One of the most widely known theories of motive is the Hierarchy of Needs theory, developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow. It argues that single demands form a five degree hierarchy. Harmonizing to this hierarchy, our first demand is survival, so we concentrate on basic physiological demands, such as nutrient, H2O and shelter, until we are certain that these demands are covered. Following concern is, safety demands, which pertains to the desire to experience safe, secure, and free from menaces to our being. Once we feel safe and unafraid and free from menaces to our being, we turn our attending to relationships with others in order to carry through our Belongingness demands, which involve the desire to consort with and be accepted and loved by others. With support from loved 1s, we focus on regard demands, which are related to the desire to hold a positive ego image. Finally we reach the highest degree, self realization demands, which pertain to the demand of developing our capablenesss and making our full potency.
Herzberg ‘s Two-Factor Theory:
Building on the work of Maslow, psychologist Frederick Herzberg presented his theory that is called Two-Factor Theory. Harmonizing to him, factors that seemed to do persons experience satisfied with their occupations were associated with the content of the occupation. These factors were so labeled incentives. On the other manus, factors that seemed to do persons experience dissatisfied were associated to the occupation context. These were labeled hygiene factors.
Two-factor theory distinguishes between: Incentives: Incentives are considered as the characteristics that give positive satisfaction to the employees, originating from intrinsic conditions of the occupation itself, such as acknowledgment, accomplishment, or personal growing. IntrinsicA conditions are the conditions that come from inside an person instead than from any external or outside wagess, such as money or classs. The absence of such conditions does non needfully intend that an employee is dissatisfied. Their absence merely means that an employee is neither satisfied nor disgruntled i.e. impersonal. The incentives include: Growth and accomplishment, Recognition, Work itself, and Responsibility. Hygiene factors: Hygiene factors are those facets of a occupation, the absence of which would ensue in dissatisfaction, but it does non needfully intend that the employees are satisfied because of these facets. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include facets such as company policies, supervisory patterns, working conditions, pecuniary wagess or wages/salary.
Basically, the presence of hygiene factors guarantee that an employee is non dissatisfied. Incentives are needed to take employees to a higher degree of satisfaction and to actuate them to higher public presentation. Herzberg presented the logic that because the factors doing satisfaction are different from those doing dissatisfaction, the two feelings can non merely be treated as antonyms of one another. The antonym of satisfaction is non dissatisfaction, but instead, no satisfaction. Similarly, the antonym of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction.
Herzberg argued that there are two distinguishable human needs portrayed. First, there are physiological demands that can be fulfilled by money, for illustration, to buy nutrient and shelter. The fulfilment of these physiological demands would stop dissatisfaction. Second, there is the psychological demand to accomplish and turn, and this demand is fulfilled by activities that cause one to turn. The fulfilment of these demands would do a higher degree of satisfaction.
Clayton Alderfer farther worked on Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs theoretical account and presented his ain theory A into a shorter set of three demands: Being, Relatedness and Growth ( hence ‘ERG ‘ ) . Unlike Maslow, Alderfer argues that we can be concerned with more than one demand class at same clip. It is non necessary for lower degree demands to be punctually fulfilled before we concern ourselves with other demands. He did non see these as being a hierarchy, but being more of the same scale.A A Existence needs include physiological desires, such as nutrient and H2O, and work-related stuff desires, such as wage, periphery benefits, and physical working conditions. When our demands for being are satisfied, we feel safe and physically comfortable.A This includes Maslow ‘s Physiological and Safety demands.
At the following degree, one time we are safe and unafraid, we consider our societal demands. Relatedness needs address our relationships with important others, such as households, friendly relationship groups, work groups, and professional groups. They deal with our desire to be accepted and loved by others, achieve common apprehension and exert some influence on those who are related to us. This demand covers Maslow ‘s two degrees of demands that are ; Love/belongingness and Esteem demands. Growth: At the highest degree, we seek to turn, be originative and advanced for ourselves and for our environment, to be a important and responsible member of our society, along with the desire to hold a productive impact on our milieus. When we are successfully turning, we feel a sense of integrity, accomplishment and fulfilment. This covers Maslow ‘s Self-actualization demands.
