Constructing Information Modeling has been touted as one of the most promising developments in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry Azhar et Al, 2008. Get downing from the origin phase to project completion and eventually the operation stage, BIM assists assorted stakeholders such as the Designers, Architects, Engineers, Contractors, and Project/Facilities directors through the design, selling, certification, building, tendering, command, ongoing installation direction and care of the edifices. A Regardless of commercial, industrial or residential undertakings, BIM is poised to well better the design, certification and building procedures ( Suermann, 2009 ) .
BIM is a engineering that is soon deriving impulse within the AEC industry ( Johnson & A ; Gunderson, 2009 ) . The demand for BIM is increasing significantly and the industry has witnessed the turning consciousness and executions of this engineering in many of the top consultancy and contractor houses ( Ang, 2012 ) .
1.2 BIM in Local Context
Apart from abroad, BIM is besides deriving more attending in the Singapore building industry as the populace sector is taking the lead in the push for BIM execution locally ( Cheng, 2011 ) . Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) , the local building and built environment regulative bureau has formulated a five-year program to promote the building industry towards execution of BIM into their work procedures. BCA aspires to raise the per centum of BIM use to 80 % in Singapore building industry by 2015 ( Cheng, 2011 ) . This is in concurrence with the authorities ‘s program to better the building industry ‘s productiveness by up to 25 % over the following decennary ( BCA, 2011 ) .
As such, it will be made compulsory for architectural, structural and ( Mechanical & A ; Electrical ) M & A ; E plans to be submitted electronically through Construction and Real Estate Network ( CORENET ) for regulative blessing by 2015, get downing with obligatory architectural e-Submissions in 2013 ( Refer to Figure 1.1 ) . In order to ease the passage from 2D ( two-dimensional ) drawings to 3D ( three-dimensional ) BIM, BCA has developed a standardised set of BIM e-Submission templets to extinguish the fuss of necessitating to accommodate to new ways of subjecting the relevant paperss ( Cheng, 2011 ) .
Figure 1.1: Phased Mandatory BIM e-Submission ( Cheng, 2011 )
To farther promote wider acceptance of BIM in the Singapore building industry, BCA has besides set up the Centre for Construction IT ( CCIT ) to make out to assorted participants in the industry via seminars to advance success narratives of BIM execution. On top of that, a BIM fund of an sum of SGD $ 6 million has been catered to subsidise portion of the cost incurred in preparation, consultancy, package or hardware ( BCA, 2012 ) . One cardinal country of the route map besides encourages Singapore universities to carry on classs of BIM, and form BIM workshops on a regular basis ( Khemlani, 2012 ) . In readying for the industry to be BIM-ready, BCA Academy has besides launched a new Specialist Diploma Programme in BIM during May 2011 which managers BIM directors and coordinators to pull off BIM undertakings for multi-discipline coordination and coaction ( Cheng, 2011 ) .
Despite BIM being actively promoted in Singapore, its use among edifice professionals still remains low locally. Compared to The United States of America ( U.S. ) , United Kingdom ( UK ) and other Nordic states such as Norway, Denmark and Finland, the rate of BIM acceptance in Singapore is found to be draging behind these states ( Khemlani, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to BCA ‘s Build Smart magazine ‘s December 2011 issue, merely 39 % of building houses in Singapore have adopted BIM. This figure is still manner below the coveted 80 % set by BCA.
1.3 Research Problem
While many professionals believe that BIM is the Panacea for the bing jobs prevailing in the AEC industry, a big figure of possible stakeholders still remain at the opposite terminal of the spectrum. Most are found to keep reserves and stay disbelieving about the benefits that BIM claims to convey upon them, therefore giving comments that BIM is likely to be a selling tendency that will go through before it of all time aids the industry ( Hoban, 2011 ) . In response to that, Suermann ( 2009 ) has mentioned that the acceptance of BIM is traveling in front at a much faster rate than the sum of empirical informations that can warrant its execution. This is good supported by Sun & A ; Zhou ( 2010 ) as they feel that there are deficient surveies to reason whether BIM has an impact on the building industry.
Therefore, it is argued that the handiness of cost-benefit information will be of extreme importance for professionals in the edifice industry in order to accept BIM ( Neelamkavil & A ; Ahamed, 2012 ) . As such, it has being identified that Return on Investment ( ROI ) analysis is one manner that justifies such investing. Yet, there is no industry-standard method to measure the ROI of BIM ( McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 ) . Calculation of the true nature of ROI is besides proven to be an acclivitous undertaking ( Neelamkavil & A ; Ahamed, 2012 ) .
