Barriers Faced By Women Commerce Essay

The glass ceiling is a construct that most often refers to barriers faced by adult females who attempts, or aspire, or to achieve senior place ( every bit good as higher wage degrees ) in corporations, authorities, instruction and non-profit organisations. It can besides mention to racial and cultural minorities and work forces when they experience barriers to advancement.

I observed that during the last few old ages a batch of adult females are traveling in direction Fieldss but non a batch of them are traveling an chance to acquire into the top direction places. This has got nil to make with their abilities and dedication to their work, it is clear that glass ceiling is affected and halting the adult female from making the top managemt places. The job of glass ceiling persists in the others states of the universe as is clear from the old researches but this job is more apparent in Pakistan. This is because despite the roar in instruction sector, the society still remains conservative and negative feelings and stereotypes do be against adult females employees. As a consequence of the glass ceiling, the public presentation of adult females directors feels that they are non being treated every bit. The develop the feelings that their attempts are non being decently rewarded. Due to the presence of pre-defined regulations and ordinance for publicities adult females working in public sector are non being affected a great trade by glass ceiling. Thus it is the private sector where the adult females are confronting glass ceiling the most. The significance of the survey is that the research squad looked into the chief jobs which are forbiding the adult females from traveling into the top direction places. By placing the factors doing the job the squad will be able to judge the grounds and assist eliminate them. It is of import to look in the organisational factors that would assist eliminate them. It is of import to look in the organisational factors that would assist the adult females to make the top direction places every bit early as they deserve. This survey is attempts to non merely place the factors responsible for impacting the public presentation of adult females directors through glass ceiling but besides to give solutions to get the better of from this job.

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The term Glass ceiling refers to gender favoritism that limite a adult female as inferior and is harassed by the society. This has a elusive consequence that blocks her peace of head. It is the recognized domination practiced by stereotyped society that makes a adult female weaker non merely physically or mentally every bit good.


Over the past 25 old ages, the per centum of adult females take parting in the work force has increased. However, this increased has been confined to entry degree places, while the center and senior degree direction places still reflect shortfall adult females.

Harmonizing to LINDA WRITH, “ Interrupting Glass Ceiling through the adult females in direction update 2004, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE, GENEVA, she told that “ the overall employment state of affairs of adult females has non evolved significantly since 2001. The ILO ‘s Global Employment Trends ( 2003 ) reported that adult females continue to hold lower labour market engagement rates, higher unemployment rates and important wage differences compared to work forces. Women represent over40 per centum of the planetary labourforce, about 70 per centum of adult females in developed states and 60 per centum in developing states. There has besides been small alteration in their portion of professional occupations in the last few old ages. Women occupy about 30 to 60 per centum of professional occupations in the sample of states from which new informations were available.

This represents an addition of 0.7 per centum between 1996-99 and 2000-02. However, considerable fluctuations remain between adult females ‘s portion in different types of professional occupations. Cultural and societal attitudes towards what constitutes “ male ” or “ female ” occupations result in occupational segregation I, although the extent of the job varies from state to state and occupation to occupation. Womans are chiefly concentrated in the “ Feminized “ professions such as nursing and instruction ( horizontal occupational segregation ) , where at the same clip they remain in lower occupation classs than work forces ( perpendicular occupational segregation ) .

Harmonizing to JAN TUCKER, in the article “ The Glass Ceiling dose it still exits “ The causes of the glass ceiling are varied. Some suggest that the glass ceiling is selfimposed by some adult females. For illustration, adult females may take to work fewer hours than work forces in order to pass more clip with their households. Women besides measures success by high wages and of import occupation rubrics whereas adult females place a higher value on their relationships with co-workers and community service. Others suggest that deep-rooted stereotypes and socialisation cause the glass ceiling. In some organisation, the good old male child web is still permeant. When make up one’s minding who to advance in these organisations, adult females are frequently non even considered.