David McClelland argued that our demands are acquired or learned on the footing of our life experiences. Most of these autumn into three general classs of demands. A individual ‘s motive and efficiency in certain undertakings are influenced by these three demands. Need for Achievement ( nAch ) is “ the desire to carry through disputing undertakings and achieve a criterion of excellence in one ‘s work ” . Persons with a high nAch typically seek competitory state of affairss in which they can accomplish consequences through their ain attempts and can have comparatively immediate feedback on how they are making. Peoples with a high demand for achievement seek to stand out and therefore be given to avoid both low-risk and bad state of affairss. Need for Affiliation ( nAff ) is “ the desire to keep warm, friendly relationship with others ” . The nAff individual is ‘affiliation motivated ‘ , and has a demand for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people.
Such people would wish to hold pleasant relationships with other people and need to experience accepted by other people. They would wish to affect in such professions in which they would acquire better chances to affect in a big sum of interaction with others. Necessitate for Power ( nPow ) is “ the desire to act upon others and command one ‘s environment ” . The single with nPow is ‘authority motivated ‘ . This driver produces a demand to be influential, effectual and to do an impact. Need for power has two signifiers, personal and institutional. Those who need personal power want to rule others for the interest of showing their ability to exert power. This demand frequently is perceived as unwanted. Persons with a high demand for institutional power focal point on working with others to work out jobs and farther organisational ends. Such persons like acquiring things done in an organized mode. They are besides willing to give some of their ain opportunisms in order to accomplish organisational ends. Directors with a high demand for institutional power tend to be more effectual than those with a high demand for personal power as they are the good organisers of the attempts of others.
1.3.2 COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation was proposed by Victor Vroom. It explains the behavioural procedure of why persons choose one behavioural option over another. It besides explains how they make determinations to accomplish the terminal they value. Vroom introduces three variables within the anticipation theory which are valency ( V ) , anticipation ( E ) and instrumentality ( I ) . The three elements are of import behind taking one component over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance anticipation ( E & gt ; P anticipation ) , performance-outcome anticipation ( P & gt ; O anticipation ) .
Three constituents of Expectancy theory: Anticipation, Instrumentality, and Valence
Anticipation: Effort a†’ Performance ( Ea†’P )
Instrumentality: Performance a†’ Outcome ( Pa†’O )
Valence- V ( R )
Anticipation is the belief that one ‘s attempt ( E ) will ensue in attainment of coveted public presentation ( P ) ends. Normally based on an person ‘s past experience, self assurance ( self efficaciousness ) , and the sensed trouble of the public presentation criterion or end. Instrumentality is the belief that a individual will have a wages if the public presentation outlook is met. This wages may come in the signifier of a wage addition, publicity, acknowledgment or sense of achievement. Instrumentality is low when the wages is given for all public presentations given. Valence is the value the single topographic points on the wagess based on their demands, ends, values and Beginnings of Motivation. Factors associated with the person ‘s valency for results are values, demands, ends, penchants and Beginnings of Motivation Strength of an person ‘s penchant for a peculiar result. In order for the valency to be positive, the individual must prefer achieving the result to non achieving it.
Equity theory proposes that persons who perceive themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded will see hurt, and that this hurt leads to attempts to reconstruct equity within theA relationship. It focuses on finding whether the distribution of resources is just to both relational spouses. Equity is measured by comparing theA ratiosA of parts and benefits of each individual within the relationship. Spouses do non hold to have equal benefits ( such as having the same sum of love, attention, and fiscal security ) or do equal parts ( such as puting the same sum of attempt, clip, and fiscal resources ) , every bit long as the ratio between these benefits and parts is similar.
