Bangladesh Studies Sample Essay

The chief text covers military and guerilla actions and touches upon political every bit good as other related affairs. Relatively broad coverage of the armed actions does non connote greater importance or precedency of military actions over the long-drawn battle of the huge bulk of the people. The significance of freedom motions can non be comprehended by analyzing military actions or guerilla activities entirely. To understand the true dimension release wars one must be cognizant of the aspirations of the 1000000s of people ; aspirations that span over 100s of old ages and are nurtured and passed on from coevals to coevals. Although armed action is merely one facet of a freedom motion. the entirety of such a motion encompasses human societies so overpoweringly that all release wars leave lasting imprints non merely on the history of the state concerned. but on world as a whole. As such. while reading the book it should be remembered that – Liberation Wars are non mere military runs. They basically are people’s wars. Without people’s engagement there can be no triumph and no freedom in the long tally.

About the Writer
Rafiqul Islam B. U. was born in Comilla in Sept. 1943. After completing college instruction he studied Economicss at Dhaka University. He was an active participant in the students’ motion in 1962 against Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan. While a pupil at the university he worked for sometime as a letter writer with the U. P. P which is a intelligence bureau. In 1963. he left the university before finishing his surveies and joined the Pakistan Army. He was commissioned in the Corps of Army Engineers and subsequently served in the Corps of Artillery. In the beginning of 1970 he was deputed to EPR Sector Head-Quarter at Chittagong as Adjutant of the sector. In March 1971. he joined the Bangladesh Liberation War. and was one of the innovator freedom combatants. During the Liberation War. he was Commander of Sector No. 1 of Bangladesh Forces. Along with others. he was awarded the Bir Uttam ( B. U. ) . Bangladesh’s highest ornament ( non-posthumous ) for courage.

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On April 29. 1972. he was released from military service. Thereafter he worked as Associate Editors of The People’s View. an English day-to-day newspaper from Chittagong. He received higher instruction on direction development ( PMD-41 ) at Harvard Business School in the U. S. A. in 1981. From 1977 to 1990. he was Chairman. Dhaka Water Supply Authority ; Chairman. Bangladesh Handloom Board ; and Lastly. Chairman. Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Corporation ( BIWTC ) . In December. 1990. he was appointed Advisor to the Acting President of Bangladesh in the caretaker impersonal authorities. and held the charges of the Ministry of Ports and Shipping. and the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism. He is elected as an Honorary of Member of Parliament of Bangladesh in the election of 2008.

About The Book
A Tale of Millions is a breathtaking history of the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 that saw infinite fierce and bloody conflicts during the nine months of contending. It is a matter-of-fact history of how the trigger-happy Pakistani Frankensteins were allow loose to kill three million Benglalis and force over 10 million to fly to India. The writer is a innovator freedom combatant. and as commanding officer of Sector No. 1 of Bangladesh Forces. conducted the war in his sector. And here the book assumes an added significance because it has been penned foremost of all time by a sector commanding officer of the Bangladesh Liberation War. First published in 1974. an hypertrophied 2nd edition was brought out in 1981. Some of the actions non covered earlier have been added to the 1994 edition. In this priceless papers of Bangladesh Liberation War. the writer narrates the generation of the motion for independency. its tests and trials. hopes and defeats ; and eventually prevail brought approximately by grit. finding and death-defying vow of the 75 million people.

It reveals. in minute inside informations. how a peace-and-freedom-loving people – deprived. exploited and oppressed ruthlessly for ages – rose in unison to wrest freedom from the barbarian tentacles of the Pakistan Army. The writer has unveiled many hitherto unknown events of the Bangladesh Liberation War and. at the same clip. fastidiously ensured the rightness and genuineness of facts. For such dependability. the book has carved for itself a really particular topographic point as a ‘Reference Book’ for the history of Bangladesh Liberation War. Mentions were made to the records in the A Tale of Millions by the Bangladesh Parliament in June 1981 during treatments on some historic events of the Liberation War. The publication of the book has been widely accepted every bit seasonably as it has filled a nothingness where the existent history of the Bangladesh Liberation War could hold been distorted and its glorification tarnished in the procedure. Thus the book will happen its topographic point as a true and historic papers for the descendants for a flashback.

Background of Liberation War
The Background of Bangladesh Liberation War 1971. was ‘years of Treachery and Exploitation’ . There were disparities in every domains of Bengalis life. The yearss when Bengalis ruled themselves and enjoyed the fruits of their adversity belong to so distant a past that these seem have lost even historical significance. and are recollected merely as myths and fables. For many coevalss. the people of this part were subjected to the indignity and subjugation of British colonial regulation. Such colonial regulation followed by the creative activity of West and East Pakistan shortly after the Independence from the British Rule. It seemed like the Bengalis in the East were subjected to development and colonial regulation for clip being of nature.

