bibliography Essay

Bibliography is the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects.

On the whole, bibliography is not concerned with the literary content of books, but rather the “bookness” of books ? how they were designed, edited, printed, circulated, reprinted and collected.

We will write a custom essay sample on
bibliography Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now


A bibliography, the product of the practice of bibliography, is a systematic list of books and other works such as journal articles. Bibliographies range from “works cited” lists at the end of books and articles to complete, independent publications. As separate works, they may be in bound volumes such as those shown on the right, or computerised bibliographic databases. A library catalog, while not referred to as a bibliography, is bibliographic in nature. Bibliographical works are almost always considered to be tertiary sources.


Bibliographic works differ in the amount of detail depending on the purpose, and can be generally divided into two categories. First one is enumerative bibliography, which results in an overview of publications in a particular category. Another one is analytical, or critical bibliography, which studies the production of books. In earlier times, bibliography mostly focused on books. Now, both categories of bibliography cover works in other formats including recordings, motion pictures and videos, graphic objects, databases, CD-ROMs and websites.


Examples of Bibliography in MLA Format
Books
Format:
Author’s last name, first name. Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company, publication date.
Examples:
Allen, Thomas B. Vanishing Wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1974.
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Creators: A History of the Heroes of the Imagination. New York: Random, 1992.
Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of American Literacy Anecdotes. New York: Oxford UP, 1981.

Searles, Baird, and Martin Last. A Reader’s Guide to Science Fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1979.

Toomer, Jean. Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton, 1988.


Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Format:
Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Title of Encyclopedia. Date.
Note: If the dictionary or encyclopedia arranges articles alphabetically, you may omit volume and page numbers.
Examples:
“Azimuthal Equidistant Projection.” Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 10th ed. 1993.
Pettingill, Olin Sewall, Jr. “Falcon and Falconry.” World Book Encyclopedia. 1980.

Tobias, Richard. “Thurber, James.” Encyclopedia Americana. 1991 ed.

Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format:
Author’s last name, first name. “Article title.” Periodical title Volume # Date: inclusive pages.
Note: If an edition is named on the masthead, add a comma after the date and specify the edition.
Examples:
Hall, Trish. “IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why.” New York Times 24 Feb. 1998, late ed.: F1+.
Kalette, Denise. “California Town Counts Down to Big Quake.” USA Today 9 21 July 1986: sec. A: 1.
Kanfer, Stefan. “Heard Any Good Books Lately?” Time 113 21 July 1986: 71-72.

Trillin, Calvin. “Culture Shopping.” New Yorker 15 Feb. 1993: 48-51.


Website or Webpage
Format:
Author’s last name, first name (if available). “Title of work within a project or database.” Title of site, project, or database. Editor (if available). Electronic publication information (Date of publication or of the latest update, and name of any sponsoring institution or organization). Date of access and <full URL>.
Note: If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available.
Examples:
Devitt, Terry. “Lightning injures four at music festival.” The Why? Files. 2 Aug. 2001. 23 Jan. 2002 <http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html>.
Dove, Rita. “Lady Freedom among Us.” The Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. 1998. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 1998 <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html>.

Lancashire, Ian. Homepage. 28 Mar. 2002. 15 May 2002 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080/~ian/>.

Levy, Steven. “Great Minds, Great Ideas.” Newsweek 27 May 2002. 10 June 2002 <http://www.msnbc.com/news/754336.asp>.


Examples of Bibliography in APA Format
Books
Format:
Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company.
Examples:
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: A history of the heroes of the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., ; Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Searles, B., ; Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.

Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.


Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Format:
Author’s last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume, pages). City of publication: Publishing company.
Examples:
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.

Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.

Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format:
Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers.
Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Examples:
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.

Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.

Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.


Website or Webpage
Format:
Online periodical:
Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Online document:
Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually check your references to online documents. There is no period following a URL.
Note: If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available.
Examples:
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/
Health Canada. (2002, February). The safety of genetically modified food crops. Retrieved March 22, 2005, from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/protection/biologics_genetics/gen_mod_foods/genmodebk.html
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out