Some companies recognize that employees have a life outside of the office. These family-friendly organisations offer options such as flex-time, onsite kid attention, employee aid plans and telecommuting options for their employees want to work in a household -friendly organisation. Some employees who do non hold household duties may resent their company offering services that non all employees want to work in a family-friendly organisation. Some employees who do non hold household duties may resent their company offering services that do non hold household duties may resent their company offering services that do non use to them. One of the first stairss in finding what employees want in the work topographic point is to find how people define calling success. Womans and work forces tend to utilize different types of steps when finding what makes a calling successful. Men tend to concentrate on earning, promotional chances and success while adult females focus on positive interpersonal relationships and feelings ( Powell & A ; Graves, 2003 ) .

Harmonizing to “ Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling Without Interrupting a Nail: Women executive

In Fortune Magazine ‘s “ Power 50 ” List “ by Sherianne Shuler in today, s organisations. Apparently back uping this declaration, magazine late started printing “ with Fiorina at the top of the list each twelvemonth. While the increasing figure of adult females executive possibly demonstrates advancement, the magazine coverage perpetuates familiar stereotypes of adult females in organisations. By situating that popular concern magazines are portion of the broader discourse in which organisations are situated, this paper examines Fortune ‘s “ Power 50 ” lists, reasoning that they help to build the glass ceiling.

CEOs of Fortune 500 companies in 1962, by 2002 there were 6.And while 15.7 per centum of all corporate officer places are now held by adult females, when the figure are broken down by race it becomes clear that recent additions have chiefly advantaged white adult females as adult females of colour clasp merely 1.6 per centum of corporate officer places.

Harmonizing to VINITA BHATIA, in the article “ Interrupting the Glass Ceiling ” , she said that while corporate India Inc. is increasing looking at diverseness in their work force by puting adult females employees at cardinal determination doing place, the channel community has a batch of catching up to make.

SOM MITTAL, President NASSCOM, is of the belief that gender inclusivity is a must for a long term success of the IT industry. “ India will play a cardinal function in future transmutation, ” he claimed. “ Womans are a cardinal and critical portion of work force and the industry will go on to work towards making a contributing environment and pull more adult females employees and leaders, ” he added

NEELAM DHAWAN foremost heading the state ‘s biggest package, Microsoft and so traveling on to be at the helm of personal businesss at Hewlett Packard. Dhawan is merely one of the many adult females who have become synonymous with the companies they work for. But unhappily the same ca n’t be said of the IT channel companies in the state. Baring a few there are barely any adult females who are in the cardinal determination doing places in most large channel companies. In an industry that has been mostly male dominated, adult females have been able to do a grade, but non at the same velocity as in seen in the remainder of corporate India.

The fact is borne by some Numberss as good. In India, merely 25 per centum of the concern leading comprises adult females. In China, on the other manus, adult females comprise about 60 per centum of the concern leading. Women get so accustomed to their bing occupation function, which prevents them from making the top degree. Furthermore the organisation besides has a feeling that it is non deserving puting in because, they would acquire married, have a babe and quit.

The challenges might go on to go out, but is no uncertainty that a greater representation of adult females at the workplace is critical today. At its 3rd one-year IT Women Leadership Summit in Bengaluru in November, 2008 “ Tranforming Enterpries and Socities ” Nassom representatives stressed on the fact that “ workplace diverseness in industry gives it a taking border in the market place and is therefore of even greater importance in these clip of economic ression and lag. Gender inclusivity is no longer corporate societal duty but a concern jussive mood. ”

Harmonizing to the article, “ what Glass Ceiling? – gender based employment favoritism by Michael Lynch that as the argument over affirmatory action heats up a concentred attempts will be made to convert adult females that they are victims of occupation favoritism. Currently, a constitutional enterprise in California, headed for the November 1996 ballot, threatens to get rid of public-sector penchant plans and so, oppositions of the enterprise are appealing to adult females to oppose it. The National Organization for Women ( NOW ) , for illustration, has made get the better ofing the California Civil Rights Initiative ( CCRI ) its figure one precedence for 1996 and such once non-political groups as the YMCA have joined the charge to get the better of it.