Goal Setting Theory implies that clear ends and appropriate feedback motivates employees. When employees work towards a end, it spearhead a major beginning of motivationA within the employees to really make the end. As a consequence, the concluding public presentation of the employee improves. In puting the right ends, there needs to be the right combination of certain factors. Let ‘s hold a expression at these of import factors of end puting theory in direction. Clarity: Vague, unambiguous end spun in thin air will merely construct a house on the sand. Such random ends leave tonss of room for misconceptions and will ne’er give coveted consequences. Crisp, clear, mensurable, specific ends have to be set and communicated to the employee in the simplest manner possible. No room for premises in end setting.A Challenging: Besides being clear and specific, the end set should be disputing. Easy to accomplish ends fail to maintain the employee excited, nevertheless, since people are frequently motivated by the feeling of accomplishment, puting disputing ends helps actuate the employee to make his best.
Another factor that has to be noted here is the fact of acknowledgment. When an employee knows his attempts will non travel unnoticed, he will desire to stretch himself. Accomplishable: We merely saw how of import it is for an employee to cognize what his director expects out of him to execute better. However, if the end by his director is something truly unattainable, it will make more harm alternatively of good. Easy ends do n’t look to dispute an employee, nevertheless, in the avidity to put ambitious ends, if the end is be givening on the unachievable side, the employee can acquire demotivated, alternatively of motivated. The thought is to dispute the employee to give his best public presentation without thwarting him.
Committedness: Puting ends by affecting employees will increase the employees ‘ degree of committedness to the occupation. Read more onA deficiency of motive at work.A The theory of participative direction remainders on the footing of leting employees to hold a function in puting ends and doing determinations. If employees feel they were portion of making the end, they are more likely to seek their degree best to accomplish the end. Feedback: Often directors stop at puting ends and pass oning them, all the piece burying that feedback is a really necessary measure. For any end puting plan to be effectual it has to include feedback. Feedback is the tool which helps clear issues between direction and employees sing end complexness, outlooks elucidations, wagess, etc. Informal every bit good as formal feedbacks Sessionss help acquire rid of minor matchwoods that can halter the procedure of accomplishing the vision.A
1.3.3 REINFORCEMENT THEORY OF MOTIVATION:
Reinforcement theory of motive was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that person ‘s behavior is a map of its effects. i.e. , person ‘s behavior with positive effects tends to be repeated, but individual ‘s behavior with negative effects tends non to be repeated. Reinforcement theory of motive is wholly opposite to the Cognitive Theories of Motivation. This theory focuses wholly on what happens to an person when he takes some action. Therefore, harmonizing to Skinner, the external environment of the organisation must be designed efficaciously and positively so as to actuate the employee. This theory is a strong tool for analysing commanding mechanism for person ‘s behavior. However, it does non concentrate on the causes of person ‘s behavior.
Positive Support: A This implies giving a positive response when an person shows positive and needed behavior, e.g. , instantly praising an employee for coming early for occupation. This will increase chance of outstanding behavior happening once more. Reward is a positive reinforce, but non needfully. If and merely if the employees ‘ behavior improves, wages can said to be a positive reinforcing stimulus. Positive support stimulates happening of a behavior. It must be noted that more self-generated is the giving of wages, the greater support value it has. Negative Support: This implies honoring an employee by taking negative / unwanted effects.
Both positive and negative support can be used for increasing desirable / required behaviour. Punishment: It implies taking positive effects so as to take down the chance of reiterating unwanted behavior in future. In other words, penalty agencies using unwanted effect for demoing unwanted behavior, for case, suspending an employee for interrupting the organisational regulations. Punishment can be equalized by positive support from alternate beginning. Extinction: It implies absence of supports. In other words, extinction implies take downing the chance of unsought behavior by taking wages for that sort of behavior. For case – if an employee no longer receives congratulations and esteem for his good work, he may experience that his behavior is bring forthing no fruitful effect. Extinction may accidentally take down desirable behavior