Assessment Review

Question Answer
Which two phenomena are the result of gravity between the moon and the Earth? *Earth Pulling the moon toward it
*One side of the moon always facing earth
Why did the discovery of cosmic background radiation with a wavelength of 7.35 cm help support the Big Bang Theory of the universe? *The radiation is coming from all directions with no specific source
*The wavelength matches the predicted value for the current temperature of the universe
What is the mechanical advantage of a lever? The pivot can be placed at any location and still allows exertion of the same input force to get the same output force at the opposite end of the lever.
What is the study of stars and planets? Astronomy
Why must an Earth scientist understand chemistry? *Chemical processes occur during the formation of sedimentary rocks
*Chemical reactions cause weathering of rocks, minerals and mountain ranges.
What is a requirement of scientific inquiry? Hypotheses must be falsifiable, and results must be repeatable
What makes a systems approach valid for scientific study? It enables scientists to take into account the various parts of a system when making predictions about system behavior
What is the difference between a law and a theory? A law is widely accepted by the scientific community, while a theory may be disputed.
Which action produces a decrease in both the electrical force and the gravitational force between two charged objects? *Decreasing the electrical charge and the mass of both objects
*Increase the distance between objects
Describe the primary thermonuclear reaction that occurs within the sun A certain mass of hydrogen atoms is fused together within the sun every second to become a lesser mass of Helium atoms, and the missing mass is released as radiant energy.
Life cycle of the sun: * Stellar nebula * Protostar * Average star * Red giant * Planetary nebula * White dwarf * Black dwarf *
Life cycle of a massive star: * Stellar nebula * Protostar * Main Sequence star * Massive star * Red supergiant * Supernova * Black hole *
Red Giant *Burns helium as its primary fuel
* Turns helium into carbon
Main Sequence Star Burns hydrogen as its primary fuel
Thermonuclear fusion in a helium-burning star *The net nuclear reaction for helium burning is
4He + 4He + 4He = 12C

*Helium undergoes nuclear fusion to create Carbon late in the life of an average-mass star