Davidson & A ; Cooper ( 1983 ) found that managerial adult females experience greater strain and experience more stray at work that males which in bend affect their public presentation. There is greater difference in leading because of negative perceptual experience and rating of adult females in leading ( Stelter 2002 ) .

Sexual activity function orientation and the stereotype of manger function as masculine concept along with deficiency of calling planning among adult females are prevailing subject that explains why so few adult females advancement to leading place ( Chugh & A ; Sehgal 2007 ) . Womans are non advancement in work topographic point because they did non have preparation to execute occupation furthermore manger do non appreciate accomplishments of their adult females employee as comparison to work forces ( Asplund 1988 ) .


Over the past 25 old ages, the per centum of adult females and minorities take parting in the work force has increased. However, this addition has been confined to entry still reflect a deficit of adult females.

To place the position of adult females in the society every bit good as in the workplace.

To happen out the steps to get the better of with the job of “ GLASS CEILING ” .

To research workplace challenges that adult females face and recommends schemes to turn to them research.

To focal points on adult females in concern and reexamine the literature on gender disparities in employment, compensation and publicity.

To find the extant to which the glass ceiling continues to go out and forestall adult females from deriving entree to organisational resources.


How glass ceiling affect the occupation public presentation of mangerial adult females?


There are three variables which are under survey. Job public presentation is dependent variable and it is the variable of primary involvement and alterations or fluctuations in occupation public presentation will be explained by two independent variables

Gender Pigeonholing

Cooperation among co-workers

Gender stereotyping has negative relation with occupation public presentation i.e. if there is less gender stereotyping among the member of organisation so greater will be the occupation public presentation. Cooperation has positive relation with occupation public presentation i.e. if there is more cooperation among there is more cooperation among the employees the greater will be the occupation public presentation.

Reappraisal of past researches shows if there is gender pigeonholing female director can non acquire the equal chances, male are merely prefering the males so finally it affect the occupation public presentation of female employees that ‘s why there is a negative relation between occupation public presentation and gender stereotype.

Past researches besides shows that the cooperation play a really of import function in increasing the occupation public presentation because if there is a cooperation among employees so they can motive each other and it leads towards addition in occupation public presentation.


If cooperation among the co-workers at work topographic point is increased so the occupation public presentation of managerial adult females will be increased.

If gender stereotyping is reduced at work topographic point so the occupation public presentation of managerial

adult females will be increased.


In this Cross-sectional co-relational field survey informations on two independent variables ( gender stereotype, cooperation among co-workers ) and dependent variable ( occupation public presentation ) were collected from both males and females at direction degree working in private organisations PIFRA ( Project to Better Financial Reporting and Auditing ) World bank, Ittehad air hoses, IBM ( Pakistan ) in Islamabad through personally administered questionnaires.

Data was collected from secondary resources such as published informations, magazines, newspapers and article by assorted Writers. Organizational analysis was done from informations collected by IIO and other organisations.

In the research which we have done on Glass ceiling, we have taken both the informations i.e.

Primary informations

Secondary informations


We have design a questionnaire through which we came to cognize about the perceptual experiences of people in the society that they feel about glass ceiling.This questionnaire was filled by most of the female employees working in the academic organisation. Here we had tried to happen out what they feel about their function in the organisation, do they of all time faced the lower status due to glaze ceiling, for this intent we had format the unfastened ended questionnaire so that we may acquire to cognize about their descriptive positions sing glass ceiling and its deductions.


The glass ceiling was installed by male in patriarchal societies who regard their exalted places as sacrosanct and inviolable by adult females.

It was found that gender favoritism is a cardinal factor to the prevalence of glass ceiling in organisations.

Women faced some challenges and may necessitate different accomplishments to be successful in the work topographic point than their male opposite numbers. The causes and impact of these differences vary depending upon the size of the organisation, degree of direction and needed occupation responsibilities.

The proportion of adult females in the work topographic point has increased 5 % since 1980 whereas the figure of adult females in direction places has increased 19 % in the same period. Research indicates that there is still a spread between adult females and work forces sing compensation for bring forthing similar work.

