BIO 1220 Set 4

the structure and function of nature; the study of all of the interactions between organisms and their (or the) environment
the global ecosystem- the sum of all of the planet’s ecosystems and landscapes
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examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere
global ecology
major life zones characterized by vegetation type (in terrestrial biomes) or by the physical environment (in aquatic biomes)
community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which those organisms interact
emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the environment
ecosystem ecology
focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials and organisms across multiple ecosystems
landscape ecology
a mosaic of connected ecosystems
landscape (seascape)
a group of populations of different species in an area
examines how interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community structure and organization
community ecology
a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time
population ecology
includes the sub-disciplines of physiological, evolutionary and behavioral ecology; concerned with how an organism’s structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment
organismal ecology
latitudes between 23.5∘ north and south
-climate (temperature, precipitation, sunlight, wind)
-rocks and soil (pH, minerals, clay, organic material)
-periodic disturbances
-global climate patterns (solar radiation and latitude, seasons, global air circulation, rain shadows)
Abiotic factors of the biome (4)
-solar radiation and latitude
-global air circulation
-rain shadows
Global Climate Factors (4)
-found close to the equator
-long summer rainy season, pronounced winter dry season
-trees shed their leaves during the dry season
-species richness is moderate for plants and high for animals
-has some of the best soils in the tropics for agriculture
Tropical deciduous forest
-richest in both plant and animal species among terrestrial biomes
-found in equatorial biomes; annual rain fall between 200 and 400 cm
-highest productivity among terrestrial ecological communities
-epiphytes and lianas (climbing woody vines) are numerous
-soils tend to be very nutrient poor
Tropical evergreen (rain) forests
-found in dry tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, South America and Australia
-characterized by vast expanses of grassland and scattered trees
-periodic fires and grazing characteristics
-thorn forests and savannas have similar climate
-thorn forests are found on the equatorial sides of hot deserts
-dominant plants are spiny shrubs and small trees
Savannah: tropical grasslands
-found in two belts, centered around 30∘N and 30∘ S latitudes
-central Australia and the middle of the Sahara Desert are the driest regions within the biome
-succulent plants are common
Hot Deserts
-high and dry
-found in dry regions at middle to high latitudes
-also found at high altitudes in the rain shadows
-seasonal temperatures vary greatly
-cold deserts dominated by a few species of low-growing shrubs
-common taxa are seed-producing plants, birds, ants and rodents
Cold Deserts
-climate is dry and pleasant
-found on the west sides of continents at moderate latitudes, where cool ocean waters flow offshore
-Low-growing and fire-resistant shrubs and trees with evergreen leaves are the most common plants
-periodic fires maintain the landscape
-large populations of small seed-eating rodents
-EX: Mediterranean region of Europe, coastal California, and central Chile
-found in many parts of the world
-relatively dry much of the year, with hot summers and cold winters
-fire and grazing strong influences on biome character
-rich in species of perennial grasses, sedges and forbs
-most of this biome has been converted into agriculture
Temperate grassland
-dominated by evergreen trees
-found in northern latitudes just below the arctic tundra and at high altitudes in mountain ranges
-winters long and very cold
-summers short and warm; short growing season
-species diversity very low
-Northern Hemisphere forest dominated by conifers
-Southern Hemisphere forest dominated by beech trees
Taiga or Boreal Forests
Northern Hemisphere forest dominated by ______
beech trees
Southern Hemisphere forest dominated by ________
-temperatures fluctuate dramatically from season to season
-found in eastern North America, eastern Asia, and western Europe
-precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year
-many more species are present relative to boreal forests
Temperate deciduous forests
-arctic tundra
-alpine tundra
Tundra types (2)
-found at high altitudes in the arctic
-permafrost; plants grow only during the short summers when the first few inches of permafrost melt
-short cool summers, long cold winters with constant snow cover
Arctic tundra
-in high mountains
-very rocky with only thin soil covering
-very short growing season with long cold winters
Alpine tundra
the narrow top layer of an ocean or a lake, where light penetrates sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur
photic zone
the part of an ocean or lake beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur
aphotic zone
the open-water component of aquatic biomes; all the water above the benthic zone
pelagic zone
the bottom surface of an aquatic environment
benthic zone
the communities of organisms living in the benthic zone of an aquatic biome (crabs, lobster, mussels)
transition layer of temperature bound with density
organisms that drift or suspend in the water column (jellyfish, plankton)
planktonic organisms
highly mobile aquatic organisms (fish that can swim against currents)
nektonic organism
lakes and ponds
moving water – streams and rivers
wherever enough light penetrates to the benthic zone to undergo photosynthesis
littoral zone
wherever enough light does not penetrate to the benthic zone to undergo photosynthesis
limnetic zone
nutrient poor and oxygen rich
oligitrophic lakes
nutrient rich and depleted of oxygen
eutrophic lakes
same as aphotic zone
profundal zone
provides a model of changes that might take place as water travels from headwater streams to larger rivers. As stream size increases, the influence of the surrounding forest decreases. The river continuum concept provides predictions of the way that biological communities might change from headwater streams to larger rivers.
