Atoms and Elements

Term Definition
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass The material/stuff that matter takes up
Space/Volume The specific area/place that matter takes up
Density D=m/v The amount of mass in a specific volume of space
Atom smallest part of an element, the building blocks of all matter
Electron Particles of atoms with a negative charge, moves around the nucleus along with proton
Proton Particles in an atom with a positive charge located inside the nucleus
Neutrons Particles in an atom with a neutral/ no charge located inside the nucleus along with the protons
Periodic Table Large grid that identifies and classifies all of the elements by their chemical and physical properties
Element The simplest substances that cannot be broken down / they make up all matter in the universe
Periods/rows Rows that tell how many energy levels each elements has for electrons to move around
Groups or Family/ Columns Columns that tell how many valence electrons each element has / the number of electrons that can move on it's outer shell / energy level
Valence Electrons The electrons that move on the outer shell / energy levels of an atom
Atomic Number How many protons an element has inside the nucleus / usually is same # of the neutrons and electrons
Atomic Mass The measurements of the mass for an element atoms
Chemical Property The ability of substances to combine with on another forming new and different compounds and molecules
Physical Property The states of matter and appearance of a substance
Ionic Bond When elements either lose or gain an electron during bonding
Covalent Bond When elements share electrons during bonding
Chemical Change / Reaction Elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change
Compound / Molecule Two or more elements combine together in a specific ratio / pattern creating a whole, new and different substance
Mixture two or more substances combine together keeping their original properties, they do NOT change into a new substance / compound
Nobel Gasses all the elements in Group #18- they are the most stable elements because that have eight electrons in their outer shell
Halogens all of the elements in Group #17- they are very reactive bonding easily with elements in Group #1 because the have seven valence electrons and want to be stable
Alkali Metals All of the elements in Group #1 – they are very reactive because they have only one valence electron
Metalloids Elements between metals and non-metals that can react either way, they have 3-7 valence electrons

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