Assessing the various Consumer Behaviour Theories Essay

As this survey aims to analyze why and how Persian pupils choose the UK as the finish to foster their instruction, consumer behavior and determination procedure are cardinal theoretical models that the literature reappraisal will concentrate on.

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Consumer behavior has been in the Centre of attending in the universe of marketing for many decennaries. This is because it is a topic that blends together the elements of psychological science, societal anthropology, economic sciences and sociology ( Engel et al., 2001 ). In general, consumer behavior refers to “ the survey of what, when, where, why and how a client does or does non purchase a merchandise or service ” ( Reardon & A; McCorkle, 2002, p. 179 ). Based on this definition, I can give the significance of consumer behavior from my ain position as below.

“ A survey that attempts to understand how persons or administrations make a merchandise pick during the determination procedure ”

2.1 Consumer Behaviour Model – The Black Box Model

It is revealed that there is no individual theoretical accounts that can be find how persons or concern purchasers make their specific buying determination ( Dibb & A; Simkin, 2001 ). However, the Black Box Model is a theoretical model that can give a general thought of what happens or takes topographic point when persons enter his/her purchasing determination procedure. The illustration in Figure 2.1A provides general thought about a purchasing determination procedure of a individual before he/she reaches a specific concluding determination. When expression into the Black Box Model, it can be seen that there is an interaction between consumer features, selling stimulation, environmental stimulations, determination procedure and consumer responses. This means that when a individual releases his/her demand to purchase, he/she might be influenced by external stimulations like advertisement, friends and societal groups. However, these are non the lone factors that a client takes into consideration during the purchasing determination procedure. Factors like life style, economic, perceptual experience, merchandise picks and unexpected circumstance besides play major parts during the purchasing determination procedure ( Evans et al., 2006 ).

Figure 2.1A: The Black Box Model

Environmental FACTORS



Selling Stimulations

Environmental Stimuli

Buyer Features

Decision Procedure


Monetary value

Topographic point












Life style


Problem acknowledgment

Information hunt

Alternate rating

Purchase determination

Post-purchase behavior

Merchandise pick

Brand pick

Dealer pick

Purchase timing

Purchase sum

Beginning: Kotler, P. & A; Keller, K. 2008, Marketing Management, Prentice Hall, New York.

2.2 Decision Procedure

Harmonizing to Phillip Kotler ( 2003 ), the determination procedure comprises of five phases, including job acknowledgment, information hunt, alternate rating, purchase determination, post-purchase behavior.

Problem acknowledgment: The purchasing determination procedure will get down merely when an single recognises his/her demand or job. Therefore, an of import undertaking of sellers is to act upon a individual to hold a demand for a certain merchandise and service ( Follows & A; Jobber, 2000 ).

Information hunt: When a individual recognises his/her job or demand, he/she will get down to look for information of different available offers that may fulfill his/her demand. During this phase, a individual may speak to friends, visit the mercantile establishment or hunt information online. Therefore, sellers must guarantee to supply and put merchandise information in the topographic points where the mark market will utilize as the chief beginning of information ( Williams, 2002 ).

Alternate rating: After seeking information, a individual will hold a set of possible merchandise picks that could fulfill his/her demand. At this phase, a individual determines a merchandise pick that he/she wants to purchase. In other words, a individual makes a trade name penchant or possible merchandise pick at this phase.

Purchase determination: This is the phase when a individual is about to purchase a merchandise. However, the merchandise pick that a individual plans to buy may non be his/her concluding determination. This is because the concluding purchasing determination could be influenced and interfered by two factors: ( 1 ) attitude of others; and ( 2 ) unexpected state of affairs ( Kotler, 2003 ). First of wholly, if a individual has people whom he/she respects and these people have negative or positive attitudes towards his/her merchandise penchant. A individual could take their attitudes into history and do a new merchandise pick based on these attitudes. This can be a complex procedure for a individual if people whom he/she respects have different attitudes towards his/her preferable pick ( Hou et al., 2008 ). Second, an unexpected state of affairs may originate and this may impact the concluding purchasing determination. For case, a individual may lose his occupation and therefore, he can non afford his preferable pick.

Post-purchase behavior: This will take topographic point after a individual experiences a purchased merchandise or service. Therefore, it can be assumed that the occupation of sellers does non complete after selling a merchandise to clients. This is because they have to supervise the experience of clients before, during and after they make a purchase ( Foxall, 1993 ). In the universe of selling, this is of import as this information could help companies and sellers in footings of merchandise betterment or a new merchandise development.

2.3 Consumer Behaviour & A; Overseas University Selection

There are several surveies that examine the university choice from international pupils ‘ positions. Among these, studies conducted by Cubillo et Al. ( 2006 ) and Binsardi and Ekwulugo ( 2003 ) are close to the range of this research undertaking. A study conducted by Binsardi and Ekwulugo ( 2003 ) focused on analyzing international pupils ‘ perceptual experience, attitude and behaviour towards British universities. The consequence showed that international pupils felt that other English-speaking states and other emerging states besides provide good instruction criterion. Pricing, merchandise and promotional variables are cardinal factors that make British universities less competitory as compared to other emerging states. Therefore, when cross citing findings from this survey to theoretical consumer behavior model, it can be assumed that marketing stimulations like instruction quality, monetary value and publicity factors pay an of import function during the determination procedure of international pupils.

However, findings from a research conducted by Cubillo et Al. ( 2006 ) indicated that factors that play a major function during the determination procedure when international pupils select a topographic point to analyze include the consequence of state of image, influenced by metropolis image, personal grounds, establishment image and the rating of programme of survey. Other environmental and situational factors of persons besides influenced a concluding determination. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that purchasers ‘ features are more of import than selling and environmental variables.

2.4 Chapter Decision

Discussion in this chapter indicates that theoretical model of consumer behaviors theoretical account does use to international pupils when they make a determination to farther instruction overseas. Both internal and external factors play an of import portion as influencing variables when international pupils make a university choice. However, it is still necessary to analyze the university choice procedure of international pupils when they choose to foster their instruction in a specific state.

There are some theories related to my capable and I explored function of these theories to the international pupil market peculiarly for Persian pupil.


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