river continuum concept
falls or washes into stream
allochthonous material
produced by phytoplankton communities
autochthonous material
periodically flooded or always saturated soil; common around or bordering estuaries
the transition zone between the river and the sea; emergent vegetation; extensive shallow areas
wetlands; estuaries
Nutrients from upstream make ________ and _______ among the most productive habitats on Earth
periodically submerged and exposed by the tides; usually nutrient and oxygen high
Intertidal zone (littoral zone)
extends from the lowest tidal level out to the continental shelf
Neretic zone (pelagic zone)
the areas extending in between neretic zones. These are the zones of great depth; vast realm of open blue water; oxygen content is generally high; this biome covers approximately 70% of the world’s surface
Oceanic (pelagic) zone
consists of the seafloor; except for shallow, near-coastal areas; it is dark
Marine Benthic Zone
near these, the food producers are chemoautotrophic prokaryotes
deep-sea hydrothermal vents
-sublittoral or shelf zone
-bathyal zone (800-4,000m)
-abyssal zone (4,000-6,000m)
-Hadal zone (6000m and deeper)
Zones within the benthic zone
When healthy, the most productive ecosystems on the face of the earth. Generally in the neretic zone and many have formed around old volcanoes.
coral reefs
Types of dispersion (3)
measured on an individual per unit area basis
Method of dispersion: terrestrial organisms
measured on an individual per unit volume basis
Method of dispersion: aquatic organisms
For some species, such as plants, the _______ of individuals may be more useful measure of dispersion
The study of changes in the size and structure of populations
a group of individuals of the same age, from birth until all of the individuals are dead
a plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age; one way to represent age-specific mortality
survivorship curve
an age-specific summary of the survival pattern of a population
life tables
-generation time
-sex ratio
population structure (6)
collection of traits organisms have with respect to survival and fertility
life history
factors that restrict population growth as population size increases
density-dependent factors of population regulation
-competition for resources
-intrinsic factors
-toxic wastes
density- dependent factors (6)
factors that are unrelated to population size
density-independent factors of population regulation
-seasonal changes
-surprise or catastrophic events (fires, volcanoes, hurricanes)
density-independent factors (2)
prey and predator populations can have codependent cycles
population cycles
competition for resources between individuals of two or more species when resources are in short supply
interspecific competition
include competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis and facilitation
interspecific interactions
members of the same species compete for limited resources
Intraspecific competition
actual fighting over resources
interference competition
when consumption of a limiting resource by one species makes that resource unavailable for consumption by another
exploitative competition
proposition that states that two species competing for the same resource cannot coexist at constant population values, if other ecological factors remain constant
competitive exclusion principle
The full range of environmental conditions and resources an organism can possibly occupy and use, especially when limiting factors are absent in its habitat
fundamental niche
The part of fundamental niche that an organism occupies as a result of limiting factors present in its habitat
Realized niche
the division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species
resource partitioning
the tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species
character displacement
camouflauge; makes prey difficult to see
cryptic coloration
warning coloration
aposematic coloration
when an organism’s color fools either its predators or prey; two types: camouflage and mimicry
deceptive coloration
a palatable/harmless species mimics an unpalatable/harmful one
Batesian mimicry
reciprocal mimicry by two unpalatable (harmful) species
Mullerian mimicry
parasites that live within the body of their host (tapeworms)
parasites that feed on the external surface of a host (ticks, lice)
an organism that spends the majority of its life history attached to or within its host in a relationship that is in essence parasitic, unlike a true parasite, however, it ultimately sterilises or kills, and sometimes consumes, the host
interspecific interaction which benefits both species
an interaction between species that benefits one of the species but neither harms nor helps the other
an interaction in which one species has a positive effect on the survival and reproduction of another species without the intimate association of symbiosis
composed of both species richness and relative abundance
species diversity
a species that is not necessarily abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on community structure by the nature of its ecological role or niche
