A) releases CO2 as a by-product.
B) does not have a reaction center.
C) receives electrons from photosystem I.
D) passes electrons to photosystem I.
A) glucose, ADP, NADP+
B) ATP, NADPH, O2
C) glucose, ADP, NADP+, CO2
D) ATP, NADPH, CO2
C) photosystem I.
A) reduced by the burning of fossil fuels, which removes oxygen from the atmosphere.
B) of little concern, since it is part of the normal cycle for the planet.
C) made worse by photosynthesis, which adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
D) moderated by photosynthesis, which removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
C) chemosynthetic autotrophs.
B) thylakoid membranes
A) mitochondria that had a mutation for photosynthesis
B) photosynthetic prokaryotes that lived inside eukaryotic cells
C) eukaryotes that engulfed photosynthetic fungi
D) prokaryotes with photosynthetic mitochondria
A) They help the plant synthesize glucose efficiently under dry conditions.
B) They make it possible for the plant to use the Calvin cycle at night.
C) They allow the plant to fix carbon in cool conditions.
D) They allow the plant to fix carbon under conditions of low CO2.
You’re conducting an experiment to determine the effect of different wavelengths of light on the absorption of carbon dioxide as an indicator of the rate of photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems. If the rate of photosynthesis increases, the amount of carbon dioxide in the environment will decrease, and vice versa.
Small aquatic plants are placed into three containers of water mixed with carbon dioxide. Container A is placed under normal sunlight, B under green light, and C under red light. The containers are observed for a 24-hour period.
Carbon dioxide absorption is an appropriate indicator of photosynthesis because
A) CO2 is needed to complete the light reactions.
B) the energy in CO2 is used to produce ATP and NADPH.
C) plants produce oxygen gas by splitting CO2.
D) CO2 is needed to produce sugars in the Calvin cycle.
B) carbon dioxide
A) evenly distributed throughout the entire plant.
B) concentrated in a zone of leaf tissue called the mesophyll.
C) evenly distributed throughout the leaf tissue.
D) concentrated in a portion of the leaf called the stroma.
A) cellular respiration.
D) anaerobic metabolism.
1. Light excites an electron from photosystem I.
2. Light excites an electron from photosystem II.
3. Electrons reduce NADP+ to NADPH.
4. Electrons pass through an electron transport chain, which generates a H+ gradient used to make ATP.
A) 1, 2, 3, 4
B) 1, 4, 2, 3
C) 2, 3, 1, 4
D) 2, 4, 1, 3
A) occurs when carbon atoms from CO2 are incorporated into an organic molecule.
B) provides the cell with a supply of NADPH molecules.
C) occurs during the light reactions.
D) supplies the cell with ATP.
1. Carbon fixation
2. Regeneration of RuBP
3. Release of G3P
A) 4, 1, 2, 3
B) 1, 2, 3, 4
C) 1, 4, 3, 2
D) 1, 3, 4, 2
A) a spring.
B) a windmill.
C) an antenna.
D) a propeller on a motorboat.
A) H in glucose and water; O in O2
B) H in water; O in glucose
C) H in glucose; O in water
D) H and O both in glucose
A) photosystem II.
C) aerobic respiration.
D) cellular respiration.
A) generation of ATP is driven by a flow of protons (H+) through ATP synthase.
B) the final electron acceptor is NADP+ and not oxygen.
C) it involves an electron transport chain.
D) energy is stored in the form of a proton (H+) concentration difference.
B) carbon dioxide.
B) an electron.
C) carbon dioxide.
Energy can be released by the excited electron as heat, light, or fluorescence.
Excitation of the electrons is a very stable state.
Photons raise electrons in pigments to the ground state.
It takes several minutes for the pigment electrons to become excited.
glucose, ADP, NADP+
ATP, NADPH, O2
glucose, ADP, NADP+, CO2
ADP, NADP+, O2
is best at absorbing the energy of blue-violet and red light, just like chlorophyll a.
catalyzes the incorporation of carbon atoms into RuBP.
passes absorbed energy to chlorophyll a.
is best at absorbing the energy of green light.
grizzly bears in Alaska
algae in freshwater and marine ecosystems
bacteria in our mouth
mushrooms growing on the side of a dead tree
include only the green plants.
make sugar by using organic raw materials.
eat other organisms that use light energy to make food molecules.
produce organic molecules from inorganic molecules.
cytoplasm; thylakoid membrane
stroma; thylakoid membranes
thylakoid membranes; stroma
provide energy to photosystem I and photosystem II.
are used in the electron transport chain to pump H+ into the thylakoid space.
power sugar synthesis during the Calvin cycle.
are products of the Calvin cycle.
are found in the roots of plants.
pass energy to the reaction center.
break down H2O.
increased extinction rates
lower sea levels
extreme weather patterns
spread of tropical diseases
through photosystem I
directly through the phospholipids of the thylakoid membrane
through an electron transport chain molecule
through the ATP synthase
chemical; food; light
food; light; nuclear
light; food; kinetic
food; light; chemical
are found on the plasma membrane of mesophyll cells.
shuttle electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I.
provide energy for the citric acid cycle.
are located in the stroma.
have mitochondria but do not have chloroplasts.
lack mitochondria and chloroplasts.
lack mitochondria but have chloroplasts.
have mitochondria and chloroplasts
carbon dioxide (CO2)
ethylene glycol (C2H6O2)
Chlorophyll a reflects green light.
Green helps plants blend into their environment as a sort of camouflage.
Chlorophyll b primarily uses green light as the source of energy for photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll a absorbs green light.
a fuel for photosynthesis.
a fuel for cellular respiration and a starting material for making other organic molecules.
a starting material for the Calvin cycle.
a source of electrons for chemiosmosis.
phosphorylates ADP to ATP.
catalyzes the Calvin cycle.
is found in the stroma.
helps produce the concentration gradient of H+.
formation is promoted by CFCs.
protects Earth from ultraviolet radiation.
is a source of oxygen for cellular respiration.
is broken down by carbon dioxide.