture is highly stylized as his chest is broader than the mid-section of the body, upper arms are longer and lower, the groin looks like a rope, knees seems to be a pattern and not natural looking, tibia is sharply carved and thighs are shorter than the lower legs.

The face of the work is also stylized with large almond shaped eyes, a Also the hair is stylized and looks like beads. The fgure is visibly calm in the yes and has facial expressions to suggest inner calmness. The statue was made during the Greek time but the sculpture represents a stylistic approach of early Greeks. The sculptures display the development from the Archaic work to classical work. 2. Polykleitos. c. 450-440 B. C. Greek Classical. Egyptian convention and formulas. This monument represents changes that happened between the Greek Archaic and Greek Classical time.

The creator of Doryphoros was Polykleitos who optimized the intellect of Greek Classical art. He based his art in the Polykleitos canon of proportions. The figure is carved in the round, closed and frontal. Polykleitos was used to represent a perfect male athletic body of Olympia. The fgure is very relaxed standing in contrapposto style, which is an Italian term that means counter pose. The pose shows a left leg bearing the weight of the body with the right knee bent, and heel slightly lifted. This gives a curvature to the spine and a hip thrust. It has a natural looking body with softer turns of muscles.

His body proportions are based on Polykleitos canon of proportions thus his body shows natural attributes of a male body like a bulge of muscle over his left weight bearing knee. The sculpture has a softer natural face with defined eyes and shadow under his lips and well-defined check bones. His face is generic too but it has a clear natural quality. His hair looks soft and natural and he is standing with his head slightly turned that suggest inner calm. The statues were made during the Greek time and suggest a creation of anatomically perfect human fgures. 3. Epigonos (? Dying Gaul. c. 230-220 B. C. Roman copy of a Greek original. Hellenistic The Hellenistic fascination is vividly reflected in Epigonos, his title ‘Dying Gaul’ humanizes the argument of the artistic movement still shows how the fgure is somehow still grounded. He has a grimacing face and a lean muscular body and eems to make him a human man, humbled and dignified. His pose is one of complete look of defeat. The sculpture has a softer natural face with defined eyes it has a clear natural quality. Epigonos gives a very clear suggestion of the transition from classical to Hellenism.

It holds none of restless movement, dynamic structure of the classical period. Epigonos’ title ‘Dying Gaul’ symbolizes the very fabric of mortality. He symbolizes the human spirit, and its constant struggle. Section V: Roman With the rise of and the triumph of Rome, a single government was ruling for the first time in all of history. Of all the ancient civilizations, the Romans most closely approximated todays world in its multicultural character. Roman monuments of art and architecture are the most conspicuous and numerous of all the remains of ancient civilizations.

The Roman temples and basilicas have an afterlife as churches. They were the first to learn how to pour concrete to build structures. Roman art had six fundamental characteristics mainly naturalism, which was the verism that was the representation of truth and reality as a quality of art; eclecticism that is brining Greek and Roman characteristic together. Illusionism is creating an illusion of three- dimensional space and individualism is to make portraits and pragmatism is being characteristics of one monument from each of the 3 following categories. . Discuss one Roman architectural monument of your choosing. The regional diversity of the Romanesque period is very evident in the architecture. For example some of the Roman churches especially in Italy retained the wooden roofs of their early Christian predecessors long after stone vaulting was no longer used. The Romanesque art presented some major innovations like clean break from old basilica plan that was ow, hall like space with flat roofs, the crossing bay was based on module, and there was tight integration in the plan.

The mid- 1 lth century church of Saint- Etienne at Vignoy is a longitudinal, post and lintel plan has strong ties to Carolingian Ottonian architecture but already incorporates features that become widely adopted only in the later Romanesque architecture. The interior shows a close kinship with the three story wooden roofed churches of the Ottonian era, unlike coffered ceiling, however the second story is not a true tribune (upper gallery over the aisles penning onto the ave) but rather a screen because its not walk able Just a design factor, with alternating piers and columns opening onto very tall flanking aisles.

On the ground floor there is a long name, side aisles, and a module in front of the apse upon which is the base of measurements. The east end of the church in contract has an innovative, new plan with an ambulatory around the choir or apse and three semicircular chapels opening onto it. The church is an early example of the introduction of stone sculpture into Romanesque church architecture, one of the periods defining features. 2. Discuss one Roman sculpture of your choosing. In the Roman time period, art evolved to its most extreme. The statue of Augustus from Primaporta is a great example of this.

The purpose of the statue is for many reasons, to commemorate Augustus’s latest victory and to elevate his status. This monument is carved in the round, it is frontal and is open, that is his right hand reaches out in the outer space. The statue shows classicism in its pose where he is standing in contrapposto. The right weight bearing leg has stretched muscles on top whereas the other bent leg shows a natural protrusion of knee. There is also a bulge of muscles on top of his knee of straight leg. Also his feet are beautifully carved with a well-defined and human looking anklebone. The face and his expressions are completely idealized.