What do the processes of thermonuclear fusion and gravitational contraction have to do with the physical size of a star? *The size of a star is the result of these two continually occurring processes
*The outward thermonuclear expansion and inward gravitation contraction produce an equilibrium that accounts for the stars size.
Electromagnetic spectrum * Radio waves * Microwaves * Infrared *
~ Visible Light ~
* Ultraviolet * X-Rays * Gamma Rays
At what speed do all electromagnetic waves propagate in a vacuum? In a vacuum all electromagnetic waves move at the same speed, speed of light, c
How does light act as a wave? *It interferes with itself, resulting in a diffraction pattern
*It interacts with electrons on a metal sheet and transfers its energy to the electrons, ejecting those electrons from the sheet
Solar System * Inner planets * Asteroid belt * Outer Planets * Kuiper Belt * Oort Cloud *
Parts of the sun * Core * radiation * convection zone * photosphere * corona * chromosphere *
Nuclear fusion in the sun's core *Energy is liberated through thermonuclear fusion (hydrogen -> Helium)
*Release energy because the total mass of reactants is greater than the total mass of the products. The resulting He is 99.3% of the original hydrogen mass.
Mercury Very little atmosphere
Venus *Most closely resembles Earth
*Hottest planet
*Spins opposite of Earth
Mars *1/2 the size of Earth
*Colder than Earth
*2 moons (Phobos and Deimos)
Jupiter *Largest planet
*Strong magnetic field produces highest radiation levels in solar system
Saturn *Lowest density (primarily Hydrogen and Helium)
* 4 Concentric rings and 24 moons
Uranus *4x bigger than Earth
*Density slightly greater than water
*No internal source of heat
Neptune *Atmosphere mainly hydrogen and helium
*Emits 2.5x as much heat energy as it receives from the sun
Radio Waves *Longest wavelengths
*Used to transmit AM and FM radio stations
Microwaves *Long wavelengths
*Useful in heating and cooking
Ultraviolet *Just shorter than visible light
*useful in killing bacteria and sanitizing instruments
X-rays *short wavelengths
*used to identify broken bones
Gamma rays *Shortest wavelength
*Used in medicine for cancer treatment
Metamorphic rock *Can be foliated
*Can contain igneous or sedimentary rocks
*recrystallized (not melted)
Marble *Metamorphic
*Non-foliated (recrystallized)
Igneous Rock *Formed when magma cools and solidifies
*Intrusive – underground
*Extrusive – above ground
Silicate *4 oxygen atoms joined to 1 silicon atom in a tetrahedron
Electricity Occurs when there's a difference in electrical potential
Magenetism *Deflects moving charged particles
*Forms concentric rings around current-carrying wire
*Induced by the flow of charged particles in the Earth's liquid outer core
How do water molecules react to freezing? *They move lightly away from each other
*They move into a more orderly arrangement
*They decrease in transitional energy
Earth's mantle *Contains the mohorovic discontinuity
*Contains iron-rich silicate rock
*Divided into 2 zones: lithosphere and asthenosphere
Earth's crust *Oceanic and continental
*Contains highest level of silica
Hadley Cells *A pair of convection cells between 0 degrees and 30 degrees North and South
*Produce prevailing winds
*Total of 6 on Earth's surface
What are the effects of Hadley Cells? *Trade winds
*Regions of high rainfall in the tropics
*Polar deserts
Continental-continental convergence forms what? Mountain ranges
Oceanic-continental convergence forms what? A deep ocean trench and coastal mountain range
Oceanic-oceanic convergence forms what? A trench forms in the subduction zone and an island arc of volcanoes grows from magma that is generated in the collision.
Gravitational potential energy *Energy increased as an object is raised to a greater height
*Gravitational potential energy = weight x height
Chemical potential energy Energy stored in glucose or other elements and substances
Kinetic energy *Random molecular motion
*Propagation of sound
*Driving in a straight line at constant speed
Law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed
How is energy transferred by radio waves? Vibrating electric and magnetic fields force electrons in the receiving antenna to vibrate at the same frequency.
Refraction *The bending of waves due to the change in the medium
*Exhibited by both light and sound waves
Light waves *Results from accelerating electrons
*Can reflect from rough surfaces
*Vibrations of electromagnetic fields
Sound waves *Vibrations of a material medium
*Cannot travel through a vacuum
What is the relationship between a gravitational field and light? Light curves in a gravitational field
Coulomb's Law Like charges repel, opposites attract
Newton's Law of gravity Gravity only attracts
Light waves *Travel through empty space
*Denser materials slow them down
Sound Waves *Require a medium to travel through
*Denser materials speed up sound waves
How do glaciers affect the earth's surface? *Enhance soil creep on steep slopes
*They transport sediment and deposit it as moraines
Upon the passage of a cold front which changes in atmospheric conditions does an observer on the ground experience? *Air is pushed up abruptly as the front approaches and generally descends after passage of the front
*Air temperature increases and then decreases after passage of the front.
Removal of rabbits Reduction in energy into the third trophic level
Why does primary succession take longer to reach a climax community than secondary succession? Soil is not immediately available in a primary succession environment and must accumulate overtime.
In which group do all atoms have seven valence electrons in the ground state? Halogens
The element carbon has 3 isotopes that are commonly found in nature: 12C, 13C, and 14C.? *One of these isotopes is radioactive and will eventually decay into other forms.
*A sugar molecule containing only 13C for its carbon backbone is digested no differently from sugar molecule containing only 12C.
What is a heterogeneous mixture? Any mixture that is not uniform in composition – it's a non-uniform mixture of smaller constituent parts. Using various means, the parts in the mixture can be separated from one another.
Which role does energy play in the formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen? Energy is released to the environment
Prokaryotic cells May possess pili
Eukaryotic cells *Possess a nucleus
*Can be unicellular or multi-cellular
*Have a cell membrane
Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Contain Chromosomal DNA
Why do many radiation therapy patients have low red blood cell counts? Bone marrow cells divide rapidly and are susceptible to the effects of radiation.
Which two statements illustrate the impact of a natural science discovery on another discipline ? *Advancements in fossil dating methods have provided important evidence for physicists studying the big bang theory.
*A better understanding of the physical properties of sound has allowed for developments in liquid crystal displays.
What type of star begins to have carbon build-up in the core? Protostar
What type of star is no longer undergoing fusion? White dwarf
Marble *Large interlocking crystals of calcite
Electricity *Is induced by the flow of charged particles in the earth's liquid outer core
*It is a flow of charged particles, it occurs when there is a difference in electrical potential
Magnetism It deflects moving charged particles
What are two examples of Newton's Third Law of Energy? *A cannon recoils after shooting a cannonball
*A rocket expels exhaust gases with the same force with which the gases propel the rocket
Describe the role of solar energy Solar energy warms air at the equator which rises and spreads towards the poles, circulating in large convection currents.
Hygrometer Inferring the structure of earth's interior
Satellite remote sensing *Assisting search and rescue operations
*Mapping the earth's surface
*Assessing flood damage
How does nitrogen move between abiotic and biotic components of an environment? *Detritivores convert dead organic matter into ammonia
*Animals receive nitrates from the soil by ingesting plants
*Plants convert organic nitrogen to soil nitrate
What is an effect of seasonal temperature variation on organisms living in temperate forest ? Deciduous tree sheds its leaves in the fall
Fish Some possess cartilaginous skeletons
Birds Have hollow bones and are endothermic
Why does primary succession take longer to reach climax community than secondary succession? *Soil is not immediately available in a primary succession environment and must accumulate over time
Active transport Carrier proteins using energy transport large organic molecules across the membrane (movement of molecules across the cell membrane by a carrier protein that requires energy input) ?
Facilitated diffusion Carrier proteins passively transport large or polar molecules across the membrane (movement of molecules across the cell membrane by a carrier protein without energy input) ?
Endocytosis A process in which materials are moved into a cell through the pinching off of a vesicle from the cell membrane ?
Diffusion There is movement of oxygen molecules across a membrane from areas of high to low concentration (the random movement of molecules resulting in the transport of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration ?
Exocytosis A vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and releases hormones outside the cell. a process in which materials are moved out of a cell through the fusion of a vesicle with the cell membrane ?
Which two statements describe both photosynthesis and respiration? *Oxygen is a product of photosynthesis but is consumed during respiration.
*Photosynthesis is carried out by chloroplasts and respiration is carried out by mitochondria.
Which two statements are true of mitosis and not meiosis ? *It produces homologous chromosomes
*It produces somatic cells
How does the sequence change create genetic variation ? A point mutation causes amino acid changes in proteins
Which two statements correctly define Mendel's law of segregation ? *Pairs of alleles on different chromosomes separate individually during gamete formation.
*More than one allele determines the appearance of a single trait.
Why do many radiation therapy patients have low red blood cell counts? Bone marrow cells divide slowly and accumulate the effects of the radiation
Pedigree construction, engineering microorganisms to extract heavy metals, synthetic insulin production? Recombinant DNA technology

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