Deducing from these statements, the deficiency of established methodological analysis to measure the impact of BIM makes it hard to convert the industry to encompass the execution of BIM at a full graduated table as there is a deficiency of agencies for possible BIM users to understand why the money is being spent, every bit good as what the expected consequences are ( Neelamkavil & A ; Ahamed, 2012 ) . The perceptual experiences of BIM users on their interactions and experiences with BIM have besides yet to be studied in item. BCA and buildingSMART Singapore ( Bachelor of Science ) are unable to show significant information in these countries every bit good.
Hence, proper research should be conducted to guarantee that the BIM execution can demo verifiable positive impacts and convey in concern value for possible stakeholders.
1.4 Research Aims and Aims
This thesis aims to warrant the initial investing in BIM and as a consequence, encourages greater acceptance of this new engineering within Singapore building industry. This is done chiefly by look intoing the impact of BIM on the normally accepted ( Cardinal Performance Indicators ) KPIs of building undertaking and by reexamining the relationship between undertaking KPIs and ROI of BIM. Since the building industry is characterized by undertakings, analysing the public presentation of following BIM attack in a undertaking could reply the inquiry of whether BIM is profiting the industry ( Sun & A ; Zhou, 2010 ) .
Parallel and as a effect to the hunt for replies, several research aims are being identified:
To measure the impact of BIM on undertaking KPIs across different stages of a building undertaking.
To happen out the relationship between the impact of BIM and assorted undertaking KPIs which are deemed to be of import by stakeholders at different stages of a building undertaking.
To look into the relationship between undertaking KPIs and ROI of BIM.
To suggest a theoretical account to measure the ROI of BIM by measuring undertaking KPIs.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The hypotheses of this survey are as follows:
BIM is able to better undertaking KPIs during pre-construction phase.
BIM is able to better undertaking KPIs during building phase.
BIM is able to better undertaking KPIs during post-construction phase.
BIM is able to better undertaking KPIs which are deemed to be extremely of import to BIM users at different stages of a undertaking.
BIM benefits the whole building industry in overall.
Undertaking KPIs play a critical function in guaranting a positive ROI of BIM within an organisation.
1.6 Research Scope
This survey focuses on the impact of BIM on the different undertaking KPIs with peculiar accent in the Singapore ‘s context. As such, merely undertaking stakeholders ( designer, measure surveyor, applied scientist, chief contractor etc ) based in Singapore were taken into considerations for the survey. The proof of the research hypothesis and development of theoretical account would be entirely based on the consequences consolidated from local respondents and therefore, might non be representative of the industry outside Singapore.
1.7 Research Methodology
An in-depth apprehension of BIM is needed to pragmatically understand how it has impacted the building industry. Thus, an extended literature reappraisal was carried out with the purpose of lending to the theoretical model for this survey. A study questionnaire was later conducted and the informations will be analysed statistically to turn out the research hypothesis. To show qualitative information to confirm this research, interviews were conducted to supply professional ‘s penetrations sing this country of research. A decision of the research will so be discussed, with suggestions for farther surveies.
1.7 Structure of Dissertation
Chapter 1 high spots the general background of BIM in Singapore. This chapter besides presents the research job which lays the foundation for the research purpose and aims. The research hypothesis, range and methodological analysis are besides defined in this chapter.
Chapter 2 defines the significance of BIM and besides explores the benefits of BIM across the undertaking lifecycle. A subdivision on the barriers to BIM execution is besides presented to supply some background information sing stakeholders ‘ reserves to BIM acceptance.
Chapter 3 reappraisals on the different methods proposed by assorted writers to mensurate the ROI of BIM. The chapter besides examines on the relationship ROI of BIM and undertaking KPIs.
Chapter 4 identifies the normally accepted undertaking KPIs used by the building industry. The identified KPIs will so be used as proving variables for the hypothesis in this survey.
Chapter 5 discusses the research methodological analysis adopted in this research, including the targeted sample group, informations aggregation method and informations analysis method. The account for the usage of statistical trial is besides provided.
Chapter 6 reveals the features of the respondents of the questionnaire study.
Chapter 7 presents the findings and informations analysis of the consequences collected from the questionnaire study. Qualitative consequences from the interview would besides be discussed in this chapter to formalize the hypothesis formed in this survey.
Chapter 8 nowadayss on the concluding deliverable of this thesis which is derived from the research findings and consequences of this survey.
Chapter 9 summarizes and concludes the survey by proposing countries for future research.
The figure below illustrates the construction of this thesis.