The causes of this phenomenon are attributed to:

Percept of gender functions

Gender Stereotypes ( Prejudices )

Hiring patterns

Role outlook, Role struggle.

Less emotional stableness of adult females

Sexual torment at workplace

Uneven work force composing


Diversity direction plans should be followed in organisations.

Organizations should run an Affirmative action programs.

Cross civilization preparation every bit good as Executive Training Program should be planned.

Right individual should be appointed at right place irrespective of stereotype consequence.

Skill Based Diversity plans should be provided so that work force can understand each other and work heartily.

Managerial support should be provided as per demand.

Recruitment procedure should be given a idea.

Indra Nooyi was the designer of the soft drink and bite company ‘s acquisition of Friend oats a few old ages. Nooyi began her calling in India, spent some clip with Motorola Iraqi National Congress ; and most late served as both president and chief financial officer at pepsico.


Glass ceiling exists in our head merely.

Womans are organizing new concerns at dual the rate of work forces.

Due to jobs like glass ceiling, adult females today are go forthing the corporate sector in huge Numberss -twice the rate of work forces.



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Respondents have different positions but all of them feel that adult females must acquire all the rights that they deserve.

Ability affairs and non being adult male and a adult female

Ireespective of being a adult male or a adult female, if a individual is dedicated to work and is committed, so, there is no ground why he/she wo n’t be recognized.

Let adult females recognize their worth by ego.

Managerial support should be provided to get the better of it.

Removal of gender biasness is the lone solution of this prejudice.

Through instruction and adult females authorization.

Womans should come frontward, they should take extra duties and turn out the universe that they are better than adult male in every regard.

Parents should handle the kids every bit and besides supply so equal instruction.

The ground behind the gender biasness is the low mentality of people.


In the secondary research we had consider few articles which have describe the job of the glass ceiling and the jobs to get the better of with the same. We have taken some articles from web sites which are mentioned in mentions.The articles which we had taken from the above web sites are as follows: –

1 Breaking through the Glass Ceiling without interrupting through the nail: adult females executives from the Fortune magazine ‘s “ power 50 ” list

2.What Glass Ceiling? Gender based employment favoritism.

3. The Guess Ceiling: does it still go out?

4. Interrupting the Glass Ceiling.

5. Shattering the glass ceiling: A scheme for endurance.

6. Are adult females happy under the Glass Ceiling.

With the aid of above secondary inside informations hub we have taken the construct of glass ceiling and the solutions to get the better of with the jobs of glass ceiling. Therefore with the aid of both the informations primary every bit good as secondary, we had proceeded with our research.


In our research, I have find that whether nowadays adult females are working, they are traveling frontward along work forces, but so there is gender biasness in our society.

It is more hard for adult females than work forces to be promoted up degrees of authorization hierarchies within workplaces but besides that the obstructions adult females face comparative to work forces go greater as they move up the hierarchy but is more intense at higher degrees.

So to turn out them, acquiring in front at work is non an easy thing to make no affair who you are. You have to work hard and turn out your worth.

Make the determination to advance you an easy one for the powers-to-be.


Women keep merely 10.6 per centum of board seats and executive places, down from 10.9 per centum in 2008. Little has changed from 2005, when the figure was 10.2 per centum.

About, a 3rd of the companies studied, 118 out of 400, have no adult females managers on their boards and no female executive officers. No company in the top 400 was without work forces in top direction places.

Fifteen of the 400 companies have a adult females functioning as main executive officer, up from 13 in 2008.

The above chart shows the findings of 2006, that still the ratio of work forces are higher than the adult females.

At the clip of research we have find out that in past 10 old ages 84 % more adult females have become self employed compared with an addition of 56 % among work forces. Even some have started their ain concern those who were rejected in this wider universe due to glaze ceiling. Get downing their concern in their lone manner of utilizing their endowments in the manner they went to.

As per the study of fortune 500 companies, a measly 22 % of chief executive officer ‘s are adult females and seats on board of managers are 14.7 % .

Therefore we had found that the position of adult females in the society every bit good as in the workplace is improved but non as compared to work forces, the glass ceiling is still bing in the organisation. And it will take a long span of clip to check the glass ceiling.


