1. This guideline has been prepared as an rating and condensation of a full environment impact appraisal ( EIA ) of the proposed Project – Beijing Low Cost International Airport ( PLCA ) , which will be prepared for the Government by the confer withing group of the Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, following China Government guidelines by The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People ‘s Republic of China, officially known as China ‘s State Environmental Protection Administration ( SEPA ) and the methodological analysiss described in Environmental Assessment Requirements and Environmental Review Procedures of the Asian Development Bank ( 1993 ) and Environmental Guidelines for Selected Infrastructure Projects ( 1990 ) . The aim of the EIA is to guarantee that environment facets are addressed and possible jobs are foreseen at the appropriate phase of undertaking design. Hence, at the preliminary degree, a coordinator is selected for the EIA to roll up item background information. The EIA study would be based on ( I ) the Project feasibleness survey prepared by Airways Engineering Consultants under Bank proficient helper ( TA ) , ( two ) treatments with chief writers of the above paperss, ( three ) field visits to the Project site and local authorities capital, and, ( four ) treatments with local authorities and pertinent National Government functionaries with environmental duties.
2. The methods used to transport out the EIA for impact designation included:
( I ) reappraisal of available literature,
( two ) meetings with National and local authorities functionaries,
( three ) site visits to the PLCA and environing countries,
( four ) treatments with dwellers near the site via door to door study,
( V ) ambient noise and air quality and surface H2O quality sampling and testing in the field and in the research lab, and
( six ) application of professional cognition and experience.
3. Besides, the EIA would necessitate a baseline survey on informations and impact rating, appraisal, certification, determination devising and station audits that incorporates the consequences and decisions in the study of the EIA.
II. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
4. The rapid economic growing in China has led to the addition Numberss of demand for air conveyance service consumer, in both riders and lading. Being located at the capital of the People ‘s Republic of China, the flourish of touristry sector, concern and lading service had caused the current capacity of Beijing Capital International Airport ( PEK ) registered 65.3 million riders and achieved 1,420,997 metric tons of lading traffic in twelvemonth 2009, which ranked the 3rd and 14th busiest in international severally. It has reached an efficiency mark since twelvemonth 2006 boulder clay now ( Andrew Yuen & A ; Zhang, 2009 ) . However, the PEK which has three terminuss can merely manage 78 million riders per twelvemonth. At the same clip, since the projection for rider capacity in 2012 would make more than 90 million, it would be over congested in merely round the corner. The current option or nearest international airdrome available is Tianjin BinHai International Airport, nevertheless it is located excessively far, 160km from Beijing. While the nearby Beijing Nanyuan Airport ( NAY ) located north to Daxing is owned by military and serves as a in-between cost domestic airdrome that capable of managing merely 1.2 million riders per twelvemonth, hence it is feasible to look for a new finish to construct an international airdrome that in future might suit the air hoses presently utilizing NAY. Strategic vicinity might be one of the factors that riders are by and large still prefer to set down at PEK due to clip and cost convenient. Besides, the design of PEK can non suit airbus A380. Hence, it is pressing to look for a new suited location to construct a new airdrome that is agenda for completion in twelvemonth 2015 to provide the future demand.
5. Previously, there was suggestion that the major difference between the current and new Beijing airdrome to segregate into either functioning the local or international market so that there would be no convergence. However, it had received many expostulations due to its unfairness nature. It is proposed here that due to the rise of the low cost proposition in international market, the proposed Undertaking is to plan and build a Beijing Low Cost International Airport. This can deviate the riders from the PEK that PLCA can be an air power hub based low cost service that encourage more tourers and pat in the budgeted travel market. This is non the latest construct for low cost terminus edifice in China as the first has operated in Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport, which was limited merely for domestic flights from May 2008 to October 2009. A study conducted by Civil Aviation Net of China showed that 92 % of respondents opt for low cost flights, if is needed to pay the air ticket by their ain. Following the planetary market tendency, due to progressively cost-conscious travellers, a immense new low cost airdrome that can provide 70-80 million riders is proposed to be sensible. The Beijing construct would be a successful one since it is non like the Zhengzhou theoretical account which failed due to restricted for domestic. In order to run into the forecasted traffic, the size for new airdrome would be 3,800 hectares ( hour angle ) of land.
