Ashie's Science Final

Term Definition
Matter made up of extremely small particles that make up atoms ; molecules that are always in motion.
All matter has energy.
Matter anything that has mass ; volume.
meter SI unit for measuring length
grams (or kilograms) SI Unit for measuring mass
liters SI Unit for measuring volume
Scientific method set of steps scientists use to answer questions and solve problems.
Densest liquids settle to the bottom of a container
Least dense liquids float on top of container
Density of water One
Chemical changes the composition of matter changes.
Physical changes do not change the composition of matter.
Crystalline solids have particles in repeating patterns of rows
Amorphous solids have an irregular pattern of particles.
Three properties of Gases Have particles that are 1) very fast moving 2) spread far apart 3) have no definite shape or volume.
Evaporation liquid becomes a gas. E.g. Puddle of water becoming water vapor
Condensation gas to a liquid. E.g. water drops on a cold glass
Compound Two or more elements join together chemically to form a new substance.
Two examples of chemical properties 1) flammability and 2) reactivity to oxygen or acid.
Soluble Substance can be dissolved in water.
Solutions Formed when two or more substances are evenly mixed.
Speed is determined by what two factors distance and time.
Velocity is determined by what 3 factors 1) distance 2) time and 3) direction.
Balanced forces Have a net force of Zero Newtons.
Gravitational force Determined by mass and distance.
The greater the mass the greater the gravity (e.g. sun [large] vs moon [small]).
The closer the distance the stronger the gravity (e.g. sun's pull on Earth vs Pluto).
The Law of Conservation of momentum states that when objects collide the total amount of momentum stays the same.
(In the absence of air resistance) why do all objects fall to the ground at the same rate Because the acceleration due to gravity is the same for all objects on earth.
Newton’s 1st law of motion (law of inertia) an object at rest will remain at rest / an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
Atom The smallest particle which an element can be divided and still be the same substance.
Nucleus of an atom is dense ; positively charged.
Electrons are where? In the electron cloud.
Isotopes Atoms that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
groups or families Vertical columns on the periodic table
periods horizontal rows on the periodic table
Metals Elements to the left of the zigzag line of the periodic table.
Nonmetals Elements to the right of the zigzag line of the periodic table (these make up the majority of the elements in the periodic table).
Metalloids Elements that scatter either side of the zigzag line of the periodic table
Mendeleev Arranged the elements by increasing atomic mass
Henry Mosley Arranged the current periodic table by increasing atomic number.
How can you tell a chemical change has occurred a new substance with different properties from the original substances is formed.
Reactants are before the arrow in a chemical equation
Products are after the arrow in a chemical equation.
The Law of Conservation of Mass Mass cannot be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
When counting atoms if no subscript is written it is assumed to be one atom.
Acids 1) have a sour taste ; 2) turn blue litmus paper red.
Bases 1) have a bitter taste 2) feel slippery ; 3) turn litmus paper blue.
pH above 7 bases.
pH equals 7 neutral
pH below 7 acids
Why are telescopes put in space to avoid interference from Earth’s atmosphere.
One rotation of Earth happens Every 24 hours.
365 ? days (1 year) One revolution (orbit) of Earth around the sun
29 ? days (1 month) One orbit of moon around the Earth
Color of a star depends on its temperature.
Phases of the moon are caused by the relative positions of the moon Earth and the sun.
Total solar eclipse when the shadow of the moon falls on the Earth.
How did the moon form A large planet sized body struck the Earth – called the Collision Ring Theory.
Why do we only see one side of the moon (the near side) The moon’s period of rotation is equal to its period of revolution

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