His body proportions are naturalistic based on canons of body proportions to acquire a naturalistic look. The figure has many roman characteristics and the relief work on the lower portions of the vest denote a real event of peace negotiations. 3. Discuss one Roman painting of your choosing. The Dionysiac Mystery Frieze. 60-65 B. C. Roman is a wall painting in the Villa of ysteries in Pompeii Ital. The painting carries Roman characteristics of naturalism, verism, and classical touches as well as a creation of depth. It is a depiction of some pagan ritual that is a mystery and historians are not sure about the reason for the painting.

The artist of Dionysiac is successful to achieve depth with the use of chiaroscuro, the use of highlights and shadows. The natural looking bides of the fgures in the painting have highlights on their body parts that are protruding out like the fgure in the middle who is leaning on another fgure whereas parts that are urned back like the lower leg of the middle figure has shadows to suggest that the leg is turned going back into space. Likewise, there are dark shadows as the fgure’s around his muscles and under the face, neck, and arms show similar attributes of chiaroscuro.

The painting is made on a wall but it seems as if the wall goes back as a stage upon which the figures are enacting. There is a foreground, middle, and a background that ends with a dark Pompeii red wall. The walls serve as a backstage for the scene without any aerial perspective. Section VI: Early Christian During the third and fourth centuries, a rapidly growing number of Romans ejected polytheism which is believing in multiple gods and instead was in favor of monotheism which was worshiping a single all powerful God, yet they still did not stop commissioning the works of art.

The Christian art originated to move away from Roman pagan ideas and a new style was brought forward. Symbols have always played an important role in Christian art. Some were devised Just for Christianity while other works were from pagan and Jewish traditions and were later Christianized. The early Christian art was highly impressed by classical art characteristics so it was not yet completely abstract. The art changes slowly to a more abstract from due to the changes in the environment in Rome. -Identify each monument below (according to the schema) and discuss the major characteristics of each monument thoroughly. . Good Shepherd. c. 425-26. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Early Christian. The mosaic work of the Good Shepherd, Early Christian is from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy. The scene has Jesus sitting in the middle surrounded by a flock of sheep, haloed and robed in gold and purple that was associated with elite class, wearing Roman toga and sandals. This monument has both Early Chrisitan and some lingering Classical characteristics. It gives a fair idea of transition from classical to abstract art.

To the left and right of Jesus, the sheep are distributed evenly creating a balanced look but their arrangement is rather loose and informal. The artist placed Jesus in the middle to fulfill the convention of placing the most important figure in the center, during the Early Christian art time. The sheep and the Jesus occupy a carefully described landscape that extends from foreground to background beneath a blue sky that gives a natural quality to the scenery. This is the last time in Early Christian art that a background is made with a blue sky.

The artist used some classical traits, the sheep are made in naturalistic proportions and has been successful in the creation of three dimensional space with the use of chiaroscuro. The front of the sheep has highlights and its body goes back, there are dark shadows. However, the pose of the Jesus is contorted, flat twisted and not naturalistic that shows Early Christian characterizes. His eyes are very large and have a flat face. His hands are too short for the body, thus his body proportions are tylized according to Early Christian art convention.

However, the rock itself shows great detail of highlights and shadows and it actually looks like that it has three sides. Another important feature is that the fgures are casting shadows in the direction of light, also the staff of Jesus, which is also a classical trait whereas the vegetation behind the scene is stiff with no shadows or with a softer natural look. 2. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. c. 359. Early Christian The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus is a marble Early Christian sarcophagus used for the burial of Junius Bassus, who died in 359.

It has been described as “probably the portrayed frontally, but certainly not all, the scenes are three-dimensional and have depth and background, drapery hangs on recognizable human forms rather than being arranged in prearranged folds, the heads are varied, portraying recognisably different people. The sarcophagus has been seen as reflecting a blending of late Hellenistic style with the modern Roman or Italian one, proportions of the fgures, and their slightly over-large heads.

The setting in of the figures is against a background of shadow, giving it a chiaroscuro effect which is when the effect is much ore noticeable and has a more unchanging and lighter color. The work also lacks the effects created by light on polished highlights such as the heads of the fgures, against the darker recessed surfaces and backgrounds. Section VI’: Byzantine Constantine formed a “new Rome” in the East in 324, at the Greek city of Byzantium, called it Constantinople after his own name. During the Byzantium time the church was largely spilt.