6. The suggested locations for the new airdrome include Lixian Town in Daxing District ( 39A° 33 ‘ 8 ” North, 116A° 26 ‘ 42 ” East ) , a downtown rural country covers an country of 1,012 square kilometres with a population of 671,444, as in twelvemonth 2000 statistics. It is about 40 kilometres ( kilometer ) South of the Beijing and can be connected to Beijing via Jingkai Express Highway. Another suggested location for the PLCA is at Gu’an District which is 60 kilometer off from the current airdrome.
7. The first stage of development of the PLCA, the Project, will run into air traffic prognosis demand for the twelvemonth 2016, would affect the size of 1, 800 hour angle. This involves big propjet aircraft with sufficient scope to cover both the local and international demand. Development covers the dirt betterment and earthworks necessary of concept a landing strip 2,300 metres ( m ) in length, with an initial track length of 3,500 m. The undertaking will besides finish with adequate rider and lading terminuss, auto park and entree roads ; command tower ; clang ; fire, and deliverance edifice ; accessory edifices ; lodging for airport staff ; effluent intervention works and a drinkable H2O system ; electric power ; fuel farm ; margin fence ; and back uping landing field lighting and pilotage AIDSs. All of the security confirmation system, baggage system and other indispensable installations are good equipped. The new track would be fitted for Boeing 737, Airbus A320 and Airbus A380. There would be assorted picks of eating houses, shops and responsibility free stores. It is non a epicurean one, but with merely a simple interior ornament. All these would cut down in the airdrome set downing fee and airdrome building fee ( ACF ) . As the proposed airdrome would be a low cost and integrate the trendy green airdrome construct, get oning inclines is non provided. The undermentioned stage would claim another 1,700 hour angle land, and entire track 7000 kilometer. A 100 hour angle of unoccupied land is reserved as portion of the Undertaking to supply added protection in the attack countries from future possible invasion by non-airport development. Every rider is allowed to transport 15 kg baggage, five kilogram less than under normal ordinances.
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
A. Physical Resources and Natural Environment
8. The PLCA is proposed to be located at an country of field land, which is typical of the Lixian Town at Daxing District ( Wu, et. Al, 2010 ) . The dirt is heavy metal and hence non suited for vegetable growth, but can be used for building ( Hu, et. Al, 2006 ) . Presently, the abode in the country depends on agribusiness or nutrient service that support Beijing ‘s demand. Due to the altering features of the dirt, a passage of economic activity is predicted. A item surveies should be carried out at the Project site for finding the suitableness of the land and the possibility of temblor and other natural catastrophe.
9. The clime of the country follows the four seasons, as similar to Beijing. The mean temperature ranges from a high of 17.9 to a depression of 7.2 Celsius. The air current speed needs to be obtained from the China Meteorological Administration.
10. The baseline monitoring should be carried out. Both on the site itself and the nearby main road – Jingkai Expressway. The air quality, degree of hydrocarbons and C dioxide have to be determined and compared with the national benchmarks.
11. The Longhe River and Xintiantang river are required to be carried out environment appraisal as both of the rivers support the agribusiness activities at the country.
12. Baseline monitoring of the surface H2O quality ought to be conducted at the two rivers. Sampling and proving are needed to understand the pollution degree by human waste in environing countries.
13. Since the site of the airdrome is nearby to occupants are and some of them are still trusting the use good, so the groundwater have be tested on the demand of H2O intervention.
14. Since there are 12 woods and Yongding River as the female parent river back uping many subrivals in nearby town within Daxing territory, so the degree of possibility of endanger to the vegetations and zoologies need to be assessed. It is understood that the fishing activities have decreased due to the less raining in past few old ages.
C. Human and Economic Development
15. The PLCA is in an country of low population denseness.
16. Most of the occupants of the country are husbandmans and little man of affairs who sell vegetable that supports the demands from Beijing metropolis. However, the income degree is rather low compared to the metropolis.
17. The prevailing land usage around the PLCA is agribusiness.
D. Quality of Life Values
18. Near to the site in other town but non at Lixian Town itself, merely woods and some Mosques which are served as heritage conservative sites. There is healthcare service, power line, electricity, telephone, H2O intervention service for the country.