The Bengalis confronted disparity in every domain in their so called ain state. East Pakistan. Though overpowering bulk in the East was the Bengalis while the Punjabis were in the bulk in the West. the bulk in Population was in the East. But the West was held with ‘central command’ of Pakistan. The gag of destiny was that. except the bulk in faith – Islam. nil was common between the two wings of Pakistan. There were confusions in the philosophers whether a province based on such weak foundation could last without cooperation. brotherhood and political accomplishment. But the confusion was acquiring clearance through old ages of perfidy. hatred development and want. The resources in East Pakistan were utilized for development of the West Pakistan but the Bengalis in the East have to endure the drawn-out adversity since British Rule.

Chapter wise Significance
Chapter 2 – Code Wordss:
It is found that. the writer. who was a Deputy and Adjutant of EPR ( East Pakistan Regiment ) Sector HQ. At Chittagong. organized about 1500 EPR work forces to prehend and collar the West Pakistani forces mutely to capture the Port City. Chittagong. But the enterprise was vetted by a Lt. Col. And a Major of the so Pakistan Army. two Bengali Army Personnel. Both these officers were confused about the ictus of the City in instance of long tally. if that they fail to put to death their program consequently. Besides. they barely could conceive of that the Pakistan Govt. would travel so far to launch GENOCIDE. In words of the Lt. Col. – “They ( Pakistan Govt. ) won’t do anything serious against us. After all. there is universe sentiment which they can non overlook. ” In words of the Major – “Don’t worry. they will non travel to that extent. ” The writer had some statements with these two ground forces forces but could non convert them to fall in him for the enterprise. But both of them. dwelling to EBRC ( East Bengal Regimental Centre ) and 8 East Bengal Regiment. came to a determination that if anything goes incorrectly from the other side they would capture their ain centres and so fall in the writer in the Tactical HQ. Railway Hill. Chittagong to capture the port metropolis. So for that dark. March 24. 1971. the operation got set back. And the writer cancelled the 2nd Code Message “Bring Some Wood For Me” . The codification messages meant:

“Arrange Some Wood For Me” – This was a warning to stay on stand-by at half an hour’s notice. “Bring Some Wood For Me” – This 2nd message was an order for all military personnels to collar. and if necessary. to extinguish all hostile forces. Thereafter. the Bengali military personnels were to travel to the metropolis and travel to pre-selected conflict locations.

Chapter 3: The Old ages of Treachery and Exploitation
The writer has successfully drawn the image for the background of Liberation War. The statistical informations and comparing shown earlier were embedded consecutive here. All since the separation of India in 1947 to 1971. period of perfidy and development of Pakistan Govt. either Jinnah’s reign or Ayub Khan’s reign or it be Yahya’s. the grounds for Bengalis’ unison discussed exhaustively by Rafiqul Islam B. U. After the decease of Jinnah Pakistan Govt. saw a figure of Leaderships but none of them were at good appeal for East wing. The writer. in a simple but efficient literature. has described every Immigration and Naturalization Services and out for the occurrence of a war. Chapter 4 & A ; 5: Political Turmoil & A ; History in the Making Description of the political agitation grown up since every motion of aggression of mass people particularly pupils and politicians against all odds of the Govt. of Pakistan. Situations ever worsened by Hypocrisy of the Feudal Rulers. Their provocative actions enabled the Bengalis in History Making. Chapter 6 to Last: Preparations to Epilogue

Since President Yahya left East Pakistan in secret. it made the concerns smelling the evil program of the Govt. The writer. Rafiqul Islam B. U. was besides confident that the Pakistanis are traveling to establish Genocide on Bengalis. The M. V. Swat transporting 10. 000 dozenss of ammos. the inordinate military personnels processing from West to the East wing. instantly alleviating the Bengali Officials in Pakistan Army without any notice ; all these made the writer nerved that led him to be after a mutiny with his Bengali military personnel. Though the writer was refrained from taking any action earlier but ordered his work forces to stay argus-eyed. Consequently. he started his hit before being hit and arrested around 1. 000 West Pakistani officers and soldiers in assorted BOPs ( Border Out Posts ) and Sector HQ with his work forces. He started his journey of Liberation War at 8:30pm of March 25. 1971 from his Sarson Road abode. Bing one of the innovator freedom combatants was an oculus informant of the ferociousness of the West Pakistani Frankenstein let free on the unarmed Bengalis. The adult females were tortured. raped until decease has taken them off. Work force were made bare to look into their individuality whether they were Muslims or non.