Just as the Byzantine Empire represented the political continuation of the Roman Empire, Byzantine art developed out of the art of the Roman Empire, which was itself profoundly influenced by ancient Greek art. The early byzantine art flourished under Justinian (527-565). He briefly restored much of the Roman Empire’s power and extent. Under his time, Byzantine art emerged as a recognizably novel and distinctive style, leaving behind the uncertainties and hesitations of Early Christian art. The most salient feature of this new aesthetic was its abstract or anti-naturalistic character.

Classical art was marked by the attempt to create representations that mimicked reality, as closely as possible. Byzantine art seems to have abandoned this attempt in favor of a more symbolic approach. This as to suggest divinity and to dematerialize. -Identify each monument below thoroughly. 1 . Archangel Michael. (diptych panel) Early 6th century. Early Byzantine It is an ivory panel, carved in relief, in a vertical format. This monument has some lingering classical traits along with the Byzantine characteristics. This piece is carved on the right leaf of a diptych.

The Christian artist here ingeniously adapted a pagan motif and filled it with new meaning. The Archangel’s flowing drapery, which reveals the bodys shape, the delicately incised wings, and the facial type and hairstyle are ome indications that the artist who carved this ivory is still working in the tradition of classical art, although, he is not representing naturalism entirely in proportions. The body proportions of the archangel is stylized it has a distorted pose, with proportions that are not correct as his upper body is smaller than the lower part, also his arms are too short.

Michael’s feet rest on three steps at once, and his upper body, wings, and arms are in front of the column shafts while his lower body is behind the column bass at the top of the receding staircase. His face is natural looking with soft air, but the face is idealized with big eyes. The feet of Michael show anatomical naturalism with well-defined fgures and nails. Here the Byzantine artist rejected the goal of most classical artist, to render the three-dimensional world in convincing and consistent fashion and to people that world with fully modeled fgures firmly rooted on the ground.

Michael seems to float more than to stand, in front of the architecture. 2. Emperor Justinian and His Attendants. c. 547. Early Byzantine. In Constantinople alone, Justinian built or restored more than 30 churches of the Empire. This mosaic of Justinian and his attendants is from the north wall of the apse, in San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy. The mosaic of the Justinian is horizontal format and has a political connotation where he is shown as the ruler of the state and church. Justinian is carrying a gold plate to carry bread and wine, the ritual of bearing gifts.

Other figures are also carrying various items like the bishop is holding a cross and the clergies are holding a bible and incense. On the other side there are military personals standing next to civil servants. This mosaic work shows levels of ierarchy by placing the feet of the superior over their subordinate like Justinian has his foot over the civil servant who has his over the other. The halo around Justinian’s head represents him as a saint. They are wearing Roman clothing of elite and royalty especially Justinian is wearing a purple toga and Roman sandals.

This monument is very stylized, the fgures are very flat, frontal, rigid, and stiff, linear looking with no natural body proportions. Their heads are too small for the body and their clothing covers the whole body so show no anatomical details. Their faces are entirely generic ith a formulized look for faces in Byzantine time except for some significant differences like the beard f the bishop, they all have an oval face, large almond shaped eyes, arched eye brows, long straight nose, tiny mouth, and shadow under the lips.

There is no creation of three-dimensional space. The feet of all the fgures are hovering casting no shadows on the ground under, they are resting on the ground as if they are elevated. The background looks like Just a backdrop with no aerial perspective. Also the items that Justinian and his attendants are holding also are flat and they lack depth. The civil servants and military personnel appear to be piled up over each other. There is no us of chiaroscuro or scientific perspective to create space for images of people standing behind.

The reason was to elevate and move away from Paganism and to dematerialize art forms. The Justinian is standing calmly with his attendants with no expressions on his or anyone else’s face. This mosaic has used color significantly with golden color background- characteristics for Christian art, but also a slight hint towards Roman traits as evident from the purple color of Justinian’s cloak. Section VIII: Carolingian & Ottonian From 750 to 900, the age of Charlemagne is known as the Carolingian era. There have been important changes taking place in the region.

The epicenter of the world has moved to the north due to the constant upheaval. One constant factor or link maintained the society in a time of chaos was church. This new empire under Charlemagne consolidated the Frankish kingdom his father and gather father bequeathed him and defeated the Lombard’s in Italy. He thus united Europe and laid a claim to reviving the glory of the ancient Roman Empire. He was an enthusiast of earning, fortified laws, formed schools, building libraries and copying manuscripts.

After Charlemagne’s death the empire broke up into a very weak kingdom, ineffectual against the invasions, and brought a time of confusion to Europe. Only in the mid 10th century did the eastern part of the former empire consolidate under the rule of a new Saxon line of German emperors called after the names of the most illustrious family members, which were the Ottomans. The pope crowned the first Otto and he assumed the title of emperor of Rome that Charlemagne’s weak successors held during most of the pervious century. The three Otto’s made head


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