IV. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES
19. This subdivision assesses the possible impact of the proposed development of the PLCA on the environing environment and nowadayss extenuation steps. It would cover the possible effects associated with location, design, building and operation.
A. Environmental Impacts Due to Location
1. Break of Surface and Groundwater
20. The environment impacts of the location demand to be carried out.
21. Resettlement is required for some affected small towns or called as “ cun ” but the impact is needed a farther surveies.
3. Land Valuess
22. There would be an addition in land values for residential countries, nearby to the main road, airdrome. The local authorities hence has to make a proper planning to avoid bubble economic sciences for the lodging sectors.
23. The impact of the ecology from airdrome demand to be taken into consideration.
B. Environmental Impacts Due to Project Design
1. Nearby River Erosion, Deluging
24. The building of the airdrome could make a big imperviable surface in an country that is now covered by grassland and some coppice and trees. If the drainage is hapless designed, it would impact the nearby rivers.
2. Disposal of Human Waste
25. There is possible pollution of surface H2O and groundwater due to the possible debut of turbidness and coliform bacteriums from human waste will be mitigated by the design of a effluent intervention works.
3. Petroleum Water Disposal
26. Some spilling of fuel is likely to happen during the aircraft refueling on the aircraft parking aprons, and it is necessary to pin down and filtrate out these wastes before they enter the chief drainage system of the aprons, which will empty into the nearby little river. To cut down such impact, the drainage system of the aprons will be designed so that H2O overflow during rains will be channeled into subsurface drains that will incorporate a trap system, accessible through entree holes, to filtrate out and roll up effluent intervention works after being treated to interrupt down the hydrocarbons.
C. Environment Impacts During PLCA Construction
27. With the good design and building criterions and processs are adopted harmonizing to Green Airport, it is expected to hold minimal impacts. A contractual warrant which include the environment impact associated with building is a most appropriate manner to guaranting such execution to be adhered.
1. Sediment Runoff
28. The building plan might hold impact towards the nearby river and changing its natural flow. This would impact the figure of fish population in the river. Hence, execution of eroding and deposit control is required to minimise the impact. The country should besides replant 3s aboard to guarantee the green environment to be accomplished.
2. Dust and Noise/Vibration Pollution
29. The dust pollution would be under control due to latest engineering. The noise and quiver pollution is minimized via rigorous regulations and ordinances so that it wo n’t impact the life goon of population nearby. No building work is allowed before 7am and after 7pm on weekdays, weekends and public vacation. Punishment of RMB5000 would be imposed one time there is an enforcement operation or any ailments sing the builder violate the regulations and ordinances.
3. Worker Safety and Health
30. Worker safety and wellness will be ensured via protection through contractual projects to implement safe site patterns.
4. Slum Creation
31. Since there is occupation creative activity and enlisting of work force from the abode nearby and no sourcing of workers from other countries are needed, hence there is small demands for edifice impermanent on-site house and this cut down the hazard of slum creative activity.
5. Traffic Congestion, Blocking, or Disruption of Utilities
32. The current degree of traffic on the chief main road near the site is non congested. There are new main roads opening shortly. Hence, there is small traffic job arises.
D. Impacts During PLCA Operation
33. The impacts during operation stage should be analyzed and forecasted.
1. Noise/Vibration Perturbation
34. The recognized degree of noise/vibration perturbation is about 65 dBs or 65 Ldn ( day-night noise degree ) to the nearest residential country, since there would be some distance from the airdrome, hence the impact can be minimized. The distance between the airdrome and nearest lodging country, hence, is needed to be estimated. Besides, commanding of noise/vibration perturbation can be done via the agreement of the air traffic control by holding agenda in the daylight and less air traffic in the dark clip. However, a completed noise analysis has to be carried out based on the forecasted hereafter flight traffic volume. Noise monitoring terminuss would be build to guarantee the minimum impact of noise pollution.
2. Water Pollution/Escape of Sanitary Wastes
35. The building of effluent intervention works and sewerage distribution lines must be portion of the Project. The H2O, particularly at the terminal country demands to be treated with the latest green engineering. Drinkable H2O for airdrome operations need to be provided from a drilled good, or Wellss with intervention to run into World Health Organization criterions.