The intent of this survey was to see the degree of cooperation among co-workers and the gender pigeonholing in private organisations and so t find the impact of these two on the public presentation of female directors in the private organisations. The statistical analysis of the informations acquired from the filled questionnaires revealed that both male and female directors at the low and in-between degree of organisation think that exists a friendly ambiance among male and female co-workers at work topographic point. They help each other in clip of demand and in executing work related undertakings. Though both male and female agree that cooperation does exists but the interesting findings is that male employees perceives that there is cooperation among co-workers more so female employees do.

Another interesting determination is that male employees think that a adult female ‘s topographic point is in place and they are non suited for work outside of the place. Harmonizing to their point of position traditional hubby / married woman functions are the best and that it is the occupation of adult females to pull off the place and work forces to travel out to work. Besides, they think that adult females lack the accomplishments and abilities needed at work. This determination is supported by a survey conducted by Schein ( 2007 ) who found that on international degree, the position of adult females as less likely than work forces to possess needed direction features is a normally held belief among male direction pupils in the USA, the UK, Germany, China and Japan. However, female employees do non believe that adult females lack the managerial accomplishments and that they are non suited for work outside the place.

Female employees think that compared to male directors, female directors must continually turn out themselves in order to be taken earnestly and acquire promoted. Whereas male directors think that male and female directors are treated earnestly and acquire promoted. Whereas male directors think that male and female directors are treated every bit and in the same manner as those of male directors. These consequences are supported by ( Jeavons & A ; Sevastos, 2002 who found that the being of a strong glass ceiling effects prevents adult females to come on in the organisations. The research workers besides showed that adult females were employed by the organisation at a degree that was lower than their makings or lower than work forces making the same occupation.


As per the research we have done, we had come out with many solutions to interrupt the glass ceiling is the organisation.

We are populating in the modern universe but so besides we many found that many of the organisations are following the construct of glass ceiling. Many adult females those who are good in their capablenesss and accomplishments are sealed in the glass, that they will non be allowed to come on farther.

It has become a bias against the adult females that they are non tantamount to the work forces. Work force are categorized in the subdivision of good capablenesss and accomplishments which are better so the adult females working in the organisation. The ground behind this job can be a stereo type which was created traditionally, in the head of the people, that the job can be two-channel type which was created traditionally in the head of the people, that the peculiar subdivision of adult females can non be develop. And the consequence is that they are missing behind in comparing with male society.

Traditionally it is being said that adult females are born for the public assistance of the household, to look after the kids and their in Torahs, But the current state of affairs is being changed. They are going the rivals of work forces.

As per our research we had found that the country for adult females is besides developing but non as compared to the work forces, this we have already discussed in the findings.

In this research we had recommend that there is a long manner to travel for the development of the adult females society. For the betterment of the sector of adult females assorted researches are working but as per our research we sort that there is besides a demand to look upon the undermentioned points that we are urging:

Womans have a right to come frontward and take extra duty and turn out themselves to be strong in every context along with the work forces.

There is demand to be more dedicated towards their and keep the balance between there professional life and personal life.

Management should back up to the subdivision of adult females in there development at the work topographic point.

Government should besides take few steps to get the better of with this job.

Government should get down some consciousness plans about the job of glass ceiling.

Gender biasness should be eradicate and everyone should be cognizant about the effects of the peculiar job.

More instruction plans must be their along with the adult females authorization.

By supplying more chance to the female subdivision ( govt. had already taken the action sing this, they have given some quota in different sectors like private and public every bit good )

OUR Recommendation:

Management must larn to acknowledge and appreciate gender difference as positive qualities which can function as assets for the organisation.

Activities should be carried within organisations that make adult females more adaptable and reacting to emotional state of affairss.

Examine organisational design, staffing and public presentation wages systems.

Organizational composing or human ecology should be equally distributed.

Every employee should be taught that are of import to the organisations.

Develop strong relationships with others in the company, concentrating on those persons with high authorization. Ask these people for feedback on their public presentation and so do it a point to move on their recommendations.


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