Articles Of Confederation (710 words) Essay

Adopted in congress in 1777 and ratified and in force in (1784?)
Adopted for: a) unify in defense and war
b) Foreign policy
basic principle of articles for states to maintain control under central
government assigned specific powers
Organization of government: 1) one legislative house – unicameral legislature
– passes laws
2) 2-7 delegates per state
3) 9 votes required to pass law
4) 13/ unanimous votes needed to amend Articles
Powers: defense – army, navy, and treaties with Indians
Foreign affairs – war
Money – borrowing, spending, printing, determining value, coining
Internal affairs – Judge disputes in special court hearings between states
Enforcement laws determined by state therefore enforcement was selective to
state desires and rarely done
State restrictions – states could not: make war, treaties, international
tariffs and coin money
Duties of state – states must provide money/army? When requested by congress
States must pay taxes based on land
Weaknesses of Articles –
I. trade regulation – congress had no power to regulate trade – done by
states – caused:
a) tariffs on imports and exports established by states
b) states competed over control of waterways
c) Foreign trade was diminishing; interstate trade was also stopping because
of tariffs on each other making trade difficult????
II. Enforcement
a) Central government included no enforcement/ executive branch
b) Rules mostly ignored
1) taxes decided by congress based on land ( to be paid by states – didn’t
pay – congress had no income and had to borrow- land basis bad for south –
few people and lot of land
2) no income for army – regulated number soldiers per state not given – kept
for own defense
result – SHAY’S REBELLION – Begun by Daniel Shay – farmer in Massachusetts
wanted to begin own government and revolted – Mass. didn’t have enough army
to quell rebellion – soldiers also farmers and on other side – asked congress
for help but appeal to no avail – states didn’t list4en to congress cuz
didn’t care – continued for 6 months
3) Treaty of Paris not enforced – states refused to compensate loyalist for
property lost and collect debts owed to British merchants – money all used
for war effort
Therefore England also violate and move troops to Northwest Territory (fur
Spain and England restrict trade on Mississippi and right of deposit in New
III. Money – each state illegally made their own currency- congress could not
prevent it – 14 forms of currency causing it to be worthless and inflation –
made congress and states suffer – foreign countries unwilling to trade and
lend money
IV. Passing laws – difficult to get 9 states to agree
General Problems
Economic – chaotic – severe post war depression, which usually lasts only
short while, normal after war – England cut off trade with states – state
power under Articles to regulate foreign trade? – Causes trade to lessen cuz
difficult from expenses and tariffs and regulations – merchants and farmers
who sell outside their state suffer from tariffs between states – small
farmers fine southerners fine cuz Tabacco needed and special treatment and
less regulation – first to pull pout of depression cuz of this and Planter
Aristocracy had laws beneficial to them and their trade – different
currencies in US discourages trade
Inflation – prices and wages rise – helps debtors (pay back less),
bad for bankers (receive back less, give more) – when inflation (like among
farmers who are constantly in debt) = cheap currency
Dear currency = stable currency = less inflation and prices stable –
Political – increased power/ democracy in state government often causes
How many people have say
Constitution – rules by which government operate – contains fundamental law
(received idea from charters)
States write new constitution with stronger democracy including Bill of
Rights (things government cannot do) – executive branch (governor elected by
people), legislative (bicameral elected by people) and judicial (courts
appointed by governor – sometimes elected by people)
Property qualifications – all lowered (lowest – highest = NE-M-S) – most
remove religious qualifications
Legislature given more power than governors
Achievements under articles
1. US wins revolution
2. Northwest Ordinance – 1785
a) history – conflicting state claims – attempts made at resolution in 1784
and 1785 – speculators interested in selling land lobbied congress
b) principle – territories ceded would be admitted as equal states
c) terms – disputed territories__?? To US government – territories divided in
to 5 futire states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinios, Michigan, Wisconsin
d) conditions for admission: 5,000 male adults – congress appoint governor –
proplr elect legislature with power to make laws
60,000 adult males – write constitution including Bill of Rights
no slavery in any part of the territory
thank you shiffy for typing up these lovely notes.

American History

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