3. Air Pollution
36. The EIA should guarantee minimal impact of air pollution even the operation of PLCA starts.
4. Congestion at Airport Access and Exit
37. The congestion degree is ought to be estimated, irrespective of current low degree of use and new main roads are opening shortly.
5. Hazards to Traffic from Operation Aircraft
38. The residential countries or edifices nearby are low and small hazard arises for the tallness over aircraft passing. How, the accurate degree is needed to be assessed to cut down any possible hazard.
6. Human and Economic Development
39. The impact on possible alterations from rural-to-urban would take to migration towards countries nearby PLCA is needed to be assessed. Although it would convey occupation creative activity and have minor socio-economic alterations from agribusiness or little concern towards service based, a inside informations appraisal would be required to guarantee the civilization is balanced and non alter drastically.
40. The local authorities would play a really major function in allowing licences for edifices and concern. The possible positive impact would most likely be the increasing populace installations which is presently missing.
7. Quality of Life Values
41. The current lacking of public installations and installations would be improved via the proposed undertaking. The income degree would be increased while the possible alterations would be the population migration from other country in seeking for employment chance.
8. Environmental Overview
42. The undertaking will non affect panic or unreplaceable resource in line with the green airdrome construct. Natural stuffs such as sand and crushed rock should be employed for its building and future enlargement. No loss of biodiversity should be achieved.
43. The other alternate which is considered executable is Gu’an as one of the nominative site. It is a business district further down than Lixian Town.
VI. COST BENEFIT ANALYSES
A. Internal Rate of Return
44. The economic internal rate of return for the Undertaking should be estimated.
B. Economic Benefits
45. The possible chief economic benefit would be income generated from visitants ‘ outgos, clip salvaging for riders, and the value of foregone rider and lading traffic. Cost salvaging due to low landing cost and extra employment and increased in belongings value are non included in this analysis.
C. Project Costs
46. Undertaking costs include ( one ) civil plants, ( two ) other building, ( three ) equipment and its installing, ( four ) confer withing technology design and supervising, and ( V ) cost for suspension for pollution.
D. Monitoring and Reporting Cost
47. Monitoring will be required to transport out during building and operation of the Project. It would be a contractual base.
E. Nonqualified Environment Impacts
48. Any negative impacts in environment would be internalized into the cost of Project. Hence, cost-benefit and cost effectivity of such pollution is non based on detached budget.
VII. INSTITUSIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM
A. Institutional Capacity
49. Since there are many experiences on airdrome edifice by China Aviation Society, hence with the helper from adviser on EIA, which adhere to regulations and ordinances as mentioned earlier, no particular preparation is required. However, the authorities needs to back up on the low cost air hose in order to be successful implemented.
B. Monitoring Plan
50. The impacts of the proposed PLCA Project is needed to carried out whether it is important in order to make up one’s mind on the relevant type of supervising plan.
51. Deposit and control of eroding and H2O overflow, H2O quality, worker safety and wellness, and traffic intervention would be the extreme monitoring points during building period. All other monitoring plans are yet to be indentified after a thorough survey.
52. Monitoring plan for operation stage are besides required for the readying of control over sorts of possible serious pollution.
53. Clear certifications are required. Appropriate recommendation should be included in the on the job papers with the alternate environmental and economic impacts adhered.
VIII. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT
54. Public engagement is of import in this twenty-first century that the demand and supply is matched without major expostulation from the populace. Local occupants can be consulted via public hearing on the Undertaking program or random door-to-door study can be carried out with sets of questionnaire on their position of possible impacts in term of the environment, societal and economic towards the communities.
55. The public engagement between public and developer is needed for the dialogue on the needed acquisition and compensation.
56. The EIA would be of import to ease the determination devising procedure for the determination shapers, nevertheless it does non function as an absolute way. If it is rejected, farther surveies is required on options.
IXI. POST Audited account
47. Post audits are required to find how closely to reality the EIA anticipations. It is of import to avoid any signifier of bureaucratic constrains. General statements in the organic structure of statute law would be good as auxiliary guidelines would be required from clip to clip.