The belongingss of the Hindus every bit good as Bengali Muslims were looted without any vacillation. Small kids could non yet acquire rid of those Hyenas belonging to West Pakistan. Passerbies by were killed without any ground. Young persons were taken to an unknown location and ne’er returned to their household. Anyone caught during migrating in fright towards India or any boundary line location. foremost checkered Muslim or non. were looted so lined up and shooting with slugs. And if in such a state of affairs there is any female. miss or adult females ; became a banquet object for the Pathans or Punjabis. Even the aged adult females were non out of those vultures’ lecherousness. In August. the Guerrilla motion gained attending of the Pakistan Authority. They were once more in ferocious state of affairs that these Guerrillas were from the young persons in the Bengal. So they took up enterprises to capture and kill as more young persons as they can. Consequently. they took the young persons from houses. streets. wherever they could acquire. It is mentioned by the writer here that the Pakistan Army started to utilize these young persons for the supply of blood for their soldiers’ casualties. Young persons those are healthy plenty were kept in detention at a unknown topographic point. to take out their bloods.

Their bloods were taken until they were dead. Pakistan Army. before establishing Operation Searchlight. did non imagined that there would be monolithic opposition. They thought the Bengalis would be soundless for a long clip when they kill some 1000s people on March 25. But the rebuff and opposition by the Bengalis unnerved them. Though the Bangladesh Force had to withdraw foremost from their places because of absence of support and ammo supply. they did non easy allow it travel. Many of the soldiers fought since last slug and have life in within. Soon after acquiring supply of ammo and civilians coming in front to fall in the war. backed up the Bangladesh Force. And the Liberation War so got oranized mode. The Bangladesh Force so started giving preparation to the untrained work force organizing groups of Guerrilla and investing them to assorted zones. The Liberation War is divided into Four Phases here by the writer: First Phase: From March 25 to the 3rd hebdomad of June:

Battles were fought sometimes in a planned mode. and at other times without careful planning.

Second Phase: From the last hebdomad of June to September:
This was the stage of reorganisation and coordination. The Guerrilla tactics was switched on by this clip and brought sequence onwards.

Third Phase: From the last hebdomad October to December 3:
In this stage guerilla operations were stepped up. The regular battalions and the sector troops all over the state achieved limited triumph in minor actions against the enemy during this stage. Fourth Phase: From December 3 to December 16:

It was the period of joint operation against the Pakistan Army by the Bangladesh and Indian Forces. This stage culminated in triumph against the Pakistan Army on December 16. 1971.

The Mujib Nagar Government
On 17 April 1971. in the small town of Vardyanathtala in the Meherpur territory. Bangladesh formed its first authorities. with Mujibnagar as that became the capital of the Probationary Government. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was elected president. but he was in a Pakistani gaol. frailty President Syed Nazrul Islam became Acting President. Other of import members of the authorities were: Prime Minister: Tajuddin Ahmed

Foreign Minister: Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmed
Finance Minister: Captain ( Retd. ) Mansur Ali
Home Minister: A. H. M. Quamruzzaman
Colonel Muhammad Ataul Ghani Osmani became commander-in-Chief of the Mukti Bahini. Professor Yusuf Ali. Awami League member of National Assembly. read out a statement declaring 26 March 1971 as Independence Day. Acting President Syed Nazrul Islam and Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed appealed to other states to acknowledge Bangladesh’s independency. The Response Of The World

The first state to back up Bangladesh in the War of Liberation was India. Around ten 1000000s Bengalis were forced to seek safety in India when Pakistani forces started their race murders run. The Government of Indira Gandhi and the people of India extended support to all who took safety in India. The Soviet Union besides supported Bangladesh and in August 1971 signed a Treaty of Peace. Friendship and commercialism with India. The govt. of USA and China. did non back up Bangladesh in the Liberation War. while the common in people many states sympathized with the adversities of the people of Bangladesh and provided them with practical aid. Bhutan was the first state to acknowledge Bangladesh as an independent crowned head state followed by India.

Finally. in December 3. the Indian Army called as Mitra Bahini joined Mukti Fouz ( Bangladesh Force ) formed a united force and Indian Air Force ( IAF ) launched blasting on locations of Pakistan Army. This actions made the Commander Eastern Command of Pakistan. Niazi confused of their ability in the state of affairs. Finally the morale of the Pakistan Army was broken down due to the consistent lose of their district in East. At last. Niazi made up his head to put back and agree to the Unconditional Surrender Offer made by General Manekshaw of Indian Army on behalf of the Allied forces of Bangladesh and Indian Forces by December 16. 1971. That followed the Victory of the Bengali Nation. for what they had to pay a really heavy cost that can be barely borne by such a little state so. No 1 can of all time really cipher it out. that the figure of Martyrs of Bangladesh Liberation War. 1971.

Those who survived the war being within the state are the existent witnesss of the ferociousness. of the forfeit. of the wretchedness. That’s why any of the citizen of Bangladesh. whenever hears of 1971 or merely ’71 immediately remembers of the release war. It’s the significance of the state to retrieve. that the dark of untold wretchednesss like March 25. 1971 came merely after a normal and beautiful sundown. And the freedom besides came as triumph merely after sunset same as the old one at 6:30pm of December 16. 1971. But between those two sundowns there were many more sundowns which are the informant of the ferociousness faced by the state. ‘earned being called Bengalis’ .


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