keystone species
a species with substantially higher abundance or biomass than other species in a community; exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species
dominant species
switching behaviour
the total mass of all individuals in a population
the different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling
trophic structure
plants and other autotrophs
primary producers
primary consumers
carnivores that eat herbivores
secondary consumers
oversimplified view of trophic level organization, but useful in illustrating the concept. Shows one possible path of energy flow through the food web
food chains
The myriad of interconnecting and intersecting relationships of trophic interactions in a community
food webs
a model of community organization in which mineral nutrients influence community organization by controlling plant or phytoplankton numbers, which in turn control herbivore numbers, which in turn control predator numbers
bottom up model
a model of community organization in which predation influences community organization by controlling herbivore numbers, which in turn control plant or phytoplankton numbers, which in turn control nutrient levels; AKA the trophic cascade model
top down model
a biological community in which the development of vegetation in an area over time had reached a steady state. This equilibrium was thought to occur because the community is composed of species best adapted to average conditions in that area. (little diversity)
climax community theory
a model that maintains that communities change constantly after being buffeted by disturbances
non-equillibrium model
an event, such as a storm, fire, drought, or human activity, that changes a community by removing organisms from it or altering resource availability
the concept that moderate levels of disturbance can foster greater species diversity than low or high levels of disturbance
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
chaparral ; grassland
______ & ________ biomes require regular burning to maintain their structure and species composition
transition in the species composition of a community following a disturbance; establishment of a community in an area virtually barren of life
ecological succession
a type of ecological succession that occurs in an area where there were originally no organisms present and where soil has not yet formed (ex: a new volcanic island; rubble left by a retreating glacier)
primary succession
a type of succession that occurs where an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil or substrate intact (ex: yellowstone following the 1988 fires)
secondary succession
a particular successional stage; a natural succession of plant (or animal) communities, especially a full series from uncolonized habitat to the appropriate climax vegetation
the first species to colonize a new or primary successional species
pioneer species
mosses ; lichens
During primary succession, the first organisms to colonize are usually grown from wind blown spores such as ______ & ______
take advantage of disturbance; adapted to exploit newly available habitats or resources and are typically found in unpredictable, transient, and variable environments
opportunist species
when early-arriving species make the environment more favorable for later-arriving species (ex: increasing the fertility of the soil)
facilitation (ecological succession)
when successful colonization of a later-arriving species happens in spite of, rather than thanks to, an early-arriving species
inhibition (ecological succession)
when the later-arriving species is completely independent of the early-arriving species and vice versa
tolerance (ecological succession)
carnivores that eat other carnivores
tertiary consumers
nonliving organic material, such as the remains of dead organisms, feces, fallen leaves and wood
consumers that get their energy from detritus
the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) by the autotrophs in an ecosystem during a given time period
primary production
the amount of chemical energy in consumer’s food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period
secondary production
the amount of energy from light (or chemicals in chemoautotrophic systems) converted to the chemical energy of organic molecules per unit time
gross primary production (GPP)
equal to gross primary production minus the energy used by the primary producers for their “autotrophic respiration:
net primary production
Net primary production (NPP)
to ecologists, ___________ is the key measurement because it represents the storage of the chemical energy that will be available to consumers in the ecosystem.
a measure of the total biomass accumulation during that time. it is measured as gross primary production minus the total respiration of all organisms in the system (Rt)
net ecosystem production (NEP)
The total biomass of photosynthetic autotrophs present in an ecosystem
standing crop
involves a geographical barrier
allopatric speciation
does not involve a geographical barrier
sympatric speciation

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